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1.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 11, 2022 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35034957

RESUMO

The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and very-low-carbohydrate diet regimen that mimics the metabolism of the fasting state to induce the production of ketone bodies. The KD has long been established as a remarkably successful dietary approach for the treatment of intractable epilepsy and has increasingly garnered research attention rapidly in the past decade, subject to emerging evidence of the promising therapeutic potential of the KD for various diseases, besides epilepsy, from obesity to malignancies. In this review, we summarize the experimental and/or clinical evidence of the efficacy and safety of the KD in different diseases, and discuss the possible mechanisms of action based on recent advances in understanding the influence of the KD at the cellular and molecular levels. We emphasize that the KD may function through multiple mechanisms, which remain to be further elucidated. The challenges and future directions for the clinical implementation of the KD in the treatment of a spectrum of diseases have been discussed. We suggest that, with encouraging evidence of therapeutic effects and increasing insights into the mechanisms of action, randomized controlled trials should be conducted to elucidate a foundation for the clinical use of the KD.

2.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(2): 608-618, 2022 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35075835

RESUMO

In order to understand the applicability of various new receptor models, four receptor models, including the positive matrix factorization/multilinear engine 2-species ratio (PMF/ME2-SR), partial target transformation-positive matrix factorization (PTT-PMF), positive matrix factorization (PMF), and chemical mass balance (CMB), were used to analyze and verify the atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) data of a typical city in northern China. It was found that coal combustion (25%-26%), dust (19%-21%), secondary nitrate (17%-19%), secondary sulfate (16%), vehicle emissions (13%-15%), biomass burning (4%-7%), and steel (1%-2%) had a contribution to PM2.5. By comparing the source profiles and source contributions obtained by different models and calculating the coefficient of differences (CD) and average absolute error (AAE) of each source, we found that although the source apportionment results of the four models were in good agreement (the average CD value was between 0.6 and 0.7), there were still slight differences in the identification of some components in each source. Compared with the traditional model (PMF), the PMF/ME2-SR model can better identify sources with similar source profile characteristics, which is due to the component ratios of sources that are introduced. For example, the CD and AAE of dust sources were 15% and 54% lower than those of PMF, respectively. The PTT-PMF model takes the measured primary source profiles and virtual secondary source profiles as a constraint target, and the calculated CD and AAE of secondary sulfate were 0.25 and 17%, respectively, which were 55% and 23% lower than PMF. The PTT-PMF model can obtain more "pure" secondary sources and identify the pollution sources that are not identified by other models, which has more advantages in the refined identification of sources.

3.
Am J Perinatol ; 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016248

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Meconium is a common finding in amniotic fluid and placental specimens, particularly in term and post-term pregnancies. The objective of this paper was to perform a meta-analysis to examine the impact of endotracheal suctioning on the occurrence of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), mortality, and complications. STUDY DESIGN: PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library were systematically searched for comparative studies. Odds ratios (ORs), weighted mean differences (WMDs), and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to compare the outcomes. RESULTS: Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis. There were no significant impacts of endotracheal suctioning on the occurrence of MAS (OR = 3.05, 95% CI: 0.48-19.56), mortality (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 0.35-4.44), the need for mechanical ventilation (OR = 4.20, 95% CI: 0.32-54.72), the occurrence of pneumothorax (OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.34-2.85), persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 0.58-2.98), hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) (OR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.52-1.30), and length of stay (WMD = -0.11, 95% CI: -0.99-0.77). CONCLUSION: Routine endotracheal suctioning at birth is not useful in preventing MAS, mortality, mechanical ventilation, PPHN, HIE, and prolonged length of stay in neonates born through MSAF. KEY POINTS: · Routine suctioning is not recommended for newborns.. · Endotracheal aspiration is not beneficial for MAS.. · Future research may focus on selected neonates..

4.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118468, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748887

RESUMO

Maternal exposure to PM2.5 has been associated with abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy, but little is known about which constituents and sources are most relevant to glycemic effects. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 1148 pregnant women to investigate associations of PM2.5 chemical components with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and to identify the most harmful sources in Heshan, China from January 2015 to July 2016. We measured PM2.5 using filter-based method and analyzed them for 28 constituents, including carbonaceous species, water-soluble ions and metal elements. Contributions of PM2.5 sources were assessed by positive matrix factorization (PMF). Logistic regression model was used to estimate composition-specific and source-specific effects on GDM/IGT. Random forest algorithm was applied to evaluate the relative importance of components to GDM and IGT. PM2.5 total mass and several chemical constituents were associated with GDM and IGT across the early to mid-gestation periods, as were the PM2.5 sources fossil fuel/oil combustion, road dust, metal smelting, construction dust, electronic waster, vehicular emissions and industrial emissions. The trimester-specific associations differed among pollutants and sources. The third and highest quartile of elemental carbon, ammonium (NH4+), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) across gestation were consistently associated with higher odds of GDM/IGT. Maternal exposures to zinc (Zn), titanium (Ti) and vehicular emissions during the first trimester, and vanadium (V), nickel (Ni), road dust and fossil fuel/oil combustion during the second trimester were more important for GDM/IGT. This study provides important new evidence that maternal exposure to PM2.5 components and sources is significantly related to elevated risk for abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Intolerância à Glucose , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Glicemia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Emissões de Veículos/análise
5.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 31: 99-109, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793302

RESUMO

Remote sensing scene classification (RSSC) is a hotspot and play very important role in the field of remote sensing image interpretation in recent years. With the recent development of the convolutional neural networks, a significant breakthrough has been made in the classification of remote sensing scenes. Many objects form complex and diverse scenes through spatial combination and association, which makes it difficult to classify remote sensing image scenes. The problem of insufficient differentiation of feature representations extracted by Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) still exists, which is mainly due to the characteristics of similarity for inter-class images and diversity for intra-class images. In this paper, we propose a remote sensing image scene classification method via Multi-Branch Local Attention Network (MBLANet), where Convolutional Local Attention Module (CLAM) is embedded into all down-sampling blocks and residual blocks of ResNet backbone. CLAM contains two submodules, Convolutional Channel Attention Module (CCAM) and Local Spatial Attention Module (LSAM). The two submodules are placed in parallel to obtain both channel and spatial attentions, which helps to emphasize the main target in the complex background and improve the ability of feature representation. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets show that our method is better than state-of-the-art methods.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Redes Neurais de Computação
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(23)2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34884439

RESUMO

Glycosylation inactivation is one of the important macrolide resistance mechanisms. The accumulated evidences attributed glycosylation inactivation to a glucosylation modification at the inactivation sites of macrolides. Whether other glycosylation modifications lead to macrolides inactivation is unclear. Herein, we demonstrated that varied glycosylation modifications could cause inactivation of midecamycin, a 16-membered macrolide antibiotic used clinically and agriculturally. Specifically, an actinomycetic glycosyltransferase (GT) OleD was selected for its glycodiversification capacity towards midecamycin. OleD was demonstrated to recognize UDP-D-glucose, UDP-D-xylose, UDP-galactose, UDP-rhamnose and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to yield corresponding midecamycin 2'-O-glycosides, most of which displayed low yields. Protein engineering of OleD was thus performed to improve its conversions towards sugar donors. Q327F was the most favorable variant with seven times the conversion enhancement towards UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. Likewise, Q327A exhibited 30% conversion enhancement towards UDP-D-xylose. Potent biocatalysts for midecamycin glycosylation were thus obtained through protein engineering. Wild OleD, Q327F and Q327A were used as biocatalysts for scale-up preparation of midecamycin 2'-O-glucopyranoside, midecamycin 2'-O-GlcNAc and midecamycin 2'-O-xylopyranoside. In contrast to midecamycin, these midecamycin 2'-O-glycosides displayed no antimicrobial activities. These evidences suggested that besides glucosylation, other glycosylation patterns also could inactivate midecamycin, providing a new inactivation mechanism for midecamycin resistance. Cumulatively, glycosylation inactivation of midecamycin was independent of the type of attached sugar moieties at its inactivation site.

7.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(11): 948-52, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34865332

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of penetrating technique of scalp acupuncture on emotion, sleep and function development in children of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: A total of 60 SAD children aged 3 to 6 years were randomized in a control group (music education rehabilitation,n=30) and an observation group (penetrating technique of scalp acupuncture + music education rehabilitation,n=30). In the two groups, the treatment for 3 months was as 1 course, and 2 courses of treatment were required. Before and after treatment, the changes were observed in childhood autism rating scale (CARS), emotion regulation subscale (ER), children's sleep habits questionnaire (CSHQ) and children autism and psycho-educational profile for autistic and developmentally disabled children (C-PEP-3), separately. RESULTS: Compared with the scores before treatment, CARS score, the score of each subscale of CSHQ, e.g. bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, irregular sleep duration, sleep anxiety, parasomnias and daytime sleepiness as well as the total score of CSHQ were all reduced in children of two groups (P<0.05); and the score of ER and C-PEP-3 were all increased (P<0.05) after 6 months' treatment. Compared with the control group, ER score was increased in 3 and 6 months after treatment (P<0.05), CARS score was reduced (P<0.05) and C-PEP-3 score was increased obviously (P<0.05) 6 months after treatment in the observation group; but the scores of the subscale for night waking and sleep disordered breathing did not changed noticeably (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Penetrating technique of scalp acupuncture improves the emotion and sleep disorder and promotes the function development in ASD children.

8.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 15: 748241, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34867241

RESUMO

Objective: This pilot study aimed to investigate the immediate effects of single-session intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) on the cerebellar vermis during a balance task, which could unveil the changes of cerebral cortical excitability in healthy individuals. Subjects: A total of seven right-handed healthy subjects (26.86 ± 5.30 years) were included in this study. Interventions: Each subject received single-session iTBS on cerebellar vermis in a sitting position. Main Measures: Before and after the intervention, all subjects were asked to repeat the balance task of standing on the left leg three times. Each task consisted of 15 s of standing and 20 s of resting. Real-time changes in cerebral cortex oxygen concentrations were monitored with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). During the task, changes in blood oxygen concentration were recorded and converted into the mean HbO2 for statistical analysis. Results: After stimulation, the mean HbO2 in the left SMA (P = 0.029) and right SMA (P = 0.043) significantly increased compared with baseline. However, no significant changes of mean HbO2 were found in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal lobe (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Single-session iTBS on the cerebellar vermis in healthy adults can increase the excitability of the cerebral cortex in the bilateral supplementary motor areas during balance tasks. Clinical Trial Registration: [www.ClinicalTrials.gov], identifier [ChiCTR2100048915].

10.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 764111, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34901080

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Chromoendoscopy with iodine staining is an important diagnostic method for esophageal carcinomas or precancerous lesions. Unfortunately, iodine staining can be associated with numerous adverse events (AEs). We found that the starting position of spraying iodine solution is likely the main reason of causing AEs. We conducted this work to determine whether clinical outcomes from anterograde iodine staining were superior to those achieved after retrograde iodine staining. Methods: A total of 134 subjects with a health risk appraisal flushing (HRA-F) score of >6 for esophageal cancer were randomly assigned to receive anterograde or retrograde iodine staining in the esophagus. The primary endpoints were the pain and the amount of iodine solution consumption. The secondary endpoints were iodine-staining effect, detection yield, and response to starch indicator. Results: Nine patients suffered from pain and six patients revealed positive response to starch indicator in retrograde iodine-staining group; however, no patient reported pain (0/67) and all patients revealed a negative response to starch indicator in anterograde iodine-staining group. The amount of iodine solution consumption in anterograde iodine-staining group (4.97 mL) was significantly lower than that (6.23 mL) in retrograde iodine-staining group; however, the iodine-staining effect and detection yield were comparable between the two groups. Conclusions: Anterograde iodine staining during Lugol chromoendoscopy appears to be as effective, but significantly safer than retrograde iodine staining.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34958011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) is the most accurate method for preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules, but how to deal with false negative results. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to find preoperative diagnosis methods including Conventional Ultrasound (CUS), Shear Wave Elastography (SWE) and BRAF V600E testing to differentiate false negative nodules. METHODS: Forty-nine nodules in 49 patients with benign FNA results and pathological diagnoses were included. CUS and SWE features were evaluated. BRAF V600E analysis was performed after FNA. Diagnostic performances of three methods were analyzed in predicting malignancy in benign FNA results. RESULTS: Twenty-seven of 49 nodules were malignant, and 22 nodules were benign. Hypoechogenicity, taller-than-wider, irregular boundary, microcalcification, SWE max, SWE mean and BRAF V600E mutation were risk factors for malignancy. All 7 malignant nodules with BRAF V600E mutations and 18 of 20 malignant nodules without BRAF V600E mutations have two or more suspicious CUS features. Six of 7 malignant nodules with BRAF V600E mutations and 16 of 20 malignant nodules without BRAF V600E mutations had SWE mean value greater than the cut-off value. CONCLUSIONS: CUS, SWE and BRAF V600E were diagnostic tools for malignancy in FNA benign nodules. Further clinical decisions should be considered for nodules with 2 or more suspicious CUS features and SWE parameters greater than cut-off values whether BRAF V600E is mutational or not.

12.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 27(3): 231-235, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914305

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and etiology of persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS). METHODS: A 3-year-old boy was diagnosed with PMDS according to the clinical manifestations and the results of ultrasonography, laboratory examinations and earlier surgical examination. We performed genetic tests for the patient and his family members, removed the infantile uterus by laparoscopic wedge hysterectomy, biopsied and descended the bilateral testes, and ligated the bilateral internal rings, followed by a retrospective analysis and review of relevant literature. RESULTS: The operation was successful. Gonad biopsy revealed testis tissue, and PMDS was confirmed by intraoperative findings and related examinations. Good bilateral testicular blood supply was found during the 6-month follow-up after surgery. Medical exome sequencing showed the AMHR2 gene c.1499G > A (p.Cys500Tyr) mutant homozygote (A/A) in the patient and his sister and mutant heterozygote (G/A) in his parents. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopy is definitely effective for the treatment of PMDS. In surgery, the infantile uterus should be removed in case of good blood supply to the testis, and so were the bilateral testes if they cannot be descended. The homozygous mutation in the AMHR2 gene c. 1499G > A (p. Cys500Tyr) can lead to male PMDS. Pedigree investigation may provide some evidence for possible fertility in PMDS patients.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Pré-Escolar , Transtorno 46,XY do Desenvolvimento Sexual , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Genes Environ ; 43(1): 57, 2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34915934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Workers in electronics manufacturers may be exposed to various occupational hazards such as isopropanol, lead, and noise. Telomeres are special segments of cap-like DNA protein complex at end of liner chromosomes in eukaryotic cells. Telomere length is a potential marker of genetic damage. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of occupational hazards on the relative telomere length (rTL) of peripheral blood cells of workers in an electronics manufacturer, and to explore whether relative telomere length could be a biomarker for assessing genetic damage in the electronics manufacturing industry. METHODS: We investigated a large-scale electronics manufacturer in the Pearl River Delta Region. We ultimately collected 699 qualified workers (248 with isopropanol exposure, 182 with lead exposure, 157 with noise exposure, and 112 controls). During physical examination of the workers, we gave them questionnaires to understand their health statuses and living habits. We also collected peripheral blood samples from these workers to test exposure levels and rTL in the leucocytes. RESULTS: The concentrations of air isopropanol in all monitored workshops was 25.3 mg/m3 and air lead smoke was 0.020 mg/m3. The maximum equivalent continuous A sound level noise exposure position was 82.2dB (A). All were lower than those in the Occupational Exposure Limits in Workplaces in China. Urinary acetone in the isopropanol exposed group was 1.04 (0, 1.50) mg/L, and cumulative urinary acetone was 1.48 (0, 5.09) mg-years/L. Blood lead levels (BLLs) were 28.57 (22.77, 37.06) µg/dL, and cumulative blood lead levels (CBLLs) were 92.75 (55.47, 165.13) µg-years/dL. rTL was different between occupational exposed workers and controls: rTL was 0.140 units (95 % CI: 0.022, 0.259) shorter in lead exposed workers and 0.467 units (95 % CI: 0.276-0.658) shorter in noise exposed workers compared to the controls. There is no statistical difference in rTL between isopropanol exposure workers and the controls. In order to elucidate the relationship between rTL and occupational hazards exposure, we divided the isopropanol exposure workers into three groups (0, ~1.43 mg/L, and >1.43 mg/L). None of the rTL difference was statistically significant among exposed workers at different uroacetone levels (P>0.05). The groups with ≥100 µg/dL blood lead had shorter rTL than the group with blood lead below 100 µg/dL (F=4.422, P=0.013). We incorporated age, gender, birthplace, race, education level, smoking, and alcohol consumption into the linear regression equation. Only blood lead concentration (X) was entered into the regression equation, yielding a multivariate linear regression equation of Y=0.397-0.124X (F=8.091, P=0.005). Workers with different hearing loss also had statistically significant differences in rTL (F=5.731, P=0.004). rTL was a protective factor for the occurrence of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The longer the rTL, the lower the risk of NIHL [OR=0.64 (0.42, 0.98)]. CONCLUSIONS: rTL was shorter in lead exposed workers and noise exposed workers, and it was a protective factor for the occurrence of the noise-induced hearing loss. Thus, rTL of peripheral blood may be a sensitive marker of genetic damage among workers in environments with lead and noise exposure.

14.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 27(6): 489-498, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914287

RESUMO

Objective: To identify the key genes associated with the pathogenesis of PCa using the bioinformatics approach for a deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the development and progression of PCa. METHODS: The microarray datasets GSE70770, GSE32571 and GSE46602 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and differentially expressed genes (DEG) in the normal prostate tissue and PCa were identified with the GEO2R tool, followed by functional enrichment analysis. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of DEGs was constructed by STRING and visualized with the Cytoscape software. RESULTS: A total of 235 DEGs were identified, including 61 up-regulated and 174 down-regulated genes, which were mainly enriched in focal adhesion kinase (FAK), ECM-receptor interaction, and other signaling pathways. From the PPI network were screened out 12 highly connected hub genes, including MYH11, TPM1, TPM2, SMTN, MYL9, VCL, ACTG1, CNN1, CALD1, ACTC1, MYLK and SORBS1, which were shown by hierarchical cluster analysis to be capable of distinguishing prostate cancer from non-cancer tissue. CONCLUSIONS: A total of 235 DEGs and 12 hub genes were identified in this study, which may contribute to a further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the development and progression of PCa, and provide new candidate targets for the diagnosis and treatment of the malignancy.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21871, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750490

RESUMO

Derived from the most abundant natural polymer, cellulose nanocrystal materials have attracted attention in recent decades due to their chemical and mechanical properties. However, still unclear is the influence of different exposed facets of the cellulose nanocrystals on the physicochemical properties. Herein, we first designed cellulose II nanocrystals with different exposed facets, the hydroxymethyl conformations distribution, hydrogen bond (HB) analysis, as well as the relative structural stability of these models (including crystal facets {A, B, O} and Type-A models vary in size) are theoretically investigated. The results reveal that the HB network of terminal anhydroglucose depends on the adjacent chain's contact sites in nanocrystals exposed with different facets. Compared to nanocrystals exposed with inclined facet, these exposed with flat facet tend to be the most stable. Therefore, the strategy of tuning exposed crystal facets will guide the design of novel cellulose nanocrystals with various physicochemical properties.

17.
Indoor Air ; 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738663

RESUMO

Indoor air pollution is a recognized risk factor for a range of negative health outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the association between maternal prenatal exposure to indoor air pollution and the presence of autistic-like behaviors among preschool children. Data were obtained from the Longhua Child Cohort Study in 2017, in which we enrolled a total of 65 317 preschool children. Associations between maternal exposure to four sources of indoor air pollution (e.g., cooking, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), mosquito coils, and home decoration) during pregnancy and preschool children's autistic traits were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Our results showed that maternal exposure to indoor air pollution from four different sources during pregnancy was associated with the presence of children's autistic-like behaviors. There was dose-response relationship between the accumulative exposure to the four different indoor air pollution sources and the risk of autistic-like behaviors. Furthermore, we found a significant additive interaction between prenatal exposure to both cooking and mosquito coil incense on the risk of autistic-like behaviors. Maternal prenatal exposure to the indoor air pollution from four sources might increase with the risk of autistic-like behaviors being present among preschool children, with an additive interaction effect between some pollution sources.

18.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-14, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818948

RESUMO

The bidirectional associations between parenting styles and conduct problems in Chinese children attending preschools were rarely discussed. A study covering 171 preschools in Longhua District of Shenzhen, China was conducted among children when they first attended preschools. Parents of children reported the self-perceived parenting styles and their children's conduct problems using validated questionnaires. The bidirectional associations between parenting styles and conduct problems in children were assessed using multivariate linear or logistic regressions in both cross-sectional and cohort settings. In cross-sectional settings, the bidirectional associations were present in all dimensions of parenting styles with children's conduct problems. After 1.01 years of follow-up, increases in parenting dimensions of rejection, control attempts, and favoring subject were significantly associated with children's conduct problems at follow-up, while increases in emotional warmth of parents significantly reduced such risk. In addition, parents of children who had conduct problems at baseline but regressed to normal at follow-up showed decreased scores in negative parenting dimensions. In contrast, among children who developed conduct problems during the study period, the scores of rejection and favoring subject in their parents have increased significantly, while the scores of emotional warmth have decreased. Parent-to-child effect was similar between fathers and mothers, while child-to-parent effect was stronger in fathers than that in mothers. In order to stop the negative feedback loop between poor parenting styles and children's conduct problems, our study underscored the importance of intervention not only in parents but also in their children.

20.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 398, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795206

RESUMO

Given that only a subset of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) benefit from immune checkpoint therapy, efforts are ongoing to identify markers that predict immunotherapeutic response. Increasing evidence suggests that microbes influence the efficacy of cancer therapies. Fusobacterium nucleatum induces different immune responses in CRC with different microsatellite-instability (MSI) statuses. Here, we investigated the effect of F. nucleatum on anti-PD-L1 therapy in CRC. We found that high F. nucleatum levels correlate with improved therapeutic responses to PD-1 blockade in patients with CRC. Additionally, F. nucleatum enhanced the antitumor effects of PD-L1 blockade on CRC in mice and prolonged survival. Combining F. nucleatum supplementation with immunotherapy rescued the therapeutic effects of PD-L1 blockade. Furthermore, F. nucleatum induced PD-L1 expression by activating STING signaling and increased the accumulation of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)+ CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) during treatment with PD-L1 blockade, thereby augmenting tumor sensitivity to PD-L1 blockade. Finally, patient-derived organoid models demonstrated that increased F. nucleatum levels correlated with an improved therapeutic response to PD-L1 blockade. These findings suggest that F. nucleatum may modulate immune checkpoint therapy for CRC.

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