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1.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152438

RESUMO

Endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EnMT) plays a pivotal role in various diseases, including pulmonary hypertension (PH), and transcription factors like Snail are key regulators of EnMT. In this study we investigated how these factors were regulated by PH risk factors (e.g. inflammation and hypoxia) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We showed that treatment with interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) induced EnMT of HUVECs via activation of NF-κB/Snail pathway, which was further exacerbated by knockdown of protein tyrosine phosphatase L1 (PTPL1). We demonstrated that PTPL1 inhibited NF-κB/Snail through dephosphorylating and stabilizing IκBα. IL-1ß or hypoxia could downregulate PTPL1 expression in HUVECs. The deregulation of PTPL1/NF-κB signaling was validated in a monocrotaline-induced rat PH (MCT-PH) model and clinical PH specimens. Our findings provide novel insights into the regulatory mechanisms of EnMT, and have implications for identifying new therapeutic targets for clinical PH.

2.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 2272-2276, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141753

RESUMO

Doping active metal (i.e., Cu) into the kernel of noble metal nanoclusters (i.e., Au/Ag nanocluster) remains challenging in the synthesis of alloy nanoclusters. Herein, we report the synthesis and the total structure determination of a bimetallic [Ag61Cu30(SAdm)38S3]BPh4 (Ag61Cu30) nanocluster. The Ag61Cu30 nanocluster is composed of an Ag13@Cu30 kernel which is further capped by a peripheral Ag48(SAdm)38S3 shell. The icosidodecahedron Cu30 middle layer connects the innermost icosahedral Ag13 core and Ag atoms at the outermost Ag48(SR)38S3 shell, demonstrating that the Cu atoms in the Cu30 layer are in a metallic state.

3.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156705

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aim to determine the effect of metformin on osteoarthritis (OA) development and progression. METHODS: Destabilisation of the medial meniscus (DMM) surgery was performed in 10-week-old wild type and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)α1 knockout (KO) mice. Metformin (4 mg/day in drinking water) was given, commencing either 2 weeks before or 2 weeks after DMM surgery. Mice were sacrificed 6 and 12 weeks after DMM surgery. OA phenotype was analysed by micro-computerised tomography (µCT), histology and pain-related behaviour tests. AMPKα1 (catalytic alpha subunit of AMPK) expression was examined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses. The OA phenotype was also determined by µCT and MRI in non-human primates. RESULTS: Metformin upregulated phosphorylated and total AMPK expression in articular cartilage tissue. Mild and more severe cartilage degeneration was observed at 6 and 12 weeks after DMM surgery, evidenced by markedly increased Osteoarthritis Research Society International scores, as well as reduced cartilage areas. The administration of metformin, commencing either before or after DMM surgery, caused significant reduction in cartilage degradation. Prominent synovial hyperplasia and osteophyte formation were observed at both 6 and 12 weeks after DMM surgery; these were significantly inhibited by treatment with metformin either before or after DMM surgery. The protective effects of metformin on OA development were not observed in AMPKα1 KO mice, suggesting that the chondroprotective effect of metformin is mediated by AMPK signalling. In addition, we demonstrated that treatment with metformin could also protect from OA progression in a partial medial meniscectomy animal model in non-human primates. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that metformin, administered shortly after joint injury, can limit OA development and progression in injury-induced OA animal models.

4.
Toxicol Lett ; 326: 106-113, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142839

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the toxic effects of microcystin-LR (MC-LR), which is released from several bloom-forming cyanobacteria, on the glucose metabolism of pancreatic ß cells in vivo and in vitro. Male mice and the pancreatic MIN6 cells were respectively treated with varying concentrations of MC-LR. After 3- or 6- months of MC-LR exposure, increase in the body weight of mice was found to be inhibited, and the structure of their pancreatic tissues was damaged with impaired glucose tolerance and impaired insulin secretion. Further, these toxic effects became more pronounced with time and with increased dosages. Direct cytotoxic effects of MC-LR were observed in the MIN6 pancreatic ß-cells possibly due to their expression of the MC-LR specific transporter. MC-LR entered the MIN6 cells that significantly reduced the cell viability. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that MC-LR was able to induce apoptosis, possibly associated with mitochondrial damage. Above all, these findings implied that MC-LR may be transported into the pancreatic ß cells and cause subsequent cytotoxicity.

5.
Int Braz J Urol ; 462020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213202

RESUMO

Sarcopenia, a concept reflecting the loss of skeletal muscle mass, was reported to be associated with the prognosis of several tumors. However, the prognostic value of sarcopenia in patients with renal cancer remains unclear. We carried out this meta-analysis and systematic review to evaluate the prognostic value of sarcopenia in patients with renal cell carcinomas. We comprehensively searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library from inception to December 2018. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were pooled together. A total of 5 studies consisting of 771 patients were enrolled in this quantitative analysis, 347 (45.0%) of which had sarcopenia. Patients with sarcopenia had a worse OS compared with those without sarcopenia (HR=1.76; 95%CI, 1.35-2.31; P<0.001). In the subgroup of patients with localized and advanced/metastatic diseases, sarcopenia was also associated with poor OS (HR=1.48, P=0.039; HR=2.14, P<0.001; respectively). With a limited sample size, we did not observe difference of PFS between two groups (HR=1.56, 95% CI, 0.69-3.50, P=0.282). In the present meta-analysis, we observed that patients with sarcopenia had a worse OS compared with those without sarcopenia in RCC. Larger, preferably prospective studies, are needed to confirm and update our findings. Available at. https://www.intbrazjurol.com.br/pdf/aop/2019-0636RW.pdf.

6.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e921540, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Our objective was to establish and compare three-dimensional models of knee joints of mini-pigs and sheep, the 2 most commonly used animal models of osteoarthritis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Three-dimensional geometric models of knee joints were used to assess their biomechanical properties by analysis of the three-dimensional finite element stress load for flexion at 30° and 60°. RESULTS Analysis of multiple tissues indicated that the sheep knee had greater stress peaks than the mini-pig knee at 30° flexion (range: 12.5 to 30.4 Mpa for sheep vs. 11.1 to 20.2 Mpa for mini-pig) and at 60° flexion (range: 17.9 to 43.5 Mpa for sheep vs. 15.9 to 28.9 Mpa for mini-pig). In addition, there was uneven distribution of stress loads in the surrounding ligaments during flexion. CONCLUSIONS Our three-dimensional finite element analysis indicated that the mini-pig knee joint had stress values and changes of cartilage, meniscus, and peripheral ligaments that were similar to those of the human knee.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: A causal relationship between changes of the gut microbiome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains unclear. We demonstrated that endogenous ethanol (EnEth) produced by intestinal microbiota is likely a causative agent of NAFLD. METHODS: Two mutants with different alcohol-producing abilities, namely, W14-adh and W14Δadh, were constructed using the clinical high alcohol-producing (HiAlc) Klebsiella pneumoniae strain W14 as a parent. Damage to hepatocytes caused by bacteria with different alcohol-producing capacities was evaluated (EtOH group as positive control). The ultrastructural changes of mitochondria were assessed via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Hepatic levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage, and adenosine triphosphate were examined. RESULTS: The results illustrated that steatosis was most severe in the W14-adh group, followed by the W14 group, whereas the W14Δadh group had few fatty droplets. TEM and examination of related protein expression revealed that the mitochondrial integrity of HepG2 hepatocytes was considerably damaged in the EtOH and bacteria treatment groups. The impaired mitochondrial function in HepG2 hepatocytes was evidenced by reduced adenosine triphosphate content and increased mitochondrial ROS accumulation and DNA damage in the EtOH and bacteria treatment groups, especially the W14-adh group. Meanwhile, liver injury and mitochondrial damage were observed in the hepatocytes of mice. The livers of mice in the W14-adh group, which had the highest ethanol production, exhibited the most serious damage, similar to that in the EtOH group. CONCLUSIONS: EnEth produced by HiAlc bacteria induces mitochondrial dysfunction in NAFLD.

8.
Diagn Cytopathol ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187885

RESUMO

Extracardiac rhabdomyoma is an uncommon benign striated muscle tumor with a predilection for the head and neck region. However, it is extremely rare for extracardiac rhabdomyoma to present as a thyroid nodule. We report a case of rhabdomyoma diagnosed by thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in a patient with Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome. A 60-year-old man with BHD syndrome presented for recurrent pneumothorax. Chest CT incidentally identified a thyroid nodule. Subsequent sonography confirmed a 4.44 × 2.28 × 2.82 cm solid, hypoechoic nodule with smooth margins in the right upper pole. Ultrasound-guided FNA revealed many clusters and scattered isolated large polygonal cells with abundant granular cytoplasm and small peripherally located nuclei. Vague striations in the cytoplasm were focally identified. No follicular cells or colloid was present. Immunocytochemistry on one direct smear slide demonstrated diffuse positivity for desmin, supporting muscular differentiation. Subsequent surgery identified an adult rhabdomyoma originating from the inferior constrictor muscle of the neck and anteriorly displacing the thyroid. Because the mass was intimately associated with the thyroid gland, it was initially mistaken for a thyroid nodule on ultrasound. Diagnosis of rhabdomyoma on FNA is challenging, especially when rhabdomyoma mimics a thyroid nodule on imaging. The differential diagnosis includes Hurthle cell neoplasm, granular cell tumor, colloid nodule, and normal striated skeletal muscle. Adequate radiologic data and familiarity with the cytologic features of rhabdomyoma are critical for an accurate diagnosis.

9.
Orthop Surg ; 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180364

RESUMO

To describe the outcomes of autografts and synthetics in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction with respect to instrumented laxity measurements, patient-reported outcome scores, complications, and graft failure risk. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE for published randomized controlled trials (RCT) and case controlled trials (CCTs) to compare the outcomes of the autografts versus synthetics after cruciate ligament reconstruction. Data analyses were performed using Cochrane Collaboration RevMan 5.0. Nine studies were identified from the literature review. Of these studies, three studies compared the results of bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) and ligament augmentation and reconstruction system (LARS), while six studies compared the results of four-strand hamstring tendon graft (4SHG) and LARS. The comparative study showed no difference in Lysholm score and failure risk between autografts and synthetics. The combined results of the meta-analysis indicated that there was a significantly lower rate of side-to-side difference > 3 mm (Odds Ratio [OR] 2.46, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.44-4.22, P = 0.001), overall IKDC (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.19-0.83, P = 0.01), complications (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.26-5.14, P = 0.009), and Tegner score (OR -0.31, 95% CI -0.52-0.10, P = 0.004) in the synthetics group than in the autografts group. This systematic review comparing long-term outcomes after cruciate ligament reconstruction with either autograft or synthetics suggests no significant differences in failure risk. Autografts were inferior to synthetics with respect to restoring knee joint stability and patient-reported outcome scores, and were also associated with more postoperative complications.

10.
Chin J Traumatol ; 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201231

RESUMO

With the deepening of research, proteomics has developed into a science covering the study of all the structural and functional characteristics of proteins and the dynamic change rules. The essence of various biological activities is revealed from the perspectives of the biological structure, functional activity and corresponding regulatory mechanism of proteins by proteomics. Among them, phospholipid-binding protein is one of the hotspots of proteomics, especially annexin A1, which is widely present in various tissues and cells of the body. It has the capability of binding to phospholipid membranes reversibly in a calcium ion dependent manner. In order to provide possible research ideas for researchers, who are interested in this protein, the biological effects of annexin A1, such as inflammatory regulation, cell signal transduction, cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis are described in this paper.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207207

RESUMO

Anisotropic magnetic exchange is of great value for the design of high performance molecular nanomagnets. In the present work, enhanced single-chain magnet (SCM) behavior is observed for a Mo III -Mn II chain that exhibits anisotropic magnetic exchange. Self-assembly of the pentagonal bipyramidal [Mo(CN) 7 ] 4- anion and the Mn II unit with a tridentate ligand results in a neutral double zigzag 2,4-ribbon structure which exhibits SCM behavior with a high relaxation barrier of 178(4) K. Open magnetic hysteresis loops are observed below 5.2 K, with a coercive field of 1.5 T at 2 K. Interestingly, this SCM can be considered to be a result of a step-by-step process based on our previously reported Mn 2 Mo single-molecule magnets (SMMs).

12.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020593

RESUMO

Resistance to chemotherapy continues to be a critical issue in the clinical therapy of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to contribute to chemoresistance in several cancer types, including breast cancer. Identification of the key signaling pathway that regulates the EMT program and contributes to chemoresistance in TNBC will provide a novel strategy to overcome chemoresistance in this subtype of cancer. Herein, we demonstrate that Notch1 positively associates with melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM), a unique EMT activator, in TNBC tissue samples both at mRNA and protein levels. High expression of Notch1 and MCAM both predicts a poor survival in basal-like/TNBC patients, particularly in those treated with chemotherapy. The expression of Notch1 and MCAM in MDA-MB-231 cells gradually increases in a time-dependent manner when exposing to low dose cisplatin. Moreover, the expressions of Notch1 and MCAM in cisplatin-resistant MDA-MB-231 cells are significantly higher than wild-type counterparts. Notch1 promotes EMT and chemoresistance, as well as invasion and proliferation of TNBC cells via direct activating MCAM promoter. Inhibition of Notch1 significantly downregulates MCAM expression, resulting in the reversion of EMT and chemoresistance to cisplatin in TNBC cells. Our study reveals the regulatory mechanism of the Notch1 pathway and MCAM in TNBC and suggesting that targeting the Notch1/MCAM axis, in conjunction with conventional chemotherapies, might be a potential avenue to enhance the therapeutic efficacy for patients with TNBC.

13.
Metabolism ; 105: 154182, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061660

RESUMO

The impairment of podocyte protein filtration function caused by excessive mitochondrial calcium intake is a critical feature of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Ca2+ channel transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) has been reported to protect against ischemia-reperfusion induced acute renal injury, but there is no report about its role in DN. Here, we report that dietary capsaicin potently inhibits and reverses chronic renal structural and functional damages in db/db or streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice in a TRPV1-dependent manner. Activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin alleviated hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in podocytes, accompanied by reduced mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) formation and fewer Ca2+ transport from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to mitochondria. Mechanistically, TRPV1-mediated transient Ca2+ influx activated 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) that reduced the transcription of Fundc1, a key molecule participating in MAMs formation. Inhibition of AMPK or overexpression of Fundc1 obviously blocked the inhibitory effect of capsaicin on MAMs formation and functional decline in podocytes. These findings emphasize the critical role of mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis in the maintenance of normal renal function and suggest an effective intervention method to counteract DN.

14.
Hypertens Res ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037396

RESUMO

Enhanced transient receptor potential canonical subtype 3 (TRPC3) expression and TRPC3-mediated calcium influx in monocytes from hypertensive rats and patients are associated with increased blood pressure. Daily salt intake is closely related to hypertension, but the relationship between TRPC3 expression and salt intake has not yet been evaluated in hypertensive patients. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, we studied the expression of TRPC3 and TRPC3-related store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from hypertensive and normotensive control subjects. Measurement of SOCE was performed using the fluorescent dye Fura-2 AM. Participants were divided into a low-salt group (<9 g) and a high-salt group (≥9 g) based on 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Increased TRPC3 mRNA expression levels and SOCE were observed in THP-1 cells after high-NaCl treatment. However, administration of the TRPC3-specific inhibitor Pyr3 significantly decreased the effect. Furthermore, the TRPC3 mRNA expression levels in PBMCs from high-salt intake patients with essential hypertension were significantly higher than those in low-salt intake patients compared with those in normotensive control subjects. We also observed significantly increased TRPC3-mediated SOCE in PBMCs from hypertensive subjects (but not from normotensive control subjects), with calcium concentration correlating with salt intake. More importantly, TRPC3 mRNA levels showed a significant correlation with salt intake and systolic blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that increased TRPC3 mRNA levels are associated with elevated salt intake and systolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients.

15.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(1)2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) induce a range of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) with various degrees of severity. While clinical experience with ICI retreatment following clinically significant irAEs is growing, the safety and efficacy are not yet well characterized. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study identified patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with ICI who had >1 week therapy interruption for irAEs. Patients were classified into retreatment and discontinuation cohorts based on whether or not they resumed an ICI. Toxicity and clinical outcomes were assessed descriptively. RESULTS: Of 499 patients treated with ICIs, 80 developed irAEs warranting treatment interruption; 36 (45%) of whom were restarted on an ICI and 44 (55%) who permanently discontinued. Median time to initial irAE was similar between the retreatment and discontinuation cohorts (2.8 vs 2.7 months, p=0.59). The type and grade of irAEs were balanced across the cohorts; however, fewer retreatment patients required corticosteroids (55.6% vs 84.1%, p=0.007) and hospitalizations (33.3% vs 65.9%, p=0.007) for irAE management compared with discontinuation patients. Median treatment holiday before reinitiation was 0.9 months (0.2-31.6). After retreatment, 50% (n=18/36) experienced subsequent irAEs (12 new, 6 recurrent) with 7 (19%) grade 3 events and 13 drug interruptions. Median time to irAE recurrence after retreatment was 2.8 months (range: 0.3-13.8). Retreatment resulted in 6 (23.1%) additional responses in 26 patients whose disease had not previously responded. From first ICI initiation, median time to next therapy was 14.2 months (95% CI 8.2 to 18.9) and 9.0 months (5.3 to 25.8), and 2-year overall survival was 76% (95%CI 55% to 88%) and 66% (48% to 79%) in the retreatment and discontinuation groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a considerable rate of irAE recurrence with retreatment after a prior clinically significant irAE, most irAEs were low grade and controllable. Prospective studies are warranted to confirm that retreatment enhances survival outcomes that justify the safety risks.

16.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080861

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of various daptomycin dosing regimens against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium in pediatric patients with proven/suspected gram-positive infection. Monte Carlo simulations (MCSs) were conducted using pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters and pharmacodynamic (PD) data to determine the probabilities of target attainment and cumulative fractions of response in terms of area under the concentration curve/minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) targets of daptomycin. According to the results of the MCSs, currently approved pediatric dosage regimens were sufficient against Staphylococcus aureus with MIC ≤ 0.5 µg/mL for all pediatric patients, but poor when MIC ≥ 1 µg/mL except for adolescents (12-17 years) who need a dosage of ≥10 mg/kg/day at MIC = 1 µg/mL. For Enterococcus faecium with MIC ≤ 4 µg/mL, the recommended dosage of 8-12 mg/kg/day in adults was enough for adolescents, but not subjected to younger pediatric patients. Furthermore, based on MIC distributions obtained from the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, the approved high-dose regimen should be recommended for infants aged 3-12 months, children (2-11 years), and adolescents to achieve better clinical efficacy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, the dosage of 8-12 mg/kg/day was powerful against Enterococcus faecium for adolescents; however, only the highest dosage of 12 mg/kg/day was effective for infants aged 3-12 months and children. All the simulated regimens were not optimal for infants aged 13-24 months. These PK/PD-based simulations rationalize and optimize the dosage regimens of daptomycin against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium in pediatric patients.

17.
BMC Med Imaging ; 20(1): 14, 2020 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our study aims to reveal whether the low b-values distribution, high b-values upper limit, and the number of excitation (NEX) influence the accuracy of the intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) parameter derived from multi-b-value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the brain. METHODS: This prospective study was approved by the local Ethics Committee and informed consent was obtained from each participant. The five consecutive multi-b DWI with different b-value protocols (0-3500 s/mm2) were performed in 22 male healthy volunteers on a 3.0-T MRI system. The IVIM parameters from normal white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) including slow diffusion coefficient (D), fast perfusion coefficient (D*) and perfusion fraction (f) were compared for differences among defined groups with different IVIM protocols by one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: The D* and f value of WM or GM in groups with less low b-values distribution (less than or equal to 5 b-values) were significantly lower than ones in any other group with more low b-values distribution (all P <  0.05), but no significant differences among groups with more low b-values distribution (P > 0.05). In addition, no significant differences in the D, D* and f value of WM or GM were found between group with one and more NEX of low b-values distribution (all P > 0.05). IVIM parameters in normal WM and GM strongly depended on the choice of the high b-value upper limit. CONCLUSIONS: Metrics of IVIM parameters can be affected by low and high b value distribution. Eight low b-values distribution with high b-value upper limit of 800-1000 s/mm2 may be the relatively proper set when performing brain IVIM studies.

18.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 16, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung-protective ventilation (LPV) has been found to minimize the risk of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). However, whether LPV is able to diminish ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction (VIDD) remains unknown. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that LPV protects the diaphragm against VIDD. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats received either conventional mechanical (tidal volume [VT]: 10 ml/kg, positive end-expiratory pressure [PEEP]: 2 cm H2O; CV group) or lung-protective (VT: 5 ml/kg, PEEP: 10 cm H2O; LPV group) ventilation for 12 h. Then, diaphragms and lungs were collected for biochemical and histological analyses. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to determine the differentially expressed genes in the diaphragms between groups. RESULTS: Our results suggested that LPV was associated with diminished pulmonary injuries and reduced oxidative stress compared with the effects of the CV strategy in rats. However, animals that received LPV showed increased protein degradation, decreased cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of myofibers, and reduced forces of the diaphragm compared with the same parameters in animals receiving CV (p < 0.05). In addition, the LPV group showed a higher level of oxidative stress in the diaphragm than the CV group (p < 0.05). Moreover, RNA-seq and western blots revealed that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α), a powerful reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor, was significantly downregulated in the LPV group compared with its expression in the CV group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the CV strategy, the LPV strategy did not protect the diaphragm against VIDD in rats. In contrast, the LPV strategy worsened VIDD by inducing oxidative stress together with the downregulation of PGC-1α in the diaphragm. However, further studies are required to determine the roles of PGC-1α in ventilator-induced diaphragmatic oxidative stress.

19.
Chemosphere ; 246: 125792, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918101

RESUMO

Metal-responsive transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) and metallothionein (MT) expression are involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification. Here, we characterized the structure and functions of mtf-1 and mt promoters in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Many important binding sites of transcriptional factors, such as heat shock promoter element (HSE) and metal responsive element (MRE), were predicted on their promoter regions. Cu did not significantly influence the activity of mtf-1 promoter, but Zn increased its promoter activity. Cu and Zn induced the increase of mt promoter activity. HSE site of mtf-1 promoter was the functional binding locus responsible for Zn-induced mtf-1 transcriptional activation. Zn and Cu induced transcriptional activation of mt gene through the MTF-1- and MRE-dependent pathway. Using primary hepatocytes of yellow catfish, we found that Cu and Zn induced the mt expression; Cu did not significantly influence the mRNA and total protein levels of MTF-1, but Zn up-regulated its mRNA and total protein expression. Both Zn and Cu treatment also up-regulated MTF-1 nuclear protein expression, which in turn increased the mt expression. Taken together, these findings delineated the transcriptional regulation of MT and MTF-1 under Zn or Cu treatments, and provided some mechanisms for the regulation of Cu and Zn homeostasis in vertebrates.

20.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 163: 185-192, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973856

RESUMO

Biological control potential of entomopathogenic fungi depending on conidiation capacity, conidial stress tolerance and virulence can be improved through genetic engineering. To explore a possible role of trehalose biosynthesis pathway in improving fungal pest-control potential, we characterized biological functions of trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (BbTPP) in Beauveria bassiana, an insect mycopathogen that serves as a main source of fungal insecticides. Deletion of BbTPP resulted in abolished trehalose biosynthesis, reduced conidiation capacity, decreases in conidial thermotolerance and UV-B resistance, increased hyphal sensitivities to chemical stresses, and attenuated virulence. By contrast, over-expression of BbTPP led to increased trehalose accumulation, decreased T6P accumulation, and enhanced stress tolerance and virulence despite little impact on growth and conidiation under normal conditions. These results indicate that BbTPP serves as not only a key player in control of trehalose biosynthesis required for multiple cellular functions but also a potential candidate to be exploited for genetic improvement of fungal potential against insect pests.


Assuntos
Estresse Fisiológico , Trealose , Animais , Proteínas Fúngicas , Deleção de Genes , Insetos , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases , Esporos Fúngicos , Virulência
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