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1.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724351

RESUMO

Classical swine fever (CSF) is caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and has led to huge economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. Although vaccination and other control measures have been carried out, it is essential to establish a rapid and valid method for CSF vaccination monitoring and clinical diagnosis. The CSFV E2 protein has been widely used as a major antigen for antibody detection. It is important to improve the affinity between the E2 protein and CSFV antibodies to improve the performance of the detection method. In this study, a recombinant E2 extracellular protein (amino acids 1-331) with a native homodimer conformation and high affinity for the anti-CSFV-E2 monoclonal antibody WH303 was expressed using a Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system. A novel immunochromatographic test strip based on the recombinant CSFV E2 protein was developed for CSFV antibody detection. The sensitivity of this strip for detecting CSFV standard-positive serum was 1:102400, 4 times higher than that of the previously developed CnC2 test strip. No cross-reactivity with antibodies of other swine viruses was observed. Detection of clinical swine serum samples (n = 813) demonstrated that the agreements of this E2 test strip with three commercial ELISA kits were 97.17% (790/813), 95.94% (780/813), and 93.73% (762/813), respectively. Our data indicate that a novel E2 test strip with enhanced sensitivity has been developed and can be applied for clinical sample detection, providing a new, powerful and simple approach for CSFV antibody monitoring. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 721897, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778248

RESUMO

As a cold tumor, malignant glioma has strong immunosuppression and immune escape characteristics. The tumor microenvironment (TME) provides the "soil" for the survival of malignant tumors, and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the architects of matrix remodeling in TME. Therefore, CAFs have potent regulatory effects on the recruitment and functional differentiation of immune cells, whereby they synthesize and secrete numerous collagens, cytokines, chemokines, and other soluble factors whose interaction with tumor cells creates an immunosuppressive TME. This consequently facilitates the immune escape of tumor cells. Targeting CAFs would improve the TME and enhance the efficacy of immunotherapy. Thus, regulation of CAFs and CAFs-related genes holds promise as effective immunotherapies for gliomas. Here, by analyzing the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas and the Cancer Genome Atlas database, the proportion of CAFs in the tumor was revealed to be associated with clinical and immune characteristics of gliomas. Moreover, a risk model based on the expression of CAFs-related six-gene for the assessment of glioma patients was constructed using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator and the results showed that a high-risk group had a higher expression of the CAFs-related six-genes and lower overall survival rates compared with those in the low-risk group. Additionally, patients in the high-risk group exhibited older age, high tumor grade, isocitrate dehydrogenase wildtype, 1p/19q non-codeletion, O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoter unmethylation and poor prognosis. The high-risk subtype had a high proportion CAFs in the TME of glioma, and a high expression of immune checkpoint genes. Analysis of the Submap algorithm indicated that the high-risk patients could show potent response to anti-PD-1 therapy. The established risk prediction model based on the expression of six CAFs-related genes has application prospects as an independent prognostic indicator and a predictor of the response of patients to immunotherapy.

3.
Waste Manag ; 137: 150-157, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773908

RESUMO

The growing amount of electronic waste (e-waste) poses considerable risks to the environment and human health, especially when treated inadequately. However, it is difficult to assess the significance of these issues without quantitative understanding of spatiotemporal patterns of e-waste generation. This paper proposes a new model to estimate in-use stock of electric household appliances (HAs) and e-waste generation at the level of 1 km × 1 km grids by coupling geographic information system (GIS) and material flow analysis (MFA). We took Xiamen, a rapidly urbanized city in China, as a case and the results showed that demands for HAs increased from 1980, peaked in 2016, and then declined. In-use HAs exhibited a logistic growth and significantly increased in both spatial extent and intensity. E-waste generation kept rising until 2019, and its spatial center expanded outward from downtown to suburban areas. Our study highlights that a dynamic and spatial model is useful for designing effective policies for e-waste management by providing spatiotemporal details of e-waste types and generation magnitudes and explicitly recognizing generation hotspots in cities.

4.
Clin Immunol ; : 108892, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The etiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is multifactorial. Recently, growing evidence suggests that the microbiota plays a role in SLE, yet whether gut microbiota participates in the development of SLE remains largely unknown. To investigate this issue, we carried out 16 s rDNA sequencing analyses in a cohort of 18 female un-treated active SLE patients and 7 female healthy controls, and performed fecal microbiota transplantation from patients and healthy controls to germ-free (GF) mice. RESULTS: Compared to the healthy controls, we found no significant different microbial diversity but some significantly different species in SLE patients including Turicibacter genus and other 5 species. Fecal transfer from SLE patients to GF mice caused GF mice to develop a series of lupus-like phenotypic features, including increased serum autoimmune antibodies, imbalanced cytokines, altered distribution of immune cells in mucosal and peripheral immune response, and upregulated expression of genes related to SLE in recipient mice that received SLE fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Moreover, the metabolism of histidine was significantly altered in GF mice treated with SLE patient feces, as compared to those which received healthy fecal transplants. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results describe a causal role of aberrant gut microbiota in contributing to the pathogenesis of SLE. The interplay of gut microbial and histidine metabolism may be one of the mechanisms intertwined with autoimmune activation in SLE.

5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 773257, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805234

RESUMO

Background: Minimally invasive simple prostatectomy (MISP) and endoscopic enucleation of the prostate (EEP) are the two most commonly used methods for large benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but it remains unclear which of the two is superior. This study aims to perform a pooled analysis to compare efficacy and safety profiles between MISP and EEP. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases to identify eligible studies comparing MISP with EEP. Parameters including efficacy and safety outcomes were compared using Stata 14.0 version. Results: Eight comparative trials with 1,504 patients were included. Compared to MISP, EEP demonstrated shorter operative time (mean difference [MD] 46.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 19.92 to 72.82, p = 0.0006), lesser hemoglobin decrease (standardized MD [SMD] 0.59, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.95, p = 0.001), lower catheterization time (SMD 4.13, 95% CI 2.16 to 6.10, p < 0.001), and shorter length of stay (SMD 2.38, 95% CI 1.40 to 3.36, p < 0.001). However, overall complications and blood transfusions did not differ between the two groups. Moreover, EEP had better postvoid residual volume (PVR) at 6-month (MD 14.39, 95% CI 11.06 to 17.72, p < 0.001) and comparable 3- and 6-month International Prostate Symptom Score, 3- and 6-month maximum flow rate, 3-month PVR, and 3-month quality of life compared with MISP. Conclusion: Both MISP and EEP are effective and safe surgical procedures for the treatment of large BPH. EEP appears to have a superior perioperative profile compared to MISP. This should be interpreted with caution due to the significant heterogeneity between studies. Hence, treatment selection should be based on the surgeon's experience and availability.

6.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(18): 1431, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733983

RESUMO

Background: While serum hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg) play an important role in the diagnosis and assessment of treatment results of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections, it remains unclear whether HBsAg levels normalized to hepatic parenchymal cell volume (HPCV) is a superior indicator of disease state. This study compared the absolute and HPCV-normalized serum HBsAg levels in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and HBeAg-negative patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Methods: Patients admitted to our institution with CHB were retrospectively included and categorized into the HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative groups. HPCV was calculated based on pathological examination of liver biopsy specimens and theory of sphere geometry. The difference between HBsAg levels and HBsAg normalized to HPCV, and also correlation between HBsAg levels and liver inflammation and fibrosis was analyzed. Results: Absolute HBsAg levels (P=0.004), but not HPCV-normalized HBsAg levels (P=0.071) were significantly higher in HBeAg-positive patients compared to HBeAg-negative patients. In HBeAg-positive CHB patients, absolute HBsAg levels were positively correlated with liver inflammation grade (R=0.285, P=0.001) and hepatic fibrosis stage (R=0.351, P<0.001), as were HPCV-normalized HBsAg levels (R=0.640 and 0.742, both, P<0.001). However, in HBeAg-negative CHB patients, only HPCV-normalized HBsAg level were correlated with liver inflammation grade and hepatic fibrosis stage (R=0.640 and 0.785, both, P<0.001). Conclusions: HPCV-normalized serum HBsAg levels, rather than absolute HBsAg levels, were positively correlated with liver inflammation grade and hepatic fibrosis stage in both HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative CHB patients. Thus, HPCV-normalized HBsAg levels may more accurately reflect the pathological progress of CHB patients compared to absolute HBsAg levels.

7.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735667

RESUMO

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is a recently identified autoimmune disorder with heterogeneous neurological, psychiatric, and cognitive manifestations. The NMDAR is a key signaling node for neurovascular coupling, the mechanism by which cerebral blood perfusion is enhanced to meet local metabolic requirements from increased neuronal activity. Therefore, anti-NMDAR encephalitis may disrupt neurovascular coupling and induce cognitive deficits. This study examined neurovascular coupling and cognitive function in anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients to identify prognostic biomarkers, reveal potential pathogenic mechanisms, and provide clues to possible therapeutic strategies. In this study, twenty-three anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients and thirty healthy controls received neuropsychological testing and multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was calculated from arterial spin labeling, and regional homogeneity (ReHo) was computed from functional MRI. Pearson's correlation coefficients between CBF and ReHo were calculated to obtain neurovascular coupling. At the whole gray matter level, CBF‒ReHo coupling was reduced in patients compared to healthy controls. At the regional level, CBF‒ReHo was significantly lower among patients in the precentral gyrus, frontal gyrus, insula, cuneus, inferior parietal lobe, supramarginal gyrus, angular gyrus, precuneus, temporal gyrus, and temporal pole. Reduced CBF‒ReHo in the left superior medial frontal gyrus of patients was significantly correlated with a deficit in verbal inhibition control, and the reduced CBF‒ReHo in the left insula was significantly correlated with impaired executive function. In conclusion, anti-NMDAR encephalitis is associated with both global and regional disruptions in neurovascular coupling that may in turn lead to deficits in specific cognitive domains.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768817

RESUMO

Plant development processes are regulated by epigenetic alterations that shape nuclear structure, gene expression, and phenotypic plasticity; these alterations can provide the plant with protection from environmental stresses. During plant growth and development, these processes play a significant role in regulating gene expression to remodel chromatin structure. These epigenetic alterations are mainly regulated by transposable elements (TEs) whose abundance in plant genomes results in their interaction with genomes. Thus, TEs are the main source of epigenetic changes and form a substantial part of the plant genome. Furthermore, TEs can be activated under stress conditions, and activated elements cause mutagenic effects and substantial genetic variability. This introduces novel gene functions and structural variation in the insertion sites and primarily contributes to epigenetic modifications. Altogether, these modifications indirectly or directly provide the ability to withstand environmental stresses. In recent years, many studies have shown that TE methylation plays a major role in the evolution of the plant genome through epigenetic process that regulate gene imprinting, thereby upholding genome stability. The induced genetic rearrangements and insertions of mobile genetic elements in regions of active euchromatin contribute to genome alteration, leading to genomic stress. These TE-mediated epigenetic modifications lead to phenotypic diversity, genetic variation, and environmental stress tolerance. Thus, TE methylation is essential for plant evolution and stress adaptation, and TEs hold a relevant military position in the plant genome. High-throughput techniques have greatly advanced the understanding of TE-mediated gene expression and its associations with genome methylation and suggest that controlled mobilization of TEs could be used for crop breeding. However, development application in this area has been limited, and an integrated view of TE function and subsequent processes is lacking. In this review, we explore the enormous diversity and likely functions of the TE repertoire in adaptive evolution and discuss some recent examples of how TEs impact gene expression in plant development and stress adaptation.

9.
Cancer Lett ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801597

RESUMO

Most prostate cancer (PCa)-related deaths are caused by progression to bone metastasis. Recently, the importance of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in pre-metastatic niche formation has been reported. However, whether and how tumor-derived EVs interact with bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) to release EV-delivered microRNAs to promote osteolysis and induce pre-metastatic niche formation for PCa bone metastasis remain unclear. Our in vitro and in vivo functional and mechanistic assays revealed that EV-mediated release of miR-378a-3p from tumor cells was upregulated in bone-metastatic PCa, maintaining low intracellular miR-378a-3p concentration to promote proliferation and MAOA-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Moreover, miR-378a-3p enrichment in tumor-derived EVs was induced by hnRNPA2B1 (a transfer chaperone) overexpression. After tumor-derived EVs were taken in by BMMs, enriched miR-378a-3p promoted osteolytic progression by inhibiting Dyrk1a to improve Nfatc1 (an osteolysis-related transcription factor) nuclear translocation, to activate the expression of downstream target gene Angptl2. As a feedback, increased Angptl2 secretion into the tumor environment promoted PCa progression. In conclusion, tumor-derived miR-378a-3p-containing EVs play a significant role in PCa bone metastasis by activating the Dyrk1a/Nfatc1/Angptl2 axis in BMMs to induce osteolytic progression, making miR-378a-3p a potential predictor of metastatic PCa. Reducing the release of miR-378a-3p-containing EVs or inhibiting the recruitment of miR-378a-3p into EVs can be a therapeutic strategy against PCa metastasis.

10.
Brain Stimul ; 15(1): 35-45, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deficits in associative memory (AM) are the earliest and most prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and demonstrate a clear cause of distress for patients and their families. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to determine AM enhancements following accelerated intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) in patients with AD. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled design, iTBS was administered to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of patients with AD for 14 days. Measurements included AM (primary outcome) and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Patients were evaluated at baseline, following the intervention (week 2), and 8 weeks after treatment cessation (week 10). RESULTS: Sixty patients with AD were initially enrolled; 47 completed the trial. The active group displayed greater AM improvements compared with the sham group at week 2 (P = 0.003), which was sustained at week 10. Furthermore, higher Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores at baseline were associated with greater AM improvements at weeks 2 and 10. For the independent iTBS group, this correlation predicted improvements in AM (P < 0.001) and identified treatment responders with 92% accuracy. Most of the neuropsychological tests were markedly improved in the active group. In particular, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and MMSE in the active group increased by 2.8 and 2.3 points, respectively, at week 2, while there was no marked change in the sham group. CONCLUSION: In the present study, accelerated iTBS of the DLPFC demonstrated an effective and well-tolerated complementary treatment for patients with AD, especially for individuals with relatively high MMSE scores.

11.
Front Genet ; 12: 765400, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759961

RESUMO

Rationale: Severe asthma is a heterogeneous disease with multiple molecular mechanisms. Gene expression studies of asthmatic bronchial epithelial cells have provided biological insights and underscored possible pathological mechanisms; however, the molecular basis in severe asthma is still poorly understood. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify the features of asthma and uncover the molecular basis of severe asthma in distinct molecular phenotype. Methods: The k-means clustering and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were performed in 129 asthma individuals in the Severe Asthma Research Program. The DEG profiles were analyzed by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), and the expression value of each gene module in each individual was annotated by gene set variation analysis (GSVA). Results: Expression analysis defined five stable asthma subtype (AS): 1) Phagocytosis-Th2, 2) Normal-like, 3) Neutrophils, 4) Mucin-Th2, and 5) Interferon-Th1 and 15 co-expressed gene modules. "Phagocytosis-Th2" enriched for receptor-mediated endocytosis, upregulation of Toll-like receptor signal, and myeloid leukocyte activation. "Normal-like" is most similar to normal samples. "Mucin-Th2" preferentially expressed genes involved in O-glycan biosynthesis and unfolded protein response. "Interferon-Th1" displayed upregulation of genes that regulate networks involved in cell cycle, IFN gamma response, and CD8 TCR. The dysregulation of neural signal, REDOX, apoptosis, and O-glycan process were related to the severity of asthma. In non-TH2 subtype (Neutrophils and Interferon-Th1) with severe asthma individuals, the neural signals and IL26-related co-expression module were dysregulated more significantly compared to that in non-severe asthma. These data infer differences in the molecular evolution of asthma subtypes and identify opportunities for therapeutic development. Conclusions: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease. The co-expression analysis provides new insights into the biological mechanisms related to its phenotypes and the severity.

12.
Front Surg ; 8: 726233, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760915

RESUMO

Background: Urolithiasis is the most common complication of horseshoe kidney (HK), which can be treated by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), flexible ureteroscopy (FURS), and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). When comparing treatments of ESWL and FURS, it is unclear which is more efficient and safe. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of FURS and SWL for the treatment of urolithiasis in HK patients. Methods: A systematic search of the Web of Science, PubMed, and EMBASE was performed in February 2021. Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to assess the risk of bias in each study. Results: Five studies published between 2008 and 2018 were synthesized in the present meta-analysis. The study revealed that FURS compared with SWL had greater initial and overall stone-free rates (SFRs). Risk ratios (RRs) were 2.46 (P < 0.00001) in initial SFRs, 1.36 (P = 0.02) in overall SFRs. No differences were found in the retreatment ratio, RRs were 0.49 (P = 0.43). In addition, no major complications were encountered, and all the complications were mild to moderate. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that FURS and SWL are effective and safe treatments for patients with HK with stones (<20 mm). Moreover, FURS has greater clearance rates and lower complication rates than SWL.

14.
Small ; : e2104328, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738726

RESUMO

Cell polarization exists in a variety of tissues to regulate cell behaviors and functions. Space constraint (spatially limiting cell extension) and adhesion induction (guiding adhesome growth) are two main ways to induce cell polarization according to the microenvironment topographies. However, the mechanism of cell polarization induced by these two ways and the downstream effects on cell functions are yet to be understood. Here, space constraint and adhesion induction guiding cell polarization are achieved by substrate groove arrays in micro and nano size, respectively. Although the morphology of polarized cells is similar on both structures, the signaling pathways to induce the cell polarization and the downstream functions are distinctly different. The adhesion induction (nano-groove) leads to the formation of focal adhesions and activates the RhoA/ROCK pathway to enhance the myosin-based intracellular force, while the space constraint (micro-groove) only activates the formation of pseudopodia. The enhanced intracellular force caused by adhesion induction inhibits the chromatin condensation, which promotes the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells. This study presents an overview of cell polarization and mechanosensing at biointerface to aid in the design of novel biomaterials.

15.
J Mater Chem B ; 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761794

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a potential strategy for many superficial, esophageal, intestinal, and bronchial cancer treatments, but its therapeutic effect is limited by a lack of specificity and the hypoxic tumor environment. It is necessary to develop novel photosensitizers (Ps) with organelles targeting and the ability to generate cytotoxic species under light irradiation without the presence of oxygen. Herein, we designed and synthesized a biocompatible fluorescent Ps CPNBD for lipid droplets (LDs) fluorescence (FL) image-guided PDT. CPNBD showed FL quenching in water but FL was significantly turned on by oil with a remarkable FL enhancement compared to that in aqueous solution. Due to its strong lipophilicity (Clog P of 7.96), CPNBD could specifically stain the LDs of human clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) tumor cells and tissues with good photostability. Meanwhile, CPNBD could efficiently generate cytotoxic reactive oxygen species under low-power white-light irradiation, which could efficiently damage DNA via a PDT process with great tumor suppression ability in vitro and in vivo. Thus, this work provides a novel strategy for designing LD-targeting Ps with efficient image-guided PDT under the tumor hypoxic environment.

16.
Asian J Androl ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596600

RESUMO

To reduce treatment-related side effects in low-risk prostate cancer (PCa), both focal therapy and deferred treatments, including active surveillance (AS) and watchful waiting (WW), are worth considering over radical prostatectomy (RP). Therefore, this study aimed to compare long-term survival outcomes between focal therapy and AS/WW. Data were obtained and analyzed from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Patients with low-risk PCa who received focal therapy or AS/WW from 2010 to 2016 were included. Focal therapy included cryotherapy and laser ablation. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare overall mortality (OM) and cancer-specific mortality (CSM) between AS/WW and focal therapy, and propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to reduce the influence of bias and unmeasured confounders. A total of 19 292 patients with low-risk PCa were included in this study. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards model analysis, the risk of OM was higher in patients receiving focal therapy than those receiving AS/WW (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.79, P = 0.037), whereas no significant difference was found in CSM (HR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.23-4.11, P = 0.977). After PSM, the OM and CSM of focal therapy and AS/WW showed no significant differences (HR = 1.26, 95% CI: 0.92-1.74, P = 0.149; and HR = 1.26, 95% CI: 0.24-6.51, P = 0.782, respectively). For patients with low-risk PCa, focal therapy was no match for AS/WW in decreasing OM, suggesting that AS/WW could bring more overall survival benefits.

17.
Cancer Manag Res ; 13: 7429-7437, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594135

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the predictive factors of lymph node metastasis (LNM) and evaluate the usefulness of prediction nomograms. Methods: This study included 300 patients diagnosed with penile squamous cell carcinoma at West China Hospital (WCH) of Sichuan University (Chengdu, China) and 412 cases acquired from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. Logistic regression analysis was performed on these cohorts to investigate the predictive factors of LNM. We evaluated a recently developed prediction nomogram for LNM, which was established based on the National Cancer Database (NCDB). Moreover, we developed a novel nomogram using cases from the WCH for the prediction of lymphatic metastasis. Results: Logistic analysis identified that younger age at diagnosis, invasion of the penis body, poorer pT stage, cN stage, nuclear grade and the presence of lymph vascular invasion (LVI) were significantly correlated with LNM in WCH cases; however, only race, poorer T stage and cN stage were significantly associated with LNM among the cases from the SEER. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that younger age, poorer T stage, cN stage and nuclear grade were independent predictors of LNM. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of WCH cases showed that the tumor T stage 8th edition has better area under the curve than 7th stage (0.672 vs 0.636, respectively). Moreover, well AUC was seen in external validation of NCDB nomogram in WCH cohorts and SEER series (0.833 vs 0.795). The new nomogram included the aforementioned independent predictors and the bootstrap-corrected concordance was 0.876. Conclusion: Younger diagnose age, poorer pT stage, cN stage, nuclear grade and LVI were the most important predictors of LNM in patients with penile cancer. 8th T stage performed better than 7th version in predicting LNM. NCDB nomogram has some application values in both WCH and SEER cases, and our novel model further improved the predictive accuracy.

18.
Tree Physiol ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633049

RESUMO

The key molecular mechanisms underlying the sectionalized growth within bamboo or other grass internodes remain largely unknown. Here, we genetically and morphologically compared the culm and rhizome internode division zones (DZs) of a slow-growing bamboo variant (sgv) having dwarf internodes, to those of the corresponding wild-type (WT). Histological analysis discovers that the sgv has an irregular internode DZ. However, the shoot apical meristems in height, width, outside shape, cell number and cell width of the sgv and the WT were all similar. The DZ irregularities first appeared post apical meristem development, in 1-mm sgv rhizome internodes. Thus, the sgv is a DZ irregularity bamboo variant, which has been first reported in bamboo according to our investigation. Transcriptome sequencing analysis finds that a number of cell wall biogenesis and cell division related genes are dramatically downregulated in the sgv DZ. Interestingly, both transcriptomic and brassinosteroid (BR) contents detecting as well as qRT-PCR analyses show that these irregularities have resulted from the BR signaling pathway defects. BR defect might also cause the erect leaves and branches as well as the irregular epidermis of the sgv. These results suggest that BR signaling pathway plays critical roles in bamboo internode division zone and leaf development from a mutant perspective, and also explain the upstream mechanisms causing the dwarf internode of the sgv bamboo.

19.
Front Genet ; 12: 666451, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630502

RESUMO

HNRNPA2B1, an RNA-binding protein, plays a key role in primary microRNA processing, alternative splicing, mRNA metabolism and transport. Interestingly, hnRNPA2B1 also works as an N6-methyladenosine (m6A) reader and is critical during tumorigenesis of various tissue types. However, its role in colon cancer is still unclear. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the biological functions of hnRNPA2B1 and to explore its underlying mechanisms in colon cancer. We examined the expression of hnRNPA2B1 in Oncomine and TCGA databases. Then verified the findings in colon cancer cells and clinical samples with western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC). We used CRISPR/Cas9 directed gene editing to knockout hnRNPA2B1 expression in human colon cancer cell line SW480 and HCT-116 and carried out both in vivo and in vitro experiments. The results were further confirmed by RNA-seq analyses. We found that hnRNPA2B1 significantly promoted colon cancer cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo, while knockout of hnRNPA2B1 induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in SW480. RNA-seq analyses revealed that the ERK/MAPK pathway was activated by hnRNPA2B1 upregulation. In addition, both hnRNPA2B1 and MAPK pathway were activated in clinical colon cancer specimens and positively correlated. Mechanistically, hnRNPA2B1 appeared to be an upstream regulator of the ERK/MAPK pathway and inhibition of MAPK signaling blocked the effects of hnRNPA2B1. Taken together, our data demonstrated that the RNA-binding protein hnRNPA2B1 promotes cell proliferation and regulates cell cycle and apoptosis of human colon cancer by activating the ERK/MAPK signaling, which may provide a new insight into the development of hnRNPA2B1 as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of colon cancer.

20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1068, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nowadays, most studies of tuberculous epididymo-orchitis (TBEO) are case reports or small sample cohort series. Our study is aimed to present the largest series of TBEO with our management experiences and long-term follow-up outcomes. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with TBEO after surgical procedures at Department of Urology, West China Hospital from 2008 to 2019 were included. All clinical features, auxiliary examination results, treatment and histopathological findings were extracted if available. RESULTS: Eighty-one patients (mean age 50.77 ± 16.1 years) were included. Scrotal swelling (N = 47, 58.0%) and pain (N = 29, 35.8%) were the most common presenting complaint. Pyuria and microscopic hematuria were observed in twenty-two (27.2%) and eight patients (9.9%), respectively. Urine acid fast bacilli cultures were available in 16 patients and all were negative. The mean duration between the onset of symptoms and the definite diagnosis was 6.42 ± 7.0 months. TBEO was considered in 30 (37.0%), tumors in 28 (34.6%) and nonspecific bacterial epididymo-orchitis in 23 (28.4%) patients. All patients received triple therapy of chemotherapy-surgery-pharmacotherapy and definite diagnosis was confirmed through histopathology of surgical specimens. Fifty-five patients were followed up regularly (mean follow-up 82.35 ± 36.6 months). One patient (1.2%) died from liver cirrhosis and no recurrence was observed. Postoperative complications included erectile dysfunction in 4 patients (4.9%), premature ejaculation in 5 patients (6.2%) and sterility in 7 patients (8.6%). CONCLUSIONS: We recommend patients with advanced TBEO to receive triple therapy of chemotherapy-surgery-pharmacotherapy. Physicians should pay more attention to patients' sexual function and fertility during follow up after treatment completed.


Assuntos
Epididimite , Orquite , Tuberculose dos Genitais Masculinos , Adulto , Idoso , Epididimite/tratamento farmacológico , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orquite/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose dos Genitais Masculinos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose dos Genitais Masculinos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose dos Genitais Masculinos/cirurgia
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