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1.
Bioact Mater ; 19: 581-593, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35600980

RESUMO

Annulus fibrosus (AF) repair remains a challenge because of its limited self-healing ability. Endogenous repair strategies combining scaffolds and growth factors show great promise in AF repair. Although the unique and beneficial characteristics of decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) in tissue repair have been demonstrated, the poor mechanical property of ECM hydrogels largely hinders their applications in tissue regeneration. In the present study, we combined polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) and decellularized annulus fibrosus matrix (DAFM) to develop an injectable, photocurable hydrogel for AF repair. We found that the addition of PEGDA markedly improved the mechanical strength of DAFM hydrogels while maintaining their porous structure. Transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) was further incorporated into PEGDA/DAFM hydrogels, and it could be continuously released from the hydrogel. The in vitro experiments showed that TGF-ß1 facilitated the migration of AF cells. Furthermore, PEGDA/DAFM/TGF-ß1 hydrogels supported the adhesion, proliferation, and increased ECM production of AF cells. In vivo repair performance of the hydrogels was assessed using a rat AF defect model. The results showed that the implantation of PEGDA/DAFM/TGF-ß1 hydrogels effectively sealed the AF defect, prevented nucleus pulposus atrophy, retained disc height, and partially restored the biomechanical properties of disc. In addition, the implanted hydrogel was infiltrated by cells resembling AF cells and well integrated with adjacent AF tissue. In summary, findings from this study indicate that TGF-ß1-supplemented DAFM hydrogels hold promise for AF repair.

2.
Cancer Lett ; 552: 215977, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36279983

RESUMO

IL-17-producing CD8 (Tc17) T cells have been shown to play an important role in infection and chronic inflammation, however their implications in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain elusive. In this study, we performed cytometry by time-of-flight (CyTOF) and revealed the distinctive immunological phenotypes of two IFNγ+ and IFNγ- Tc17 subsets that were preferentially enriched in human HCC. Single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis further revealed regulatory circuits governing the different phenotypes of these Tc17 subsets. In particular, we discovered that IFNγ- Tc17 subset demonstrated pro-tumoral characteristics and expressed higher levels of CCL20. This corresponded to increased tumor infiltration of T regulatory cells (Treg) validated by immunohistochemistry in another independent HCC cohort, demonstrating the immunosuppressive functions of IFNγ- Tc17 subset. Most importantly, higher intra-tumoral proportions of IFNγ- Tc17 were associated with poorer prognosis in patients with HCC and this was further validated in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) HCC cohort. Taken together, this compendium of transcriptomic and proteomic data of Tc17 subsets sheds light on the immunosuppressive phenotypes of IFNγ- Tc17 and its implications in HCC progression.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Tolerância Imunológica , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Humanos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Interferon gama , Interleucina-17/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Proteômica
3.
Eur J Cancer ; 178: 205-215, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36459768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vorolanib is a highly potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor. This three-arm, randomised, registered study aimed to assess the combination of vorolanib and everolimus or vorolanib alone versus a control arm of everolimus as second-line treatment in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced or metastatic RCC who had received one prior VEGFR-TKI were randomised (1:1:1) to receive the combination of vorolanib and everolimus or either monotherapy. Patients with brain metastases were excluded. The primary end-point was progression-free survival (PFS) assessed by the independent review committee per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours v1.1. RESULTS: Between 10th March 2017 and 30th May 2019, 399 patients (133 in each group) were enrolled. By the cutoff date (30th April 2020), a significant improvement in PFS was detected in the combination group compared with the everolimus group (10.0 versus 6.4 months; hazard ratio, 0.70; P = 0.0171). PFS was similar between the vorolanib group and the everolimus group (median: 6.4 versus 6.4 months; hazard ratio, 0.94; P = 0.6856). A significantly higher objective response rate was observed in the combination group than in the everolimus group (24.8% versus 8.3%; P = 0.0003), whereas there was no significant difference between the vorolanib group and the everolimus group (10.5% versus 8.3%; P = 0.5278). The overall survival data were immature. A total of 96 (72.2%), 52 (39.1%) and 71 (53.4%) grade 3 or higher treatment-related adverse events occurred in the combination group, vorolanib group and everolimus group, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of vorolanib to everolimus as 2nd-line treatment for patients with advanced or metastatic RCC who have experienced cancer progression after VEGFR-TKI therapy provided a better objective response rate and PFS than everolimus alone with a manageable safety profile. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03095040; Chinadrugtrials, CTR20160987.

4.
Cell Death Discov ; 8(1): 471, 2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36446767

RESUMO

The androgen receptor (AR) plays an essential role in prostate cancer progression and is a key target for prostate cancer treatment. However, patients with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy eventually experience biochemical relapse, with hormone-sensitive prostate cancer progressing into castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The widespread application of secondary antiandrogens, such as enzalutamide, indicates that targeting AR remains the most efficient method for CRPC treatment. Unfortunately, neither can block AR signaling thoroughly, leading to AR reactivation within several months. Here, we report an approach for suppressing reactivated AR signaling in the CRPC stage. A combination of the protein phosphatase 1 subunit α (PP1α)-specific inhibitor tautomycin and enzalutamide synergistically inhibited cell proliferation and AR signaling in LNCaP and C4-2 cells, as well as in AR variant-positive 22RV1 cells. Our results revealed that enzalutamide competed with residual androgens in CRPC, enhancing tautomycin-mediated AR degradation. In addition, the remaining competitive inhibitory role of enzalutamide on AR facilitated tautomycin-induced AR degradation in 22RV1 cells, further decreasing ARv7 levels via a full-length AR/ARv7 interaction. Taken together, our findings suggest that the combination of tautomycin and enzalutamide could achieve a more comprehensive inhibition of AR signaling in CRPC. AR degraders combined with AR antagonists may represent a new therapeutic strategy for CRPC.

5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7215, 2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36433955

RESUMO

Tumour cell metabolic plasticity is essential for tumour progression and therapeutic responses, yet the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we identify Prospero-related homeobox 1 (PROX1) as a crucial factor for tumour metabolic plasticity. Notably, PROX1 is reduced by glucose starvation or AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and is elevated in liver kinase B1 (LKB1)-deficient tumours. Furthermore, the Ser79 phosphorylation of PROX1 by AMPK enhances the recruitment of CUL4-DDB1 ubiquitin ligase to promote PROX1 degradation. Downregulation of PROX1 activates branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) degradation through mediating epigenetic modifications and inhibits mammalian target-of-rapamycin (mTOR) signalling. Importantly, PROX1 deficiency or Ser79 phosphorylation in liver tumour shows therapeutic resistance to metformin. Clinically, the AMPK-PROX1 axis in human cancers is important for patient clinical outcomes. Collectively, our results demonstrate that deficiency of the LKB1-AMPK axis in cancers reactivates PROX1 to sustain intracellular BCAA pools, resulting in enhanced mTOR signalling, and facilitating tumourigenesis and aggressiveness.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP , Neoplasias , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR , Neoplasias/patologia , Aminoácidos
6.
Front Oncol ; 12: 1046766, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36387117

RESUMO

Background: Although laparoscopic anatomical hepatectomy (LAH) is widely adopted today, laparoscopic anatomic mesohepatectomy (LAMH) for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains technically challenging. Methods: In this study, 6 patients suffering from solitary liver tumors located in the middle lobe of the liver underwent counterclockwise modular LAMH using combined Glissonean pedicle (Takasaki approach) and hepatic vein-guided approaches. In this process, the Glissonean pedicle approach (Takasaki approach) was first used to transect the liver pedicles of segment right anterior (G58) and segment 4 (G4). Second, the hepatic vein-guided approach was performed along the umbilical fissure vein (UFV) to sever the liver parenchyma from the caudal to cranial direction, and the middle hepatic vein (MHV) and anterior fissure vein (AFV) were then disconnected at the root. Last, the hepatic vein-guided approach was once more performed along the ventral side of the right hepatic vein (RHV) to transect the liver parenchyma from the cranial to anterior direction, and the middle lobe of the liver, including the tumor, was removed completely. The entire process was applied in a counterclockwise fashion, and the exposure or transection sequence was G58, and G4, followed by UFV, MHV, AFV, and finally, the liver parenchyma along the ventral side of RHV. Results: The counterclockwise modular LAMH using combined Glissonean pedicle (Takasaki approach) and hepatic vein-guided approaches was feasible in all 6 cases. The median duration of the operation was 275 ± 35.07 min, and the mean estimated blood loss was 283.33 ml. All of the 6 patients recovered smoothly. The Clavien-Dindo Grade I-II complications rate was up to 33.33%, mainly characterized by postoperative pain and a small amount of ascites. No Clavien-Dindo Grade III-V complications occurred, and the mean postoperative hospital stay was 6.83 ± 1.47 days. Follow-up results showed that the average disease-free survival (DFS) was 12.17 months, and the 21-months OS rate, DFS rate and tumor recurrent rate were 100%, 83.33% and 16.67% respectively. Conclusions: Counterclockwise modular LAMH using combined Glissonean pedicle (Takasaki approach) and hepatic vein-guided approaches takes the advantages of the two approaches, is a novel protocol for LAMH. It is thought to be technically feasible for patients with a centrally located solitary HCC. The oncologic feasibility of this technique needs to be investigated based on long-term follow-up. A multicenter, large-scale, more careful study is necessary.

7.
eNeuro ; 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418174

RESUMO

Glucocorticoid signaling influences hippocampal-dependent behavior and vulnerability to stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. In mice, lifelong overexpression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in forebrain excitatory neurons altered exploratory behavior, cognition, and dorsal hippocampal gene expression in adulthood, but whether GR overexpression alters the information encoded by hippocampal neurons is not known. We performed in vivo microendoscopic calcium imaging of 1359 dorsal CA1 pyramidal cells in freely behaving male and female WT and GR-overexpressing (GRov) mice during exploration of a novel open field, where most CA1 neurons are expected to respond to center location and mobility. Most neurons showed sensitivity to center location and/or mobility based on single-neuron calcium amplitude and event rate, but these sensitivity patterns differed between genotypes. GRov neurons were more likely than WT neurons to display center sensitivity and less likely to display mobility sensitivity. More than one-third of these responsive GRov neurons were sensitive only to center location and not mobility, while uniquely center-sensitive neurons were rare in WT. Most center-sensitive neurons exhibited anticipatory activity, suggesting they could drive behavior. We conclude that, compared to wild type, dorsal CA1 pyramidal cells in GRov mice preferentially respond to center location rather than mobility in a novel open field. Such changes in the information encoded by individual hippocampal neurons in an aversive environment could underlie changes in stress vulnerability due to genetic or epigenetic variations in glucocorticoid receptor signaling.Significance StatementGlucocorticoids alter hippocampal-dependent behaviors and vulnerability to stress-related disorders. Here, we find that increased sensitivity to glucocorticoid via lifelong overexpression of glucocorticoid receptor in forebrain neurons (GRov) changes the information encoded by individual hippocampal neurons in a mildly aversive environment, the novel open field. GRov neurons showed heightened sensitivity to center location and lower sensitivity to mobility. These changes in hippocampal neuronal sensitivity could underlie the differences in stress vulnerability in humans with genetic and epigenetic differences in glucocorticoid receptor signaling or excess glucocorticoid exposure during development.

8.
Acta Diabetol ; 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36422747

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the association between genetic polymorphisms of HIF1α and obesity and obesity-related cytokines in the Han Chinese population. METHODS: The study consisted of 160 subjects with obesity and 166 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. We genotyped three tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of HIF1α by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based genotyping technology. Plasma cytokine concentrations were determined on the Luminex platform. The genetic associations were analysed statistically. RESULTS: Obese subjects had significant obesity-related metabolic abnormalities, including hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, and abnormalities in blood lipids, liver enzymes, and uric acid levels. SNP analysis of HIF1α revealed that the allele and genotype frequencies of rs2301104 were significantly associated with obesity. Our results suggest that the minor allele C of rs2301104 might be a protective mutation of obesity, and CC/CG genotypes of rs2301104 could be protective genotype of obesity. We also found that subjects with CC/CG genotypes of rs2301104 had significantly lower levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-8, and IL-10 than subjects with GG genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to report an association between HIF1α polymorphisms and obesity and obesity-related cytokines in a Han Chinese population. These results require replication in larger populations but suggest that HIF1α may play an important role in obesity development.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362044

RESUMO

As an in-depth understanding of immunotherapy continues to grow, current anticancer therapy research is increasingly focused on the tumor microenvironment (TME). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in the regulation of genetic information and expression and mediate interactions between tumor cells and components in the TME, such as tumor-associated macrophages (macrophages). Macrophages are abundant in the TME, and their different polarization directions can promote or inhibit tumor growth and progression. By regulating biological behaviors, such as macrophage recruitment, infiltration, and polarization, miRNAs can affect various molecular pathways to regulate tumor progression and treatment response. In this review, we discuss in detail the effects of macrophages on tumors and the multifaceted effects of miRNAs on macrophages. We also discuss the potential clinical applications and prospects of targeted therapy based on miRNAs, novel clinical biomarkers, and drug delivery systems.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Microambiente Tumoral , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/terapia , Neoplasias/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/metabolismo
10.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(22)2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36428305

RESUMO

S100A7 has received extensive attention in the prevention and treatment of mastitis across a broad spectrum, yet there is a little information about its mechanism, especially in the immunomodulatory effects of estrogen. In the present study, based on the milk bacteriological culture (BC) of 30 dairy goats, the concentration of both estrogen and S100A7 in the BC-positive samples was not significantly different than in the BC-negative samples; the estrogen abundance in subclinical and clinical mastitis samples also showed only a limited difference; compared with healthy samples, the S100A7 abundance in subclinical mastitis samples differed little, while it was significantly decreased in clinical mastitis samples. Moreover, the relationship between estrogen and S100A7 was positive, and the regression equation was y = 0.3206x + 23.459. The goat mammary epithelial cells (gMECs) were isolated and treated with 1, 10, 100 nM E2 and/or 5 µg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS), respectively, for 6 h. Compared with control samples, 5 µg/mL LPS, 10 nM E2 and 100 nM E2 markedly induced S100A7 expression and secretion. More than separated treatment, the cooperation of LPS and E2 also significantly increased S100A7 expression, rather than S100A7 secretion. The p-ERK was up-regulated markedly with 100 nM E2 treatment, while the expression of p-JNK, p-p38 and p-Akt had little effect. The G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1(GPER1) agonist G1 markedly induced S100A7 expression and secretion in gMECs, and the estrogen nuclear receptor antagonist ICI and GPER1 antagonist G15 significantly repressed this process. In conclusion, E2 binds to nuclear and membrane receptors to regulate the expression and secretion of S100A7 via the ERK1/2-signaling pathway in gMECs.

11.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7112, 2022 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36402764

RESUMO

The preparation of high value-added boronic acids from cheap and plentiful carboxylic acids is desirable. To date, the decarboxylative borylation of carboxylic acids is generally realized through the extra step synthesized redox-active ester intermediate or in situ generated carboxylic acid covalent derivatives above 150 °C reaction temperature. Here, we report a direct decarboxylative borylation method of carboxylic acids enabled by visible-light catalysis and that does not require any extra stoichiometric additives or synthesis steps. This operationally simple process produces CO2 and proceeds under mild reaction conditions, in terms of high step economy and good functional group compatibility. A guanidine-based biomimetic active decarboxylative mechanism is proposed and rationalized by mechanistic studies. The methodology reported herein should see broad application extending beyond borylation.


Assuntos
Ácidos Carboxílicos , Ésteres , Catálise , Ácidos Borônicos , Luz
12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36426869

RESUMO

Molecular ferroelectrics with large piezoelectric responses have long been sought for their advantages of light weight, mechanical flexibility, and easy preparation, in contrast to the widely used inorganic counterparts. Representatively, a molecular ferroelectric crystal [Me3NCH2Cl]CdCl3 (TMCM-CdCl3) has been found to show a large piezoelectric coefficient d33 of 220 pC/N exceeding that of BaTiO3 (You et al. Science2017, 357, 306-309). However, although the d33 of molecular ferroelectrics has achieved great progress, their electromechanical coupling factor k33, which is essential for various piezoelectric applications, including ultrasonic transducers and actuators, was rarely explored and is far below the level of inorganic ferroelectrics. The major reason for this situation is the great challenge of growing large-size crystals which is a key limiting factor for measuring k33. Here, we grew inch-size crystals of organic-inorganic perovskite ferroelectric TMCM-CdCl3 with a high d33 (383 pC/N) for investigating its piezoelectric responses including the k33 (0.483) by the resonance method. Such high k33 (0.483) is much larger than those of other molecular ferroelectrics and competitive with that of BaTiO3 (0.5). In addition, TMCM-CdCl3 has a low elastic modulus of 13.03 GPa, an order of magnitude lower than that of BaTiO3. This finding sheds light on the exploration of large electromechanical coupling factors in molecular ferroelectrics for potential applications in flexible and portable piezoelectric devices.

13.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36358125

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary coated lysozyme on growth performance, serum biochemical indexes, antioxidant activity, digestive enzyme activity, intestinal permeability, and the cecal microbiota in weaned piglets. In total, 144 weaned Large White × Landrace piglets were divided into six treatment groups, with 3 replicates and 8 piglets per replicate: CN, a basal diet; CL-L, CL-M, and CL-H, basal diet supplemented with 100, 150, 500 mg/kg coated lysozyme; UL, basal diet supplemented with 150 mg/kg lysozyme; and Abs, basal diet supplemented with 150 mg/kg guitaromycin for 6 weeks. Compared with the CN and UL diets, dietary CL-H inclusion increased the average daily gain (ADG) and decreased the feed/gain (F/G) ratio of piglets (p < 0.05). The addition of 500 mg/kg coated lysozyme to the diet significantly increased the total protein (TP) and globulin (Glob) plasma levels of weaned piglets (p < 0.05). Supplementation with 500 mg/kg coated lysozyme significantly increased the serum IgM concentration and increased lipase activity in the duodenum (p < 0.05). The addition of coated lysozyme and lysozyme significantly decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, while the superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) levels all increased (p < 0.05). High-throughput sequencing results showed that CL-H treatment effectively improved the intestinal microbiome. The relative abundance of Terrisporobacter in the CL-H and CL-M groups was significantly lower than that in the other groups (p < 0.05). LEfSe analysis results showed that the relative abundance of Coprococcus_3 was higher in the CL-M treatment group. The marker species added to the CL-H treatment group was Anaerofilum. In summary, as a potential substitute for feed antibiotics, lysozyme is directly used as a dietary additive, which is inefficient. Therefore, we used palm oil as the main coating material to coat lysozyme. Lysozyme after coating can more effectively improve the growth performance of piglets by improving the intestinal flora, improving the activity of digestive enzymes, reducing the damage to intestinal permeability and oxidative stress in piglets caused by weaning stress, and improving the immunity of piglets.

14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19522, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376424

RESUMO

Studying how to improve the performance of illuminating agents to meet the requirements of ammunition miniaturization of great importance. In this study, a simple method for increasing light radiation intensity through the adding of metal oxides was developed and tested. Results revealed that the metal oxides had a very strong effect on the light radiation intensity of the reaction system. Optical radiation intensity increased by 17.8%, - 5.4% and 25.9% after the addition 5% of MgO, Al2O3 and BaO to the Ba(NO3)2/Mg reaction system, respectively. This phenomenon may be related to the light radiation characteristics and reactivity of the metal oxide itself, as well as the temperature at which the added metal oxide can be excited to radiate light intensity.

15.
Brain Sci ; 12(11)2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36421852

RESUMO

White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are commonly observed in older adults and are associated with cognitive impairment. Although previous studies have found abnormal functional connectivities in patients with WMHs based on static functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the topological properties in the context of brain dynamics remain relatively unexplored. Herein, we explored disrupted dynamic topological properties of functional network connectivity in patients with WMHs and its relationship with cognitive impairment. We included 36 healthy controls (HC) and 104 patients with mild WMHs (n = 39), moderate WMHs (n = 37), and severe (n = 28) WMHs. The fMRI data of all participants were analyzed using Anatomical Automatic Labeling (AAL) and a sliding-window approach to generate dynamic functional connectivity matrics. Then, graph theory methods were applied to calculate the topological properties. Comprehensive neuropsychological scales were used to assess cognitive functions. Relationships between cognitive functions and abnormal dynamic topological properties were evaluated by Pearson's correlation. We found that the patients with WMHs had higher temporal variability in regional properties, including betweenness centrality, nodal efficiencies, and nodal clustering coefficient. Furthermore, we found that the degree of centrality was related to executive function and memory, and the local coefficient correlated to executive function. Our results indicate that patients with WMHs have higher temporal variabilities in regional properties and are associated with executive and memory function.

16.
Plant Cell Rep ; 2022 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36401648

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: We briefly discuss that the similarity of LTR retrotransposons to retroviruses is a great opportunity for the development of a genetic engineering tool that exploits intragenic elements in the plant genome for plant genetic improvement. Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are very similar to retroviruses but do not have the property of being infectious. While spreading between its host cells, a retrovirus inserts a DNA copy of its genome into the cells. The ability of retroviruses to cause infection with genome integration allows genes to be delivered to cells and tissues. Retrovirus vectors are, however, only specific to animals and insects, and, thus, are not relevant to plant genetic engineering. However, the similarity of LTR retrotransposons to retroviruses is an opportunity to explore the former as a tool for genetic engineering. Although recent long-read sequencing technologies have advanced the knowledge about transposable elements (TEs), the integration of TEs is still unable either to control them or to direct them to specific genomic locations. The use of existing intragenic elements to achieve the desired genome composition is better than using artificial constructs like vectors, but it is not yet clear how to control the process. Moreover, most LTR retrotransposons are inactive and unable to produce complete proteins. They are also highly mutable. In addition, it is impossible to find a full active copy of a LTR retrotransposon out of thousands of its own copies. Theoretically, if these elements were directly controlled and turned on or off using certain epigenetic mechanisms (inducing by stress or infection), LTR retrotransposons could be a great opportunity to develop a genetic engineering tool using intragenic elements in the plant genome. In this review, the recent developments in uncovering the nature of LTR retrotransposons and the possibility of using these intragenic elements as a tool for plant genetic engineering are briefly discussed.

17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20317, 2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36434038

RESUMO

Urban floods are the most severe disaster in most Chinese cities due to rapid urbanisation and climate challenges. Recently, media data analytics has become prominent in enhancing urban flood resilience. In this study, news media data from the GKG of the GDELT project was innovatively used to examine the pattern of news media responses towards urban flooding in China's Sponge City Programme (SCP) pilot cities. We find that public sentiments toward urban flood events have been more positive in SCP pilot cities from 2015 to 2021. News media responses towards urban floods exhibit strong seasonality, which is significantly connected with rainfall patterns. Most of the media articles were posted during the urban flood event. Finally, we suggest the opportunities and challenges in applying GKG data analytics and new technologies for urban flood resilience. The results can provide beneficial references to urban flood management strategies in China's Sponge Cities for associated policymakers and stakeholders.


Assuntos
Desastres , Inundações , Cidades , Urbanização , China
18.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 1009900, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419763

RESUMO

Background: Hypogonadism has become a major cause endangering men's health and quality of life all over the world. Testosterone Therapy (TT) is a widely accepted treatment for relieving hypogonadal symptoms. However, the effect of different administrations of TT on prostate safety is still unclear. Methods: We did a thorough search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library to identify eligible studies up to January 2022. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and Cohort studies evaluating the impacts of using different formulations of TT on prostate parameters were included. Changes of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and prostate cancer (Pca) cases were used as the primary outcomes. Quality of individual studies was estimated by RoB2 (Cochrane tool for assessing the risk of bias in randomized trials) and the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (Tool for assessing non-RCTs). Certainty of evidence for each study was evaluated according to the evidence assessment criteria of the Oxford Evidence-based Medicine Center. Random-effect network meta-analysis(NMA)was performed based on the Bayesian model. Results: Thirty-five studies (30 RCTs and 5 Cohort studies) with 7,740 participants were included. TT administration led to fewer Pca patients (RR=0.62, 95%CI [0.39,0.99], I2=0%), while little decreasing in PSA level (MD=-0.05, 95%CI [-0.08, -0.02], I2=0%). The NMA revealed that compared with other formulations, the intramuscular injection was the most likely to rank first in decreasing Pca cases. The TT also resulted in more biopsy cases (RR=2.38, 95%CI [1.01,5.60], I2=0%). As for NMA, intramuscular injection also performed relatively better in fewer prostate biopsy cases compared with transdermal group. Conclusion: TT does not lead to abnormal PSA changes and increased risk of Pca in patients with hypogonadism or low testosterone level. Compared with other preparations of TT, intramuscular injection proved better in minimizing Pca cases and was more likely to result in fewer prostate biopsy cases.


Assuntos
Hipogonadismo , Próstata , Masculino , Humanos , Próstata/patologia , Testosterona , Antígeno Prostático Específico , Metanálise em Rede , Hipogonadismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hipogonadismo/patologia
19.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2204479, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36382560

RESUMO

Remarkable exertions are directed to reveal and understand topographic cues that induce cell mechanical sensitive responses including lineage determination. Extracellular matrix (ECM) is the sophisticated ensemble of diverse factors offering the complicated cellular microenvironment to regulate cell behaviors. However, the functions of only a few of these factors are revealed; most of them are still poorly understood. Herein, the focus is on understanding the curved structure in ECM network for regulating stem cell mechanotransduction. A curved nanofiber network mimicking the curved structure in ECM is fabricated by an improved electrospinning technology. Compared with the straight fibers, the curved fibers promote cell bridge formation because of the cytoskeleton tension. The actomyosin filaments are condensed near the curved edge of the non-adhesive bridge in the bridging cells, which generates higher myosin-II-based intracellular force. This force drives cell lineage commitment toward osteogenic differentiation. This study enriches and perfects the knowledge of the effects of topographic cues on cell behaviors and guides the development of novel biomaterials.

20.
Neuropsychobiology ; : 1-10, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36382655

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Somatic symptoms often occur as a manifestation of depression and anxiety. The subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) has been shown to be closely related to both depression and anxiety and plays an important role in somatic symptoms. However, little is known regarding whether the abnormal function of the sgACC contributes to the common somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety. METHODS: Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) analysis based on the seed of the sgACC was investigated in 23 major depressive disorder (MDD) patients with somatic symptoms, 20 generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients with somatic symptoms, and 22 demographically matched healthy controls (HCs). The severity of depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA), and the 15-item somatic symptom severity scale from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15), respectively. An analysis of covariance analysis (ANCOVA) was conducted to determine RSFC alterations among GAD, MDD, and HC groups with age, gender, and head motion as covariates. Correlation analyses were conducted between the RSFC of the sgACC and PHQ-15. RESULTS: The significantly different RSFC of right sgACC among the three groups was found in right STG, left cerebellum, and right postcentral. Post hoc analysis indicated that both MDD and GAD patients showed a decreased RSFC between the right sgACC and right STG than HCs, and both were negatively correlated with the PHQ-15 scores. CONCLUSION: The abnormally decreased RSFC of the sgACC and STG may be the underlying common mechanisms of depression and anxiety combined with somatic symptoms.

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