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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(20)2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941644

RESUMO

How coniferous forests evolved in the Northern Hemisphere remains largely unknown. Unlike most groups of organisms that generally follow a latitudinal diversity gradient, most conifer species in the Northern Hemisphere are distributed in mountainous areas at middle latitudes. It is of great interest to know whether the midlatitude region has been an evolutionary cradle or museum for conifers and how evolutionary and ecological factors have driven their spatiotemporal evolution. Here, we investigated the macroevolution of Pinus, the largest conifer genus and characteristic of northern temperate coniferous forests, based on nearly complete species sampling. Using 1,662 genes from transcriptome sequences, we reconstructed a robust species phylogeny and reestimated divergence times of global pines. We found that ∼90% of extant pine species originated in the Miocene in sharp contrast to the ancient origin of Pinus, indicating a Neogene rediversification. Surprisingly, species at middle latitudes are much older than those at other latitudes. This finding, coupled with net diversification rate analysis, indicates that the midlatitude region has provided an evolutionary museum for global pines. Analyses of 31 environmental variables, together with a comparison of evolutionary rates of niche and phenotypic traits with a net diversification rate, found that topography played a primary role in pine diversification, and the aridity index was decisive for the niche rate shift. Moreover, fire has forced diversification and adaptive evolution of Pinus Our study highlights the importance of integrating phylogenomic and ecological approaches to address evolution of biological groups at the global scale.

2.
Neurocrit Care ; 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942209

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Perihemorrhagic edema (PHE) growth has been gradually considered as predictor for outcome of Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients. The aim of our study was to investigate correlation between non-contrast computed tomography (CT) markers and early PHE growth. METHODS: ICH patients between July 2011 and March 2017 were included in this retrospective analysis. ICH and PHE volumes were measured by using a validated semiautomatic volumetric algorithm. Nonparametric test was used for comparing PHE volume at different time points of non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) imaging markers. Multivariable linear regression was constructed to study the relationship between NCCT imaging markers and PHE growth over 36 h. RESULTS: A total of 214 patients were included. Nonparametric test showed that PHE volume was significantly different between patients with and without NCCT imaging markers. (all p < 0.05) In multivariable linear regression analysis adjusted for ICH characteristics, blend sign (p = 0.011), black hole sign (p = 0.002), island sign (p < 0.001), and expansion-prone hematoma (p < 0.001) were correlated with PHE growth. Follow-up PHE volume within 36 h after baseline CT scan was associated with blend sign (p = 0.001), island sign (p < 0.001), and expansion-prone hematoma (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: NCCT imaging markers of hematoma expansion are associated with PHE growth. This suggests that early PHE growth can be predicted using radiology markers on admission CT scan.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963963

RESUMO

The low temperature of sewage in north China results in low performance of biological treatment at municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWTPs), especially in biological nitrogen removal. A modified two-stage A/O process with an embedded biofilm was proposed to enhance nitrogen removal. The operation performance of a pilot test was compared with an A2/O and SBR process at existing MWTPs to investigate the resistance to low temperature. The microbial communities for the three processes were compared based on the metagenomics results of 16sDNA high-throughput sequencing from activated sludge. The modified A/O resulted in a higher average removal of COD (90.12%) than A2/O (85.23%) and SBR (83.03%), especially of small-molecule organic compounds (< 500 Da) and macromolecular refractory organics (> 5 k Da); the TN removal rate of A2/O, SBR and the modified A/O was also increased from 74.47%, 70.63% and 78.46%, respectively. High-throughput sequencing revealed increased microbial diversity and an abundance of denitrifying functional bacteria was observed in the modified A/O process at low temperatures. The abundance of nitrite oxidation bacteria (NOB) including Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira, the amount was 1.76% and 2.34% in modified A/O, respectively, whereas NOB only accounted for 1.82% in A2/O and 1.35% in SBR.

4.
Cancer Res Treat ; 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971703

RESUMO

Purpose: Osteosarcoma (OS) universally exhibits heterogeneity and cisplatin (CDDP) resistance. Although the Wee1/CDC2 and NF-κB pathways were reported to show abnormal activation in some tumor cells with CDDP resistance, whether there is any concrete connection is currently unclear. We explored it in human OS cells. Materials and Methods: Multiple OS cell lines were exposed to a Wee1 inhibitor (AZD1775) and CDDP to assess the half-maximal inhibitory concentration values. Western blot, coimmunoprecipitation, confocal immunofluorescence, cell cycle, and CCK-8 assays were performed to explore the connection between the Wee1/CDC2 and NF-κB pathways and their subsequent physiological contribution to CDDP resistance. Finally, CDDP-resistant PDX-OS xenograft models were established to confirm that AZD1775 restores the antitumor effects of CDDP. Results: A sensitivity hierarchy of OS cells to CDDP and AZD1775 exists. In the highly CDDP-tolerant cell lines, Wee1 and RelA were physically crosslinked, which resulted in increased abundance of phosphorylated CDC2 (Y15) and RelA (S536) and consequent modulation of cell cycle progression, survival and proliferation. Wee1 inhibition restored the effects of CDDP on these processes in CDDP-resistant OS cells. In addition, animal experiments with CDDP-resistant PDX-OS cells showed that AZD1775 combined with CDDP not only restored CDDP efficacy but also amplified AZD1775 in inhibiting tumor growth and prolonged the median survival of the mice. Conclusion: Simultaneous enrichment of molecules in the Wee1/CDC2 and NF-κB pathways and their consequent coactivation is a new molecular mechanism of CDDP resistance in OS cells. OS with this molecular signature may respond well to Wee1 inhibition as an alternative treatment strategy.

5.
Yi Chuan ; 43(5): 442-458, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972215

RESUMO

In order to develop a variety of japonica rice with good eating quality suitable for planting in Jiangsu Province, the genetic basis of high quality, disease resistance and high yield japonica rice varieties in Jiangsu Province was systematically studied. The relationship among different rice qualities of cooking, nutrition, and eating was studied by association analysis. It was clear that amylose content was the key factor affecting eating quality. The semi waxy rice with amylose content of 10%~14% has bright surface, soft texture, and elasticity, combining the softness of glutinous rice and the elasticity of japonica rice. The cold rice is not hard, and the taste is excellent. It meets the taste requirements of people in Yangtze River Delta region who like to eat soft fragrant japonica rice. The semi waxy japonica rice variety "Kantou 194" with a low expression of amylose content gene Wx mp and an amylose content of about 10% was selected as the core germplasm for improving eating quality. Pyramiding breeding of japonica rice variety with good eating quality, disease resistance and high yield was carried out by examining the development of Wx mp gene molecular markers and the use of closely linked molecular markers with disease resistance and high yield genes. A series of new japonica rice varieties with good taste such as Nanjing 46, Nanjing 5055, Nanjing 9108, and Nanjing 5718, suitable for different rice areas of Jiangsu Province, have been bred and approved by Jiangsu Provincial Variety Approval Committee. The layout of japonica rice varieties with good taste covering different rice areas in Jiangsu Province has been formed. These varieties have been planted with an accumulated area of more than 5.3 million hectares, which has effectively promoted the development of high quality rice industry in Jiangsu Province and its surrounding areas, and made important contributions to the structural adjustment of the supply side of rice industry, improving quality and efficiency, and ensuring food security.

6.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(5): 2440-2448, 2021 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884815

RESUMO

Paddy soil often undergoes frequent dry-wet alternation. The change in water status not only affects the physical and chemical properties of the soil, but also changes the structure and diversity of the soil microbial communities, which in turn determines the rate of soil organic carbon mineralization. However, the effects of different water conditions and soil microbial biomass levels on the process of soil organic carbon mineralization and its mechanisms are still unclear. Therefore, this study took typical subtropical paddy soil as the research object, applied a laboratory incubation experiment with two water treatments of dry-wet and continuous flooding, and reduced the soil microbial biomass through chloroform fumigation, thereby obtaining high and low soil microbial biomass carbon contents, to elucidate the influencing mechanisms of microbial biomass and water conditions on organic carbon mineralization in paddy soil. The results showed that during the first 30 d of incubation, the dry-wet treatment was in a non-flooded stage and its cumulative CO2 emissions were significantly lower than those of the continuous flooded treatment. After 30 d, the dry-wet treatment entered the flooded stage. The difference in the cumulative CO2 emissions of the soils with a high microbial biomass carbon content between the dry-wet and continuous flooding treatments gradually decreased, and there was no significant difference on day 78. In the soil with a low microbial biomass carbon content, the cumulative CO2 emissions of the dry-wet treatment on day 78 was still significantly lower than that of the continuous flooded treatment. The soils with a low microbial biomass carbon content showed a faster CO2 emission rate at the beginning of the incubation period (first 20 d), which was 1.1-6.1 times greater than that of the high microbial biomass carbon soils owing to their high soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, and the CO2 emission rate then gradually decreased until it was below that of the soil with a high microbial biomass carbon content. The soil organic carbon mineralization rate became stable later in the incubation period (days 45-78). The stable mineralization rate of the high microbial biomass carbon soil was 20%-30% higher than that of the low microbial biomass carbon soil. The multiple regression analysis results showed that the decrease in the soil DOC content (ΔDOC) and the increase in the Fe2+ content (ΔFe2+) significantly affected the change in cumulative CO2 emissions (ΔCO2) under continuous flooding conditions, but had no effect on ΔCO2 during the flooding stage of the dry-wet treatment. The correlation analysis showed that the daily CO2 emission rate of soils with high microbial biomass carbon was significantly positively correlated with glucosidase activity under dry-wet treatment and significantly negatively correlated with acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) and peroxidase activities under continuous flooding treatment. In the low microbial biomass carbon soils, the daily CO2 emission rate of the continuous flooding treatment was negatively correlated with the NAG activity, but showed no correlation with enzyme activities under dry-wet management. In summary, the cumulative CO2 emissions of dry-wet treatment were lower than those of continuous flooding treatment, and the difference was significant in soils with low microbial biomass carbon. The size of the soil microbial biomass determined the level of the stable soil organic carbon mineralization rate. The amount of soluble organic carbon and iron reduction affected the soil CO2 emissions under continuous flooding conditions, and the soil water conditions affected the daily CO2 emission rate and its key influencing enzymes. This study provides data and theoretical support for the carbon cycle and carbon sequestration potential in paddy soil.


Assuntos
Oryza , Solo , Biomassa , Carbono , Microbiologia do Solo , Água
8.
Future Oncol ; 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906370

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyze the correlations between NAT1 and clinicopathological features of and prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC). RNA sequencing data and clinical information were retrieved from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Wilcoxon test, logistic regression and Kaplan-Meier method were used to estimate the association between NAT1 and prognosis in CRC. In vitro experiments were conducted to confirm the role of NAT1. NAT1 is significantly less expressed in CRC and independently associated with poor prognosis in CRC patients. The authors further confirmed that expression of NAT1 was significantly lower in SW116 colon cancer cells than in NCM460 cells. Overexpressed NAT1 obviously inhibited the growth of CRC cells by downregulating phosphorylation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. NAT1 may be a potential therapeutic target for CRC.

9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849963

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Enzalutamide is a second-generation androgen receptor (AR) inhibitor which has improved overall survival (OS) in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, nearly all patients develop resistance. We designed a phase 2 multicenter study of enzalutamide in metastatic CRPC incorporating tissue and blood biomarkers to dissect mechanisms driving resistance. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Eligible patients with metastatic CRPC underwent a baseline metastasis biopsy and then initiated enzalutamide 160 mg daily. A repeat metastasis biopsy was obtained at radiographic progression from the same site when possible. Blood for circulating tumor cell (CTC) analysis was collected at baseline and progression. The primary objective was to analyze mechanisms of resistance in serial biopsies. Whole exome sequencing was performed on tissue biopsies. CTC samples underwent RNA sequencing. RESULTS: 65 patients initiated treatment, of whom 22 (33.8%) had received prior abiraterone. Baseline biopsies were enriched for alterations in AR (mutations, amplifications) and tumor suppression genes (PTEN, RB1, and TP53) which were observed in 73.1% and 92.3% of baseline biopsies, respectively. Progression biopsies revealed increased AR amplifications (64.7% at progression versus 53.9% at baseline) and BRCA2 alterations (64.7% at progression versus 38.5% at baseline). Genomic analysis of baseline and progression CTC samples demonstrated increased AR splice variants, AR regulated-genes, and neuroendocrine markers at progression. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that a large proportion of enzalutamide-treated patients have baseline and progression alterations in the AR pathway and tumor suppressor genes. We demonstrate an increased number of BRCA2 alterations post-enzalutamide highlighting importance of serial tumor sampling in CRPC.

10.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 146(1): 21-28, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858651

RESUMO

Paeoniflorin-6'-O-benzene sulfonate (CP-25) is a derivative of Paeoniflorin. We investigate beneficial effect of CP-25 on methotrexate (MTX) induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (Bun), plasma creatinine (CREA), urine CREA and protein in the rats were quantitatively measured. Renal tissues were pathologically observed, and apoptosis was detected. Apoptosis related proteins and organic anion transporter-3 (OAT3) expression were determined by western blotting analysis. MTX induced nephrotoxicity and hematotoxicity in rats with abnormal levels of serum Bun, serum CERA, 24 h urine protein excretion, white blood cells, platelets, plateletcrit and abnormal renal pathological appearance. Either pre-treatment or treatment of CP-25 restored normal levels of hematological and renal function parameters, and improved histopathology in rats treated with MTX. CP-25 prevented MTX induced apoptosis of renal tubular cells, and the effect was further confirmed by its regulatory effects on abnormal expression of Bax, cleaved-caspase-3, cleaved-caspase-8, Cyt-c, Bcl-2. The other important finding is co-administration of CP-25 with MTX significantly increased MTX renal excretion in the damaged rats, and the effect is supposed to be linked with its regulation on abnormal renal OAT3 expression. Taken together, CP-25 shows well protective activity against MTX induced nephrotoxicity, and this effect is via its anti-apoptosis and detoxification properties.

11.
Cytokine ; 142: 155500, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810947

RESUMO

We quantified the serum levels of 34 cytokines/chemokines in 30 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Elevated levels of IP-10 and IL-7 were detected in the acute and convalescent stages of the infection and were highly associated with disease severity.


Assuntos
/sangue , Quimiocina CXCL10/sangue , Interleucina-7/sangue , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
BMC Biol ; 19(1): 67, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trachypithecus leucocephalus, the white-headed langur, is a critically endangered primate that is endemic to the karst mountains in the southern Guangxi province of China. Studying the genomic and transcriptomic mechanisms underlying its local adaptation could help explain its persistence within a highly specialized ecological niche. RESULTS: In this study, we used PacBio sequencing and optical assembly and Hi-C analysis to create a high-quality de novo assembly of the T. leucocephalus genome. Annotation and functional enrichment revealed many genes involved in metabolism, transport, and homeostasis, and almost all of the positively selected genes were related to mineral ion binding. The transcriptomes of 12 tissues from three T. leucocephalus individuals showed that the great majority of genes involved in mineral absorption and calcium signaling were expressed, and their gene families were significantly expanded. For example, FTH1 primarily functions in iron storage and had 20 expanded copies. CONCLUSIONS: These results increase our understanding of the evolution of alkali tolerance and other traits necessary for the persistence of T. leucocephalus within an ecologically unique limestone karst environment.

13.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(2): 530-534, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812426

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of serum homocysteine (Hcy) levels to the prognosis of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) patients, and to explore related factors affecting the prognosis of the patients. METHODS: The clinical pathological data of 180 newly diagnosed MM patients treated in our hospital from March 2013 to February 2015 were collected, and the patients were divided into high and low Hcy groups based on the median Hcy. The survival curves of the patients in the two groups were drawn to compare the differences of the survival; univariate and multivariate survival analysis was used to observe the influence of serum cysteine to the prognosis of newly diagnosed MM patients; the clinicopathological data of the patients with high and low Hcy in the two groups was compared, Pearson test was used to further analyzes the relationship between Hcy and different factors, and explores the related factors of Hcy affecting the prognosis of the patients. RESULTS: The median survival times of patients in the high and low Hcy groups were 32 (5-59) and 41 (7-71) months, respectively. The 3-year survival rate of the patients in high Hcy group was significantly lower than those in low Hcy group, and the difference shows statistically significant (P<0.05). The results of univariate survival analysis showed that the OS of newly diagnosed MM patients whom with advanced age, high bone disease grade, high-level bone marrow plasma cell count, LDH, C-reactive protein, Cr, ß2-MG, Hcy, low-level Hb, and ALB was significantly shortened (all P<0.05). The results of multivariate survival analysis showed that old age, high levels of bone marrow plasma cells, Cr, ß2-MG, low levels of Hb, and ALB were the independent risk factors shorting the overall survival (OS) time of newly diagnosed MM patients (all P<0.05), while Hcy showed no independent relation for the OS of patients (P>0.05). The Hb level of the patients in high Hcy group was significantly lower than those in low-Hcy group, while the LDH level was significantly higher than those in low Hcy group (all P<0.05). Pearson test results showed that serum Hcy and Hb showed negative correlation (r=-0.813, P<0.05), but it shows positive correlation with LDH (r=0.726, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Serum Hcy level has a correlation trend with the survival of newly diagnosed MM, which is affected by factors such as Hb.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo , Células da Medula Óssea , Homocisteína , Humanos , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
14.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825163

RESUMO

This study investigated the feasibility of using the mineral element contents and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of blueberries to trace their origins. The contents of 28 mineral elements, including K, Al, and Mg, were determined in 104 blueberry samples from three blueberry-producing areas in Guizhou Province, China. Also determined were both the 87Sr/86Sr ratios in 48 blueberry samples as well as the type of soil in which the blueberries were grown. Cluster analysis of 87Sr/86Sr ratios, stepwise discriminant analysis of mineral element contents, and combined discriminant analyses of 87Sr/86Sr ratios and mineral element contents were done. The results show that ten elements (Ca, Cr, Cs, Mg, Mn, P, Rb, Sb, Th, and Y) were selected by linear discriminant analysis, which could be used to establish the provenance traceability model of blueberries in Guizhou. The original accuracy of linear discriminant analysis was 89.4%, and the accuracy of cross-validation was 83.6%. When 87Sr/86Sr ratios were used for tracing, the accuracies of both the original discrimination and the cross-validation were 81.3% as determined by linear discriminant analysis, and the accuracy rate of origin discrimination was 81.25% by cluster analysis. The results of combined discrimination were the best: the accuracy of the original discrimination was 95.8%, and the accuracy of cross-validation was 93.8%. Mineral element contents and 87Sr/86Sr ratios can be used to trace the origins of blueberries, and combining them can significantly improve the discrimination accuracy. Fisher linear discriminant analysis had the greatest accuracy followed by cluster analysis, while principal component analysis was relatively poor in the research of Guizhou blueberry origin traceability.

15.
Inorg Chem ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826306

RESUMO

The determination of active sites in metal nanoclusters is of great significance for the in-depth understanding of the structural evolution and the mechanism of physicochemical properties. In this work, the surface active Ag2(SR)3 units of the Ag48Cl14(S-Adm)30 nanocluster are determined, and the active-site tailoring of this nanocluster gives rise to two derivative nanoclusters, i.e., the structure-maintained Ag48Cl14(S-Adm)26(S-c-C6H11)4 and the structure-growth Ag50Cl16(S-Adm)28(DPPP)2. Both Ag48 and Ag50 nanoclusters exhibit almost the same cluster framework, but the Ag2(S-Adm)3 active units are regulated to Ag3(S-Adm)2(DPPP)1Cl1 with the transformation from Ag48 to Ag50. The surface active sites on Ag48 are rationalized by analyzing its crystal structure and the ligand-exchange-induced cluster transformation. This study provides some inspiration toward the active-site tailoring of nanocluster surface structures, which is significant for the preparation of new cluster-based nanomaterials with customized structures and enhanced performance.

16.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(2): 326-333, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829710

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the best treatment plan of intravesical instillation for patients with non-muscular invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), to explore recurrence-related clinicopathological factors after intravesical instillation, and to evaluate the value of the prognosis and prediction models currently used for NMIBC patients. Methods: Starting from 2016, patients who underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) in our hospital and who received post-surgery diagnosis of having intermediate or high risks for NMIBC were enrolled in the study. They were randomly assigned to different group sat a ratio of 2∶2∶1 for receiving intravesical instillation therapy of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) for 19 times, BCG for 15 times, and epirubicin (EPI) for 18 times. The clinicopathological data of the patients were recorded before, during and after instillation therapy, and survival curves were drawn to evaluate the effects of the three regimens, using recurrence-free survival as the endpoint. Clinicopathological data were analyzed to study the associations between various factors and post-instillation recurrence. The consistency index (c-index) was used to evaluate the predictive accuracy of the scoring model of the Spanish Urological Club for Oncological Treatment (CUETO) and the risk tables of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). Results: A total of 93 NMIBC patients (35 in the 19-time BCG group, 37 in the 15-time BCG group, and 21 in the EPI group) were included, with a median follow-up time of 33.46 months. Twenty-two patients experienced tumor recurrence and eight, tumor progression. The survival curve showed that the BCG group had better recurrence-free survival than the EPI group ( P=0.002), while the difference in recurrence-free survival between 19-time BCG and 15-time BCG groups was not statistically significant. Higher general complication rate was seen in the BCG groups compared with the EPI group (84.7% vs. 61.9%, P=0.022), but there was no grade 3-5 adverse events in any group. The c-index of CUETO scoring model and EORTC risk tables was higher than that of the prediction based solely on T stage, nuclear grade, or EAU risk stratification. In addition, the c-index in the BCG group was higher than that in the whole cohort. Conclusion: Among the subjects of this study, the recurrence rate of bladder cancer in the intravesical BCG instillation groups was lower than that of the epirubicin group. EORTC risk tables and CUETO scoring model exhibited higher predictive accuracies in BCG-treated patients than its performance for the whole NMIBC cohort.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Administração Intravesical , Vacina BCG/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(4): e0009319, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861752

RESUMO

Trichomonas vaginalis is a common protozoan parasite, which causes trichomoniasis associated with severe adverse reproductive outcomes. However, the underlying pathogenesis has not been fully understood. As the first line of defense against invading pathogens, the vaginal epithelial cells are highly responsive to environmental stimuli and contribute to the formation of the optimal luminal fluid microenvironment. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion channel widely distributed at the apical membrane of epithelial cells, plays a crucial role in mediating the secretion of Cl- and HCO3-. In this study, we investigated the effect of T. vaginalis on vaginal epithelial ion transport elicited by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major prostaglandin in the semen. Luminal administration of PGE2 triggered a remarkable and sustained increase of short-circuit current (ISC) in rat vaginal epithelium, which was mainly due to Cl- and HCO3- secretion mediated by the cAMP-activated CFTR. However, T. vaginalis infection significantly abrogated the ISC response evoked by PGE2, indicating impaired transepithelial anion transport via CFTR. Using a primary cell culture system of rat vaginal epithelium and a human vaginal epithelial cell line, we demonstrated that the expression of CFTR was significantly down-regulated after T. vaginalis infection. In addition, defective Cl- transport function of CFTR was observed in T. vaginalis-infected cells by measuring intracellular Cl- signals. Conclusively, T. vaginalis restrained exogenous PGE2-induced anion secretion through down-regulation of CFTR in vaginal epithelium. These results provide novel insights into the intervention of reproductive complications associated with T. vaginalis infection such as infertility and disequilibrium in vaginal fluid microenvironment.

18.
Cell Commun Signal ; 19(1): 33, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBX) has been reported to be responsible for the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Vimentin is an EMT-related molecular marker. However, the importance of vimentin in the pathogenesis of HCC mediated by HBX has not been well determined. METHODS: The expression of vimentin induced by HBX, and the role of LIM and SH3 domain protein 1 (LASP1) in HBX-induced vimentin expression in hepatoma cells were examined by western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis. Both the signal pathways involved in the expression of vimentin, the interaction of HBX with vimentin and LASP1, and the stability of vimentin mediated by LASP1 in HBX-positive cells were assessed by western blot, Co-immunoprecipitation, and GST-pull down assay. The role of vimentin in EMT, proliferation, and migration of HCC cells mediated by HBX and LASP1 were explored with western blot, CCK-8 assay, plate clone formation assay, transwell assay, and wound healing assay. RESULTS: Vimentin expression was increased in both HBX-positive hepatoma cells and HBV-related HCC tissues, and the expression of vimentin was correlated with HBX in HBV-related HCC tissues. Functionally, vimentin was contributed to the EMT, proliferation, and migration of hepatoma cells mediated by HBX. The mechanistic analysis suggested that HBX was able to enhance the expression of vimentin through LASP1. On the one hand, PI3-K, ERK, and STAT3 signal pathways were involved in the upregulation of vimentin mediated by LASP1 in HBX-positive hepatoma cells. On the other hand, HBX could directly interact with vimentin and LASP1, and dependent on LASP1, HBX was capable of promoting the stability of vimentin via protecting it from ubiquitination mediated protein degradation. Besides these, vimentin was involved in the growth and migration of hepatoma cells mediated by LASP1 in HBX-positive hepatoma cells. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings demonstrate that, dependent on LASP1, vimentin is crucial for HBX-mediated EMT and hepatocarcinogenesis, and may serve as a potential target for HBV-related HCC treatment. Video abstract.

19.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; PP2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33760732

RESUMO

Immunofixation Electrophoresis (IFE) analysis is of great importance to the diagnosis of Multiple Myeloma, which is among the top-9 cancer killers in the United States, but has rarely been studied in the context of deep learning. Two possible reasons are: 1) the recognition of IFE patterns is dependent on the co-location of bands that forms a binary relation, different from the unary relation (visual features to label) that deep learning is good at modeling; 2) deep classification models may perform with high accuracy for IFE recognition but is not able to provide firm evidence (where the co-location patterns are) for its predictions, rendering difficulty for technicians to validate the results. We propose to address these issues with collocative learning, in which a collocative tensor has been constructed to transform the binary relations into unary relations that are compatible with conventional deep networks, and a location-label-free method that utilizes the Grad-CAM saliency map for evidence backtracking has been proposed for accurate localization. In addition, we have proposed Coached Attention Gates that can regulate the inference of the learning to be more consistent with human logic and thus support the evidence backtracking. The experimental results show that the proposed method has obtained a performance gain over its base model ResNet18 by 741.30% in IoU and also outperformed popular deep networks of DenseNet, CBAM, and Inception-v3.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761784

RESUMO

Diaporthe species are the causal agents of melanose, stem-end rot and gummosis diseases of citrus. D. citri is the predominant species on different citrus varieties. These diseases exceedingly reduce quality and marketability of fresh fruits, especially melanose on fruits causes massive economic losses. The infection mechanisms of D. citri are still unclear and the genome sequence of D. citri has not been released. In order to systemically explore the interaction between citrus and D. citri, we sequenced the whole-genome of D. citri strain NFHF-8-4, which was isolated from a sample with melanose in Jiangxi Province. The NFHF-8-4 genome sequence will provide valuable information for studying the development process, infection process and resistance mechanisms to fungicides in D. citri.

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