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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150284, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537711

RESUMO

Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is a traditional pretreatment procedure widely used for dissolved organic matter (DOM) desalination and enrichment prior to the Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) analysis, and the extracts are usually acidified to pH = 2 with hydrochloric acid (HCl) before passing through the cartridge. However, little is known about the effects of acidification on the integrity and molecular composition of DOM. Here, the differences in the molecular compositions in acidified and nonacidified DOM samples of soil, seawater and atmospheric aerosol were performed by FT-ICR MS. The results showed that the quantity and intensity of aromatic compounds with high oxygen content (e.g., polyphenols, tannin-like and highly oxygenated organic compounds) were greatly enhanced after acidification, while highly saturated compounds (lipid-like and aliphatic/peptide-like) were absent. The underlying reason is the variation of solubility and hydrolysis of DOM under acidic conditions. Meanwhile, the effect of acidification on the molecular composition of DOM was also dependent on their original environmental media. Based on these results, we suggest that the extracts of soil samples are selectively acidified according to the focus of research, while the extract is acidified for seawater samples and the pH of the extract can be unadjusted for aerosol samples before the SPE procedure. These findings provide a reference for the selection of suitable pretreatment methods for different experimental purposes and for the comprehensive characterization of samples with different properties.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos , Extração em Fase Sólida , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Espectrometria de Massas , Solo
2.
Elife ; 102021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34821551

RESUMO

Background: Transmission of respiratory pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2 depends on patterns of contact and mixing across populations. Understanding this is crucial to predict pathogen spread and the effectiveness of control efforts. Most analyses of contact patterns to date have focussed on high-income settings.Methods: Here, we conduct a systematic review and individual-participant meta-analysis of surveys carried out in low- and middle-income countries and compare patterns of contact in these settings to surveys previously carried out in high-income countries. Using individual-level data from 28,503 participants and 413,069 contacts across 27 surveys we explored how contact characteristics (number, location, duration and whether physical) vary across income settings.Results: Contact rates declined with age in high- and upper-middle-income settings, but not in low-income settings, where adults aged 65+ made similar numbers of contacts as younger individuals and mixed with all age-groups. Across all settings, increasing household size was a key determinant of contact frequency and characteristics, with low-income settings characterised by the largest, most intergenerational households. A higher proportion of contacts were made at home in low-income settings, and work/school contacts were more frequent in high-income strata. We also observed contrasting effects of gender across income-strata on the frequency, duration and type of contacts individuals made.Conclusions: These differences in contact patterns between settings have material consequences for both spread of respiratory pathogens, as well as the effectiveness of different non-pharmaceutical interventions.Funding: This work is primarily being funded by joint Centre funding from the UK Medical Research Council and DFID (MR/R015600/1).

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(46): e27195, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is the most common disease in the world, which lead the patients to suffer the disability both physically and psychologically. The chronic pain can affects the patients to work, socialize, sleep and can lead to depressive illness, decreased motivation, and a reduction in physical activity. Acupuncture is a promising treatment for the chronic pain which has a long history of use in China. This protocol aims to assess the effectiveness and safety of touching periosteum acupuncture therapy on patients with chronic pain. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial literatures which include touching periosteum acupuncture therapy for treating chronic pain will be searched from 8 electronic databases including China Biology Medicine disc, VIP database, WanFang database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Excerpt Medical Database, and Web of Science. The language will be restricted to Chinese and English. The primary outcome is to measure the relief of the pain by Visual Analogue Scale. Two or 3 reviewers will conduct the study selection, data extraction and the evaluation of the risk of bias. RevMan software (V.5.3) will be used to perform the assessment of the risk of bias and data synthesis. RESULTS: From this study, we will confirm the effectiveness of safety of in the treatment of chronic pain. CONCLUSIONS: We will ascertain the effectiveness of safety of touching periosteum acupuncture therapy in the treatment of chronic pain, to provide evidence to guide touching periosteum acupuncture therapy for patients with chronic pain in the future. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval will not be necessary, because the included publications in our study are all from published articles. This systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal or conference report to provide a reference in this field. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CRD42021243387.

5.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689211

RESUMO

Fluoroscopy-induced chronic radiation dermatitis (FICRD) is a complication of fluoroscopy-guided intervention. Unlike acute radiation dermatitis, FICRD is different as delayed onset and usually appears without preexisting acute dermatitis. Unfortunately, the chronic and progressive pathology of FICRD makes it difficult to treat, and some patients need to receive wide excision and reconstruction surgery. Due to lack of standard treatment, investigating underlying mechanism is needed in order to develop an effective therapy. Herein, the Hippo pathway is specifically identified using an RNA-seq analysis in mild damaged skin specimens of patients with FICRD. Furthermore, specific increase of the Yes-associated protein (YAP1), an effector of the Hippo pathway, in skin region with mild damage plays a protective role for keratinocytes via positively regulating the numerous downstream genes involved in different biological processes. Interestingly, irradiated-keratinocytes inhibit activation of fibroblasts under TGF-ß1 treatment via remote control by an exosome containing YAP1. More importantly, targeting one of YAP1 downstream genes, nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 1 (NR3C1), which encodes glucocorticoid receptor, has revealed its therapeutic potential to treat FICRD by inhibiting fibroblasts activation in vitro and preventing formation of radiation ulcers in a mouse model and in patients with FICRD. Taken together, this translational research demonstrates the critical role of YAP1 in FICRD and identification of a feasible, effective therapy for patients with FICRD. KEY MESSAGES: • YAP1 overexpression in skin specimens of radiation dermatitis from FICRD patient. • Radiation-induced YAP1 expression plays protective roles by promoting DNA damage repair and inhibiting fibrosis via remote control of exosomal YAP1. • YAP1 positively regulates NR3C1 which encodes glucocorticoid receptor expression. • Targeting glucocorticoid receptor by prednisolone has therapeutic potential for FICRD patient.

6.
Am J Transl Res ; 13(8): 9143-9151, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34540029

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to survey the prevalence of delirium in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and explore the associated risk factors. DESIGN: A retrospective case-control study. SETTING: Two PICUs within a tertiary-A general hospital. PATIENTS: Patients aged from 1 month to 7 years who stayed in either PICU for at least 1 day were included. METHODS: A total of 639 patients admitted to PICU of a tertiary-A general hospital from December 2018 to August 2019 were enrolled. Demographic, clinical, laboratory data and length of stay in the PICU were collected. The patients were screened twice a day with the Chinese version of Cornell Assessment of Pediatric Delirium (CAPD), and were divided into the delirium group and the non-delirium group. A risk factor analysis was conducted, with ICU pediatric delirium as primary outcome, by performing a multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 639 patients, the prevalence of ICU pediatric delirium was 31.30%. Of the 200 children with delirium across 3703 study days, 36% children were hyperactive, 41% were hypoactive, and 23% displayed the mixed type of delirium. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, PRISM IV score (OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.42-3.41), hypoxia (OR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.53-4.71), metabolic dis-function (OR, 3.73; 95% CI, 2.08-6.71), duration of infection (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.10-1.36), and mechanical ventilation (OR, 3.78; 95% CI, 2.25-6.35) were statistically correlated with ICU pediatric delirium. The ROC curve analysis shows the combination CRP with duration of infection has good predictive performance. CONCLUSIONS: Age, PRISM IV score, ICU retention time, metabolic dis-function, duration of infection, hypoxia, CRP and mechanical ventilation were the independent risk factors for ICU pediatric delirium. We suggest that active preventive measures should be taken to reduce the occurrence of ICU pediatric delirium.

7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112558, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333383

RESUMO

Telomeres are functional complexes at the ends of linear chromosomes, and telomerase aids in their maintenance and replication. Additionally, accumulating evidence suggests that telomerase-associated protein 1 (TEP1) is a component of the telomerase ribonucleoprotein complex and is responsible for catalyzing the addition of new synthetic telomere sequences to chromosome ends. In our previous study, we found that genetic variants of the TERT gene participated in the regulation of telomere length. Exposure to particulate matter, environmental pollutants, oxidative stress, and pesticides is associated with shortening of telomere length. However, it is unknown whether genetic variants in the TEP1 gene may affect telomere length (TL) in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-exposed workers. Therefore, we measured the peripheral leukocyte TL and genotyped the polymorphism loci in the TEP1 gene among 544 PAH-exposed workers and 238 healthy controls. Covariance analysis showed that the individuals carrying TEP1 rs1760903 CC and TEP1 rs1760904 TT had longer TL in the control group (P < 0.05). In the generalized linear model, we found that rs1760903 CC was a protective factor against TL shortening, and PAH exposure could promote telomere shortening (P < 0.05). Thus, this study reinforces the roles of environmental factors and genetic variations in telomere damage, and provides a theoretical foundation for the early detection of susceptible populations and the establishment of occupational standards.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Telomerase , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Telomerase/genética , Telômero/genética , Encurtamento do Telômero
8.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 131(3): 986-996, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323594

RESUMO

Aerosolized adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) induces cough and bronchoconstriction by activating vagal sensory fibers' P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors (P2X3R and P2X2/3R). The goal of this study is to determine the effect of these receptors on the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN)-mediated cardiorespiratory responses to ATP challenge. We compared the cardiorespiratory responses to intralaryngeal perfusion of either ATP or α,ß-methylene ATP in rat pups before and after 1) intralaryngeal perfusion of A-317491 (a P2X3R and P2X2/3R antagonist); 2) bilateral section of the SLN; and 3) peri-SLN treatment with capsaicin (to block conduction in superior laryngeal C-fibers, SLCFs) or A-317491. The immunoreactivity (IR) of P2X3R and P2X2R was determined in laryngeal sensory neurons of the nodose/jugular ganglia. Lastly, a whole cell patch clamp recording was used to determine ATP- or α,ß-methylene ATP (α,ß-mATP)-induced currents without and with A-317491 treatment. It was found that intralaryngeal perfusion of both ATP and α,ß-mATP induced immediate apnea, hypertension, and bradycardia. The apnea was eliminated and the hypertension and bradycardia were blunted by intralaryngeal perfusion of A-317491 and peri-SLN treatment with either A-317491 or capsaicin, although all of the cardiorespiratory responses were abolished by bilateral section of the SLN. P2X3R- and P2X2R-IR were observed in nodose and jugular ganglionic neurons labeled by fluoro-gold (FG). ATP- and α,ß-mATP-induced currents recorded in laryngeal C-neurons were reduced by 75% and 95%, respectively, by the application of A-317491. It is concluded that in anesthetized rat pups, the cardiorespiratory responses to intralaryngeal perfusion of either ATP or α,ß-mATP are largely mediated by the activation of SLCFs' P2X3R-P2X2/3R.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Aerosolized ATP induces cough and bronchoconstriction via activating P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors (P2X3R and P2X2/3R) localized on vagal pulmonary sensory fibers. The superior laryngeal nerve (SLN), particularly SLN C-fibers (SLCFs), is involved in generating apnea, hypertension, and bradycardia. This study demonstrates for the first time that either ATP or α,ß-mATP applied onto the laryngeal mucosa elicit these cardiorespiratory responses predominately through the activation of P2X3R-P2X2/3R localized on SLCFs.


Assuntos
Apneia , Receptores Purinérgicos P2 , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Animais , Nervos Laríngeos , Fibras Nervosas Amielínicas , Ratos , Células Receptoras Sensoriais
9.
medRxiv ; 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159341

RESUMO

Background: Transmission of respiratory pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2 depends on patterns of contact and mixing across populations. Understanding this is crucial to predict pathogen spread and the effectiveness of control efforts. Most analyses of contact patterns to date have focussed on high-income settings. Methods: Here, we conduct a systematic review and individual-participant meta-analysis of surveys carried out in low- and middle-income countries and compare patterns of contact in these settings to surveys previously carried out in high-income countries. Using individual-level data from 28,503 participants and 413,069 contacts across 27 surveys we explored how contact characteristics (number, location, duration and whether physical) vary across income settings. Results: Contact rates declined with age in high- and upper-middle-income settings, but not in low-income settings, where adults aged 65+ made similar numbers of contacts as younger individuals and mixed with all age-groups. Across all settings, increasing household size was a key determinant of contact frequency and characteristics, but low-income settings were characterised by the largest, most intergenerational households. A higher proportion of contacts were made at home in low-income settings, and work/school contacts were more frequent in high-income strata. We also observed contrasting effects of gender across income-strata on the frequency, duration and type of contacts individuals made. Conclusions: These differences in contact patterns between settings have material consequences for both spread of respiratory pathogens, as well as the effectiveness of different non-pharmaceutical interventions. Funding: This work is primarily being funded by joint Centre funding from the UK Medical Research Council and DFID (MR/R015600/1).

10.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(33): 18289-18294, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111327

RESUMO

The hydrogenation of sequestrated CO2 to methanol can reduce CO2 emission and establish a sustainable carbon circuit. However, the transformation of CO2 into methanol is challenging because of the thermodynamic equilibrium limitation and the deactivation of catalysts by water. In the present work, different reactor types have been evaluated for CO2 catalytic hydrogenation to methanol. Best results have been obtained in a bifunctional catalytic membrane reactor (CMR) based on a zeolite LTA membrane and a catalytic Cu-ZnO-Al2 O3 -ZrO2 layer on top. Due to the in situ and rapid removal of the produced water from the catalytic layer through the hydrophilic zeolite LTA membrane, it is effective to break the thermodynamic equilibrium limitation, thus significantly increasing the CO2 conversion (36.1 %) and methanol selectivity (100 %). Further, the catalyst deactivation by the produced water can be effectively inhibited, thus maintaining a high long-term activity of the CMR.

11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(7): 1802-1810, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152948

RESUMO

To access temporal changes in psychobehavioral responses to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, we conducted a 5-round (R1-R5) longitudinal population-based online survey in Hong Kong during January-September 2020. Most respondents reported wearing masks (R1 99.0% to R5 99.8%) and performing hand hygiene (R1 95.8% to R5 97.7%). Perceived COVID-19 severity decreased significantly, from 97.4% (R1) to 77.2% (R5), but perceived self-susceptibility remained high (87.2%-92.8%). Female sex and anxiety were associated with greater adoption of social distancing. Intention to receive COVID-19 vaccines decreased significantly (R4 48.7% to R5 37.6%). Greater anxiety, confidence in vaccine, and collective responsibility and weaker complacency were associated with higher tendency to receive COVID-19 vaccines. Although its generalizability should be assumed with caution, this study helps to formulate health communication strategies and foretells the initial low uptake rate of COVID-19 vaccines, suggesting that social distancing should be maintained in the medium term.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(20): 7868-7875, 2021 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974798

RESUMO

The first synthesis of highly strained spirocyclobutane-pyrrolines via a palladium-catalyzed tandem Narasaka-Heck/C(sp3 or sp2)-H activation reaction is reported here. The key step in this transformation is the activation of a δ-C-H bond via an in situ generated σ-alkyl-Pd(II) species to form a five-membered spiro-palladacycle intermediate. The concerted metalation-deprotonation (CMD) process, rate-determining step, and energy barrier of the entire reaction were explored by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Moreover, a series of control experiments was conducted to probe the rate-determining step and reversibility of the C(sp3)-H activation step.

13.
Health Commun ; : 1-10, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947309

RESUMO

Work-family balance has received meaningful attention from researchers and practitioners alike. Work and family are usually seen as two separate domains that are interdependent, with boundaries that have some level of permeability. Crisis situations can alter permeability of these boundaries, enhancing integration of the two domains due to exchange of ideas and spillover of concerns between these domains. This study looks at how these boundaries are impacted for nurses working directly with COVID-19 patients. The study conducted 24 semi-structured interviews with nurses. Through a thematic analysis the study found that the work-family boundaries have blurred due to concerns around the contagiousness and anxiety associated with the virus. In order to cope with these spillover and possible crossover effects, nurses use prosocial distortion and avoidance and create sub-boundaries at home.

14.
Respirology ; 26(4): 322-333, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690946

RESUMO

COVID-19 has hit the world by surprise, causing substantial mortality and morbidity since 2020. This narrative review aims to provide an overview of the epidemiology, induced impact, viral kinetics and clinical spectrum of COVID-19 in the Asia-Pacific Region, focusing on regions previously exposed to outbreaks of coronavirus. COVID-19 progressed differently by regions, with some (such as China and Taiwan) featured by one to two epidemic waves and some (such as Hong Kong and South Korea) featured by multiple waves. There has been no consensus on the estimates of important epidemiological time intervals or proportions, such that using them for making inferences should be done with caution. Viral loads of patients with COVID-19 peak in the first week of illness around days 2 to 4 and hence there is very high transmission potential causing community outbreaks. Various strategies such as government-guided and suppress-and-lift strategies, trigger-based/suppression approaches and alert systems have been employed to guide the adoption and easing of control measures. Asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic transmission is a hallmark of COVID-19. Identification and isolation of symptomatic patients alone is not effective in controlling the ongoing outbreaks. However, early, prompt and coordinated enactment predisposed regions to successful disease containment. Mass COVID-19 vaccinations are likely to be the light at the end of the tunnel. There is a need to review what we have learnt in this pandemic and examine how to transfer and improve existing knowledge for ongoing and future epidemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , SARS-CoV-2 , Ásia/epidemiologia , Australásia/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Defesa Civil/organização & administração , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia
15.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(4): e26645, 2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has plagued the globe, with multiple SARS-CoV-2 clusters hinting at its evolving epidemiology. Since the disease course is governed by important epidemiological parameters, including containment delays (time between symptom onset and mandatory isolation) and serial intervals (time between symptom onsets of infector-infectee pairs), understanding their temporal changes helps to guide interventions. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to characterize the epidemiology of the first two epidemic waves of COVID-19 in Hong Kong by doing the following: (1) estimating the containment delays, serial intervals, effective reproductive number (Rt), and proportion of asymptomatic cases; (2) identifying factors associated with the temporal changes of the containment delays and serial intervals; and (3) depicting COVID-19 transmission by age assortativity and types of social settings. METHODS: We retrieved the official case series and the Apple mobility data of Hong Kong from January-August 2020. The empirical containment delays and serial intervals were fitted to theoretical distributions, and factors associated with their temporal changes were quantified in terms of percentage contribution (the percentage change in the predicted outcome from multivariable regression models relative to a predefined comparator). Rt was estimated with the best fitted distribution for serial intervals. RESULTS: The two epidemic waves were characterized by imported cases and clusters of local cases, respectively. Rt peaked at 2.39 (wave 1) and 3.04 (wave 2). The proportion of asymptomatic cases decreased from 34.9% (0-9 years) to 12.9% (≥80 years). Log-normal distribution best fitted the 1574 containment delays (mean 5.18 [SD 3.04] days) and the 558 serial intervals (17 negative; mean 4.74 [SD 4.24] days). Containment delays decreased with involvement in a cluster (percentage contribution: 10.08%-20.73%) and case detection in the public health care sector (percentage contribution: 27.56%, 95% CI 22.52%-32.33%). Serial intervals decreased over time (6.70 days in wave 1 versus 4.35 days in wave 2) and with tertiary transmission or beyond (percentage contribution: -50.75% to -17.31%), but were lengthened by mobility (percentage contribution: 0.83%). Transmission within the same age band was high (18.1%). Households (69.9%) and social settings (20.3%) were where transmission commonly occurred. CONCLUSIONS: First, the factors associated with reduced containment delays suggested government-enacted interventions were useful for achieving outbreak control and should be further encouraged. Second, the shorter serial intervals associated with the composite mobility index calls for empirical surveys to disentangle the role of different contact dimensions in disease transmission. Third, the presymptomatic transmission and asymptomatic cases underscore the importance of remaining vigilant about COVID-19. Fourth, the time-varying epidemiological parameters suggest the need to incorporate their temporal variations when depicting the epidemic trajectory. Fifth, the high proportion of transmission events occurring within the same age group supports the ban on gatherings outside of households, and underscores the need for residence-centered preventive measures.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Adulto , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano
16.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246375, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529249

RESUMO

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-induced coughs in vivo and vagal nerve depolarization in vitro are inhibited by systemic and local administration of prostaglandin EP3 receptor (L-798106) and TRPV1 antagonists (JNJ 17203212). These results indicate a modulating effect of TRPV1 on the EP3 receptor-mediated cough responses to PGE2 likely through the vagal sensory nerve. This study aimed to determine whether 1) inhalation of aerosolized JNJ 17203212 and L-798106 affected cough responses to citric acid (CA, mainly stimulating TRPV1) and PGE2; 2) TRPV1 and EP3 receptor morphologically are co-expressed and electrophysiologically functioned in the individual of vagal pulmonary C-neurons (cell bodies of bronchopulmonary C-fibers in the nodose/jugular ganglia); and 3) there was a cross-effect of TRPV1 and EP3 receptor on these neural excitations. To this end, aerosolized CA or PGE2 was inhaled by unanesthetized guinea pigs pretreated without or with each antagonist given in aerosol form. Immunofluorescence was applied to identify the co-expression of TRPV1 and EP3 receptor in vagal pulmonary C-neurons (retrogradely traced by DiI). Whole-cell voltage patch clamp approach was used to detect capsaicin (CAP)- and PGE2-induced currents in individual vagal pulmonary C-neurons and determine the effects of the TRPV1 and EP3 receptor antagonists on the evoked currents. We found that PGE2-induced cough was attenuated by JNJ 17203212 or L-798106 and CA-evoked cough greatly suppressed only by JNJ 17203212. Approximately 1/4 of vagal pulmonary C-neurons co-expressed EP3 with a cell size < 20 µm. Both CAP- and PGE2-induced currents could be recorded in the individuals of some vagal pulmonary C-neurons. The former was largely inhibited only by JNJ 17203212, while the latter was suppressed by JNJ 17203212 or L-798106. The similarity of the cross-effect of both antagonists on cough and vagal pulmonary C-neural activity suggests that a subgroup of vagal pulmonary C-neurons co-expressing TRPV1 and EP3 receptor is, at least in part, responsible for the cough response to PGE2.


Assuntos
Brônquios/metabolismo , Tosse/metabolismo , Fibras Nervosas Amielínicas/metabolismo , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP3/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Animais , Capsaicina , Ácido Cítrico/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Dinoprostona , Cobaias , Ativação do Canal Iônico/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Fibras Nervosas Amielínicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Gânglio Nodoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Ventilação Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP3/antagonistas & inibidores , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/antagonistas & inibidores , Nervo Vago/efeitos dos fármacos , Nervo Vago/metabolismo
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e23231, 2021 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the public health responses to previous respiratory disease pandemics, and in the absence of treatments and vaccines, the mitigation of the COVID-19 pandemic relies on population engagement in nonpharmaceutical interventions. This engagement is largely driven by risk perception, anxiety levels, and knowledge, as well as by historical exposure to disease outbreaks, government responses, and cultural factors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to compare psychobehavioral responses in Hong Kong and the United Kingdom during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Comparable cross-sectional surveys were administered to adults in Hong Kong and the United Kingdom during the early phase of the epidemic in each setting. Explanatory variables included demographics, risk perception, knowledge of COVID-19, anxiety level, and preventive behaviors. Responses were weighted according to census data. Logistic regression models, including effect modification to quantify setting differences, were used to assess the association between the explanatory variables and the adoption of social distancing measures. RESULTS: Data from 3431 complete responses (Hong Kong, 1663; United Kingdom, 1768) were analyzed. Perceived severity of symptoms differed by setting, with weighted percentages of 96.8% for Hong Kong (1621/1663) and 19.9% for the United Kingdom (366/1768). A large proportion of respondents were abnormally or borderline anxious (Hong Kong: 1077/1603, 60.0%; United Kingdom: 812/1768, 46.5%) and regarded direct contact with infected individuals as the transmission route of COVID-19 (Hong Kong: 94.0%-98.5%; United Kingdom: 69.2%-93.5%; all percentages weighted), with Hong Kong identifying additional routes. Hong Kong reported high levels of adoption of various social distancing measures (Hong Kong: 32.6%-93.7%; United Kingdom: 17.6%-59.0%) and mask-wearing (Hong Kong: 98.8% (1647/1663); United Kingdom: 3.1% (53/1768)). The impact of perceived severity of symptoms and perceived ease of transmission of COVID-19 on the adoption of social distancing measures varied by setting. In Hong Kong, these factors had no impact, whereas in the United Kingdom, those who perceived their symptom severity as "high" were more likely to adopt social distancing (adjusted odds ratios [aORs] 1.58-3.01), and those who perceived transmission as "easy" were prone to adopt both general social distancing (aOR 2.00, 95% CI 1.57-2.55) and contact avoidance (aOR 1.80, 95% CI 1.41-2.30). The impact of anxiety on adopting social distancing did not vary by setting. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that health officials should ascertain baseline levels of risk perception and knowledge in populations, as well as prior sensitization to infectious disease outbreaks, during the development of mitigation strategies. Risk should be communicated through suitable media channels-and trust should be maintained-while early intervention remains the cornerstone of effective outbreak response.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Opinião Pública , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/psicologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
R Soc Open Sci ; 8(1): 201805, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33614099

RESUMO

American foulbrood (AFB) disease and chalkbrood disease (CBD) are important bacterial and fungal diseases, respectively, that affect honeybee broods. Exposure to agrochemicals is an abiotic stressor that potentially weakens honeybee colonies. Gut microflora alterations in adult honeybees associated with these biotic and abiotic factors have been investigated. However, microbial compositions in AFB- and CBD-infected larvae and the profile of whole-body microbiota in foraging bees exposed to agrochemicals have not been fully studied. In this study, bacterial and fungal communities in healthy and diseased (AFB/CBD) honeybee larvae were characterized by amplicon sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer1 region, respectively. The bacterial and fungal communities in disordered foraging bees poisoned by agrochemicals were analysed. Our results revealed that healthy larvae were significantly enriched in bacterial genera Lactobacillus and Stenotrophomonas and the fungal genera Alternaria and Aspergillus. The enrichment of these microorganisms, which had antagonistic activities against the etiologic agents for AFB and CBD, respectively, may protect larvae from potential infection. In disordered foraging bees, the relative abundance of bacterial genus Gilliamella and fungal species Cystofilobasidium macerans were significantly reduced, which may compromise hosts' capacities in nutrient absorption and immune defence against pathogens. Significantly higher frequency of environmentally derived fungi was observed in disordered foraging bees, which reflected the perturbed microbiota communities of hosts. Results from PICRUSt and FUNGuild analyses revealed significant differences in gene clusters of bacterial communities and fungal function profiles. Overall, results of this study provide references for the composition and function of microbial communities in AFB- and CBD-infected honeybee larvae and foraging bees exposed to agrochemicals.

19.
Org Lett ; 23(3): 751-756, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474937

RESUMO

A copper-catalyzed radical cross-coupling of oxime esters and activated alkenes is accomplished for the synthesis of cyanoalkylsulfonylated oxindoles and cyanoalkyl amides via an aryl migration strategy. Specifically, the subsequent mechanism research indicates that the unique desulfonylation and sulfone addition processes were involved in the transformation. This transformation is identified as having good functional group applicability with two different quaternary stereocenter in a regioselective manner, which is controlled by the substituent group of the nitrogen.

20.
Org Lett ; 23(3): 786-791, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464916

RESUMO

This report describes the first application of a cyclobutanol ring-opening procedure in the Catellani termination reaction, which includes two ß-carbon elimination processes. This tandem reaction features mild conditions, high yields, good functional group tolerance, and a broad substrate scope. Meanwhile, four types of electrophiles (N-benzoyloxyamines, alkyl iodides, aryl bromides, and benzyl chlorides) are quite compatible with this termination reaction for the construction of various types of polysubstituted aromatic hydrocarbons.

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