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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126717, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339992

RESUMO

Laboratory scale recycling of marine plastic litter consisting of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle sorting, pyrolysis and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was conducted to identify the technical and environmental implications of the technology when dealing with real waste streams. Collected seashore and underwater plastics (SP and UP, respectively) contained large quantities of PET bottles (33.2 wt% and 61.4 wt%, respectively), suggesting PET separation was necessary prior to pyrolysis. After PET sorting, marine litter was converted into pyrolysis oil and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Water-based washing of litter prior to pyrolysis did not significantly change the composition of pyrolysis products and could be avoided, eliminating freshwater consumption. However, distinct differences in oil and MWCNT properties were ascribed to the variations in feedstock composition. Maintaining consistent product quality would be one of challenges for thermochemical treatment of marine litter. As for the environmental implications, life cycle assessment (LCA) demonstrated positive benefits, including improved climate change and fossil depletion potentials. The highest positive environmental impacts were associated with MWCNT production followed by pyrolysis oil and PET recovery. The benefits of proposed approach combining PET sorting, pyrolysis and CVD allowed to close the waste loop by converting most of the marine litter into valuable products.


Assuntos
Nanotubos de Carbono , Plásticos , Laboratórios , Polietilenotereftalatos , Reciclagem
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt A): 127057, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523484

RESUMO

During high temperature slagging gasification of municipal solid waste (MSW), coal coke is typically used as an auxiliary fuel to maintain the high temperature in the gasifier and convert ashes into slag. Herein, biomass charcoal was utilized as a greener and more sustainable auxiliary fuel to replace the coal coke during stable and continuous gasification of MSW. Several monitoring characteristics were assessed, like operating conditions of the gasifier, influence of local MSW properties generated in Singapore, environmental impacts, and main by-products (slag, fly ash and metals). The performance data revealed that the replacement of coal coke with biomass charcoal provided significant environmental benefits. The use of biomass charcoal resulted in 78% less SO2 emissions, and 22% less generated fly ash because the lower sulfur content in biomass charcoal resulted in a 32% reduced use of sorbent for flue gas treatment. Furthermore, there was clear evidence of a 22% carbon footprint reduction due to replacing fossil fuel as auxiliary fuel. In addition, the slag characteristics demonstrated lower heavy metals leaching as compared to the incineration bottom ash generated from the conventional MSW incineration plant suggesting its great potential in the application as clean and green waste-derived material in the construction industry.

3.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 14: 720984, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34720871

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this study is to explore the role of GRIN2A gene in idiopathic generalized epilepsies and the potential underlying mechanism for phenotypic variation. Methods: Whole-exome sequencing was performed in a cohort of 88 patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsies. Electro-physiological alterations of the recombinant N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) containing GluN2A mutants were examined using two-electrode voltage-clamp recordings. The alterations of protein expression were detected by immunofluorescence staining and biotinylation. Previous studies reported that epilepsy related GRIN2A missense mutations were reviewed. The correlation among phenotypes, functional alterations, and molecular locations was analyzed. Results: Three novel heterozygous missense GRIN2A mutations (c.1770A > C/p.K590N, c.2636A > G/p.K879R, and c.3199C > T/p.R1067W) were identified in three unrelated cases. Electrophysiological analysis demonstrated R1067W significantly increased the current density of GluN1/GluN2A NMDARs. Immunofluorescence staining indicated GluN2A mutants had abundant distribution in the membrane and cytoplasm. Western blotting showed the ratios of surface and total expression of the three GluN2A-mutants were significantly increased comparing to the wild type. Further analysis on the reported missense mutations demonstrated that mutations with severe gain-of-function were associated with epileptic encephalopathy, while mutations with mild gain of function were associated with mild phenotypes, suggesting a quantitative correlation between gain-of-function and phenotypic severity. The mutations located around transmembrane domains were more frequently associated with severe phenotypes and absence seizure-related mutations were mostly located in carboxyl-terminal domain, suggesting molecular sub-regional effects. Significance: This study revealed GRIN2A gene was potentially a candidate pathogenic gene of idiopathic generalized epilepsies. The functional quantitative correlation and the molecular sub-regional implication of mutations helped in explaining the relatively mild clinical phenotypes and incomplete penetrance associated with GRIN2A variants.

4.
J Clin Transl Hepatol ; 9(5): 672-681, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722182

RESUMO

Background and Aims: There are no comparative studies on the efficacy of hepatic resection (HR) and CyberKnife stereotactic body radiation therapy (CK-SBRT) plus transhepatic arterial chemotherapy embolization (TACE) in the treatment of large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, this study aimed to compare the efficacy of HR and CK-SBRT+TACE in large HCC. Methods: A total of one hundred and sixteen patients were selected from November 2011 to December 2016. Among them, 50 were allocated to the CK-SBRT+TACE group and 66 were allocated to the HR group. The Kaplan-Meier method was applied to calculate overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates. Propensity score matching was performed to control for baseline differences between the groups. Results: Thirty-six paired patients were selected from the CK-SBRT+TACE and HR groups. After propensity score matching, the 1-, 2- and 3-year OS rates were 83.3%, 77.8% and 66.7% in the HR group and 80.6%, 72.2% and 52.8% in the CK-SBRT+TACE group, respectively. The 1-, 2- and 3-year PFS rates were 71.6%, 57.3% and 42.3% in the HR group and 66.1%, 45.8% and 39.3% in the CK-SBRT+TACE group, respectively (OS: p=0.143; PFS: p=0.445). Both a high platelet count and low alpha-fetoprotein value were revealed as influencing factors in improving OS and PFS. Conclusions: CK-SBRT+TACE brought local effects that were similar to those of HR in HCC patients with a large and single lesion. Moreover, the liver injury occurrence rate was acceptable in both groups.

5.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(10): 1069-1074, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719425

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease involving multiple organs, and lupus nephritis (LN) is the most common renal complication of SLE. Belimumab is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody that can reduce the number of B cells, thereby reducing the formation of autoantibodies. Belimumab can improve SLE response index and SLE disease activity score and delay the progression of LN in both adults and children and thus plays an important role in the treatment of SLE and LN. This article reviews related research reports of belimumab used in the treatment of children and adults with SLE in China and overseas and analyzes the efficacy and safety of belimumab in pediatric patients, in order to provide a reference for the clinical application of belimumab in children with SLE.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Nefrite Lúpica , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Criança , Humanos , Imunossupressores , Rim , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 9: 750444, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778227

RESUMO

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) play a crucial role in solid tumor metastasis, but obtaining high purity and viability CTCs is a challenging task due to their rarity. Although various works using spiral microchannels to isolate CTCs have been reported, the sorting purity of CTCs has not been significantly improved. Herein, we developed a novel double spiral microchannel for efficient separation and enrichment of intact and high-purity CTCs based on the combined effects of two-stage inertial focusing and particle deflection. Particle deflection relies on the second sheath to produce a deflection of the focused sample flow segment at the end of the first-stage microchannel, allowing larger particles to remain focused and entered the second-stage microchannel while smaller particles moved into the first waste channel. The deflection of the focused sample flow segment was visualized. Testing by a binary mixture of 10.4 and 16.5 µm fluorescent microspheres, it showed 16.5 µm with separation efficiency of 98% and purity of 90% under the second sheath flow rate of 700 µl min-1. In biological experiments, the average purity of spiked CTCs was 74% at a high throughput of 1.5 × 108 cells min-1, and the recovery was more than 91%. Compared to the control group, the viability of separated cells was 99%. Finally, we validated the performance of the double spiral microchannel using clinical cancer blood samples. CTCs with a concentration of 2-28 counts ml-1 were separated from all 12 patients' peripheral blood. Thus, our device could be a robust and label-free liquid biopsy platform in inertial microfluidics for successful application in clinical trials.

7.
Bioengineered ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784846

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Currently, the definitive treatment modality for HCC is radical resection. However, HCC cells possess biological characteristics of high invasion and metastasis. In this respect, to prevent cancer cell invasion and metastasis and early active intervention, we herein screened through the TCGA database for further prognostic analysis including overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). The Kaplan-Meier curve suggested that Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 (CDK4) might be an independent prognostic factor for HCC. Moreover, we performed mRNA expression analysis to measure CDK4 levels in normal liver tissues and HCC tissues, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis to detect protein level of CDK4 in Non-tumor tissue and HCC tissues collected from patients. Our findings indicated that the expression of CDK4 was significantly higher in tumor tissues compared with Non-tumor tissue in HCC, which increased from HCC stage 1 to 3. Furthermore, the results of transwell-assay indicated that knocking down CDK4 significantly suppresses the invasion and migration of HCC cells, and the results of bioinformatics analysis revealed that genes closely associated with CDK4 are potentially worthy of further investigation. Additionally, the results of Western Blot indicated CDK4 regulates epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HCC,and CDK4 appears to regulate EMT and HCC progression via the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway. Collectively, this study found the key target gene through bioinformatic analysis and further functional validation through cell experiments. In particular, CDK4 is anticipated to become a crucial hub gene to snipe the metastasis of cancer cells in HCC.

8.
J Clin Invest ; 131(21)2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34720086

RESUMO

Although serine metabolism plays a crucial role in the proliferation and survival of tumor cells, how it supports tumor cell migration remains poorly understood. Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) catalyzes the oxidation of 3-phosphoglycerate to 3-phosphonooxypyruvate, the first committed step in de novo serine biosynthesis. Here we show that PHGDH was monoubiquitinated by cullin 4A-based E3 ligase complex at lysine 146 in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, which enhanced PHGDH activity by recruiting a chaperone protein, DnaJ homolog subfamily A member 1, to promote its tetrameric formation, thereby increasing the levels of serine, glycine, and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Increased levels of SAM upregulated the expression of cell adhesion genes (laminin subunit gamma 2 and cysteine rich angiogenic inducer 61) by initiating SET domain containing 1A-mediated trimethylation of histone H3K4, thereby promoting tumor cell migration and CRC metastasis. Intriguingly, SAM levels in tumors or blood samples correlated with the metastatic recurrence of patients with CRC. Our finding not only reveals a potentially new role and mechanism of SAM-promoted tumor metastasis but also demonstrates a regulatory mechanism of PHGDH activity by monoubiquitination.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747874

RESUMO

Background: Gastric cancer (GC) or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer with HER2 overexpression is highly invasive, with a poor prognosis. With the development of new targeted agents, which agents have ideal therapeutic effects must be determined. This network meta-analysis analyzed the effectiveness and tolerability of targeted agents combined with chemotherapy in HER2-positive GC/GEJ cancer. Methods: Public databases were searched from the date of inception to October 22, 2020. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on targeted agent-related regimens for HER2-positive advanced GC or GEJ cancer were included. Subgroup analyses based on publication language, first-line treatment, second/third-line treatment, and HER2 staining intensity were performed. Results: In total, 13 articles were included. The trastuzumabderuxtecan (TraD) and pertuzumab plus trastuzumab and chemotherapy (PerTraChemo) regimens were considered to have high effectiveness but low tolerability. In the subgroup analysis, PerTraChemo still had high effectiveness with low tolerability as the first-line therapy. As the second- or third-line therapy, TraD and lapatinib plus chemotherapy (LapChemo) had high effectiveness and moderate tolerability. In terms of overall survival (OS) time, PerTraChemo had a relative advantage in the immunohistochemistry (IHC) 2+/in situ hybridization (ISH)+ population, whereas TraD, PerTraChemo, and trastuzumab plus chemotherapy (TraChemo) had a relative advantage in the IHC3+ population. Conclusion: TraD had relative advantages as the second- or third-line therapy and in the IHC3 + population. PerTraChemo is a potential first-line therapy, but it requires further confirmation because the JACOB phase III clinical trial failed to confirm the superiority of PerTraChemo over TraChemo with regard to OS.

10.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 40(1): 371, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain metastasis (BM) is thought to be related to the mortality and poor prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite promising development of NSCLC treatment, the treatment of NSCLC BM is still not optimistic due to the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that prevent drug penetration, as well as the short median survival time of the patients left for treatment. In this context, further development of quick and effective pre-clinical models is needed in NSCLC BM treatment. Here, we report a model system using zebrafish to promote the development of drugs for patients with NSCLC BM. METHODS: Three different NSCLC cell lines (H1975, A549 and H1299) were used to establish zebrafish BM models. The embryo age and cell number for injection were first optimized. Metastatic cells were observed in the brain blood vessels of zebrafish and were verified by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Then, the metastasis potentials of H1975 and A549 with manipulated microRNA-330-3p (miR-330-3p) expression were also investigated. Finally, sensitivities of H1975 and A549 to osimertinib and gefitinib were tested. RESULTS: This zebrafish BM model could distinguish NSCLC cell lines with different BM potential. Over-expressed miR-330-p significantly improved the BM potential of the A549 cells while knockdown miR-330-p reduced the BM ability of the H1975 cells. Both osimertinib and gefitinib showed inhibition effect in zebrafish BM model with the inhibition rate higher than 50 %. H1975 cell showed much higher sensitivity to osimertinib rather than gefitinib both in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: We established zebrafish brain metastasis model for studying mechanism and treatment of NSCLC BM. This study provided a useful model for NSCLC brain metastasis that could be used to study the mechanism that drive NSCLC cells to the brain as well as identify potential therapeutic options.

11.
J Inorg Biochem ; 226: 111655, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740040

RESUMO

A novel Cu(II)-based coordination polymer [chemical composition, {[CuL(CH3CO2)](H2O)(DMF)}n (1, DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide) was successfully prepared via Cu(NO3)2·3H2O reaction with HL ligand in DMF and H2O mixture by using a hetero-donor ligand 4-(bis(4-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)phenyl)amino)benzoic acid (HL) featuring carboxylic acid and triazole groups. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was adopted to determine miR-9-5p expression in cervical cancer cells after compound treatment. Bioinformatic analysis and luciferase reporter assay were utilized to confirm miR-9-5p and BRCA1 interaction to discover the potential goal of miR-9-5p in cervical cancer cells. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection kits were adopted to examine cancer cell proliferation and ROS accumulation after compound treatment.

12.
J Foot Ankle Surg ; 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799274

RESUMO

Hallux valgus and bunionette (Tailor's bunion) deformities are debilitating forefoot deformities that may occur together. Successful outcomes of surgery for either pathology have been well-described; however, the literature is sparce on outcomes of patients undergoing simultaneous surgery for both deformities. Between 2007 and 2018, 429 patients underwent a scarf-Akin osteotomy, and 20 patients underwent simultaneous bunionette surgery. Propensity score matching was used to match the scarf + bunionette group in a 1:2 ratio to a corresponding scarf only group using logistic regression. Their hallux and fifth metatarsal visual analogue scale (VAS), American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) Hallux Metatarsophalangeal-Interphalangeal Scale, Short Form-36 (SF-36), expectations and satisfaction scores were recorded at preoperative, 6-month and 2-year intervals. There were no differences in baseline characteristics between groups after matching (p > .05). At 6 months, the scarf + bunionette group had a significantly worse fifth metatarsal AOFAS (80.7 vs 92.9, p = .002) and VAS (1.5 vs 0.1, p = .008). However, at 2 years, greater improvements in the scarf + bunionette group resulted in no significant differences for fifth metatarsal AOFAS and VAS. The scarf + bunionette group had better SF-36 scores in the domains of physical functioning, bodily pain, general health and mental health (p < .05). Scarf + bunionette patients trended toward higher satisfaction (100.0% vs 85.0%, p = .165) and expectation fulfilment (95.0% vs 80.0%, p = .249) at 2 years, although not significant with the available numbers. In patients with similar baseline hallux and fifth metatarsal pain and function, simultaneous surgery and a scarf osteotomy alone result in similar improvements to pain and function at 2 years. However, patients who undergo both procedures have higher quality of life scores.

13.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 728089, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790672

RESUMO

Introduction: The effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on renal outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) were initially demonstrated in recent trials. However, the magnitude of renal benefits for CKD patients with different baseline features and underlying diseases remains unclear. Method: We systematically searched the Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane library databases from inception to April 15, 2021 to identify eligible trials. The primary outcome was a composite of worsening kidney function, end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), or renal death. Efficacy and safety outcomes were stratified by baseline features, such as type 2 diabetes, heart failure, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, proteinuria, and renal function. Results: A total of nine studies were included. These studies included 25,749 patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and 12,863 patients with urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) >300 mg/g. SGLT2 inhibitors reduced the risk of the primary renal outcome by 30% in patients with eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (HR 0.70, [95% CI 0.58-0.83], I2 = 0.00%) and by 43% in patients with UACR > 300 mg/g (HR 0.57, [95% CI 0.48-0.67], I2 = 16.59%). A similar benefit was observed in CKD patients with type 2 diabetes. SGLT2 inhibitors had no clear effects on renal outcomes in patients with eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2 combined with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (HR 0.74, [95% CI 0.51-1.06], I2 = 0.00%). However, they reduced the risk of major renal outcomes by 46% (HR 0.54, [95% CI 0.38-0.76], I2 = 0.00%) in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and macroalbuminuria (defined as UACR > 300 mg/g). SGLT2 inhibitors did not significantly reduce the risk of major renal outcomes in CKD patients with heart failure (eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2: HR 0.81, [95% CI 0.47-1.38], I2 = 0.00%; UACR > 300 mg/g: HR 0.66, [95% CI 0.41-1.07], I2 = 0.00%). SGLT2 inhibitors showed consistent renal benefits across different levels of eGFR (P interaction = 0.48). Conclusion: SGLT2 inhibitors significantly reduced the risk of the primary outcome in CKD patients. However, for patients with different features and underlying diseases, there exists differences in the renal protective effect.

14.
Front Nutr ; 8: 766415, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790690

RESUMO

With the increase in demand of fruit wine year by year, it is necessary to develop novel fruit wine with high functional activities. Prunus salicina Lindl. (named as Niuxin plum) is a remarkable material for brewing fruit wine owing to its suitable sugar-acid ratio, characteristic aroma and bioactive compounds. This study intends to modify the fermentation technology, identify and quantify nutritional compositions and volatile profiles, as well as bioactive substances in Niuxin plum wine, as well as evaluate the antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities in vitro of major bioactive components from Niuxin plum wine. According to single-factor and orthogonal tests, the optimal fermentation conditions of 13.1% vol Niuxin plum wine should be Saccharomyces cerevisiae Lalvin EC1118 at 0.1% and a fermentation temperature of 20°C for 7 days. A total of 17 amino acids, 9 mineral elements, 4 vitamins, and 55 aromatic components were detected in plum wine. Polysaccharides from Niuxin plum wine (named as NPWPs) served as the major bioactive components. The NPWP with a molecular weight over 1,000 kDa (NPWP-10) demonstrated extraordinary DPPH free radical scavenging capacity and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity among all NPWPs having different molecular weight. Moreover, the structural characterization of NPWP-10 was also analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra studies. NPWP-10 was composed of mannose, rhamnose, arabinose, galactose and galacturonic acid with molar ratios of 2.570:1.775:1.045:1.037:1. NPWP-10 contained α-configuration as the main component and ß-configuration as the auxiliary component. This study highlights NPWP-10 is an importantly biological polysaccharide from Niuxin plum wine, as well as provides a scientific basis for developing the plum wine industry.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microvascular decompression (MVD) has become accepted as an effective therapeutic option for hemifacial spasm (HFS); however, the curative rate of MVD for HFS varies widely (50-98%) in different medical centers. This study could contribute to the improvement of the MVD procedure. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 32 patients in whom initial MVD failed in other hospitals and who underwent a second MVD at our center. The clinical characteristics, operative findings, outcome of the second MVD, and complications were recorded. RESULTS: There were 18 women and 14 men (56.3 and 43.7%, respectively). The left-to-right ratio was 19:13. The mean age of the patients was 59.8 years. We found an undiscovered conflict site located in zone 4 in 10 patients and in the root entry zone in 8 patients. The initial MVD failed in nine patients because of ignorance of the arterioles that originate from the anterior inferior cerebellar artery. There were no special findings in four patients. No Teflon felts were found in the whole surgical field in one patient. CONCLUSION: Omission of the offending vessel is the most common cause of an unsuccessful MVD. Intraoperative abnormal muscle response associated with the Z-L response is a good measure to correctly identify the involved arterioles.

16.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 839, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bupleurum chinense DC. is a widely used traditional Chinese medicinal plant. Saikosaponins are the major bioactive constituents of B. chinense, but relatively little is known about saikosaponin biosynthesis. In the present study, we performed an integrated analysis of metabolic composition and the expressed genes involved in saikosaponin biosynthetic pathways among four organs (the root, flower, stem, and leaf) of B. chinense to discover the genes related to the saikosaponin biosynthetic pathway. RESULTS: Transcript and metabolite profiles were generated through high-throughput RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data analysis and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. Evaluation of saikosaponin contents and transcriptional changes showed 152 strong correlations (P < 0.05) over 3 compounds and 77 unigenes. These unigenes belonged to eight gene families: the acetoacetyl CoA transferase (AACT) (6), HMG-CoA synthase (HMGS) (2), HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) (2), mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (MVD) (1), 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) (3), farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) (11), ß-amyrin synthase (ß-AS) (13) and cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) (39) families. CONCLUSIONS: Our results investigated the diversity of the saikosaponin triterpene biosynthetic pathway in the roots, stems, leaves and flowers of B. chinese by integrated transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis, implying that manipulation of P450s genes such as Bc95697 and Bc35434 might improve saikosaponin biosynthesis. This is a good candidate for the genetic improvement of this important medicinal plant.


Assuntos
Bupleurum , Saponinas , Bupleurum/genética , Humanos , Metaboloma , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Raízes de Plantas , Transcriptoma
17.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e24071, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC) is a lethal cancer. This study aimed to identify the N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A)-targeted long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) related to LIHC prognosis and to develop an m6 A-targeted lncRNA model for prognosis prediction in LIHC. METHODS: The expression matrix of mRNA and lncRNA was obtained, and differentially expressed (DE) mRNAs and lncRNAs between tumor and normal samples were identified. Univariate Cox and pathway enrichment analyses were performed on the m6 A-targeted lncRNAs and the LIHC prognosis-related m6 A-targeted lncRNAs. Prognostic analysis, immune infiltration, and gene DE analyses were performed on LIHC subgroups, which were obtained from unsupervised clustering analysis. Additionally, a multi-factor Cox analysis was used to construct a prognostic risk model based on the lncRNAs from the LASSO Cox model. Univariate and multivariate Cox analyses were used to assess prognostic independence. RESULTS: A total of 5031 significant DEmRNAs and 292 significant DElncRNAs were screened, and 72 LIHC-specific m6 A-targeted binding lncRNAs were screened. Moreover, a total of 29 LIHC prognosis-related m6 A-targeted lncRNAs were obtained and enriched in cytoskeletal, spliceosome, and cell cycle pathways. An 11-m6 A-lncRNA prognostic model was constructed and verified; the top 10 lncRNAs included LINC00152, RP6-65G23.3, RP11-620J15.3, RP11-290F5.1, RP11-147L13.13, RP11-923I11.6, AC092171.4, KB-1460A1.5, LINC00339, and RP11-119D9.1. Additionally, the two LIHC subgroups, Cluster 1 and Cluster 2, showed significant differences in the immune microenvironment, m6 A enzyme genes, and prognosis of LIHC. CONCLUSION: The m6 A-lncRNA prognostic model accurately and effectively predicted the prognostic survival of LIHC. Immune cells, immune checkpoints (ICs), and m6 A enzyme genes could act as novel therapeutic targets for LIHC.

18.
Oncoimmunology ; 10(1): 1995166, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745768

RESUMO

Plasma extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been reported to be a promising source of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in various cancers. However, further research in this area is needed due to the limitations of circulating extracellular vesicles detection methods. Using the Single Molecule array (SiMoa) technology, we developed two extracellular vesicle detection assays, CD9-CD63 and PD-L1-CD63, to determine circulating universal EVs and PD-L1 positive EVs, respectively. A total of 164 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients were retrospectively included in this study. Compared with healthy volunteers (n = 25), elevated CD9-CD63 and PD-L1-CD63 signals were detected in the plasma of DLBCL patients (n = 164). High CD9-CD63 signals was associated with molecular subtype, extranodal site and treatment response in DLBCL. A high PD-L1-CD63 signal was also associated with certain clinical features, including extranodal site and treatment response. CD9-CD63 and PD-L1-CD63 signals were found to be important prognostic factors for both progression-free and overall survival. Furthermore, PD-L1-positive EVs were found in all patients, though PD-L1 protein expression was positive in only 35.4% (17/48) of tumor biopsies. No correlation was found between circulating PD-L1+ EVs and soluble PD-L1 (sPD-L1) levels. Our results show that plasma universal EV and PD-L1-positive EV levels are significantly elevated in DLBCL and might serve as biomarkers for predicting survival outcomes in DLBCL patients.

19.
Pulm Circ ; 11(4): 0271678X20978861, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603688

RESUMO

Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) was a protective factor in the cardiovascular system. Previous studies showed that hypoxia led to decreased COMP in rat models of pulmonary hypertension. However, the expression pattern of COMP in the pulmonary hypertension population was unclear. A total of 35 patients newly diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension and 70 controls were enrolled in the study. Circulating COMP concentrations of serum samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and were analyzed the association with multiple clinical variables. Serum COMP concentrations in the pulmonary hypertension group were significantly declined in comparison with age- and sex-matched normal controls, especially in the female subgroup. No significant difference of COMP concentrations was observed in the etiological classification, heart function classification, and risk stratification. Major hemodynamic parameters, six-minute walk distance, N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide, and short-term prognosis were not statistically associated with COMP. However, some echocardiography parameters, like tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and mean right atrial pressure, were found the negative relation to COMP concentrations. In conclusion, serum COMP levels were decreased in the patients with pulmonary hypertension, which was in accordance with its known biological effects. Its association with long-term prognosis was worth further exploring.

20.
Mol Biol Evol ; 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687315

RESUMO

While hybridization plays a large role in speciation, some unknown fraction of hybrid individuals never reproduces, instead remaining as genetic dead-ends. We investigated a morphologically distinct and culturally important Chinese walnut, Juglans hopeiensis, suspected to have arisen from hybridization of Persian walnut (J. regia) with Asian butternuts (J. cathayensis, J. mandshurica and hybrids between J. cathayensis and J. mandshurica). Based on 151 whole-genome sequences of the relevant taxa, we discovered that all J. hopeiensis individuals are first-generation hybrids, with the time for the onset of gene flow estimated as 370,000 years, implying both strong postzygotic barriers and the presence of J. regia in China by that time. Six inversion regions enriched for genes associated with pollen germination and pollen tube growth may be involved in the postzygotic barriers that prevent sexual reproduction in the hybrids. Despite its long-recurrent origination and distinct traits, J. hopeiensis does not appear on the way to speciation.

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