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1.
Elife ; 102021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876725

RESUMO

The multimodal sensory channel transient receptor potential vanilloid-3 (TRPV3) is expressed in epidermal keratinocytes and implicated in chronic pruritus, allergy, and inflammation-related skin disorders. Gain-of-function mutations of TRPV3 cause hair growth disorders in mice and Olmsted Syndrome in human. We here report that mouse and human TRPV3 channel is targeted by the clinical medication dyclonine that exerts a potent inhibitory effect. Accordingly, dyclonine rescued cell death caused by gain-of-function TRPV3 mutations and suppressed pruritus symptoms in vivo in mouse model. At the single-channel level, dyclonine inhibited TRPV3 open probability but not the unitary conductance. By molecular simulations and mutagenesis, we further uncovered key residues in TRPV3 pore region that could toggle the inhibitory efficiency of dyclonine. The functional and mechanistic insights obtained on dyclonine-TRPV3 interaction will help to conceive updated therapeutics for skin inflammation.

2.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; : 1-11, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835879

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite therapeutic vancomycin is regularly monitored, its dose requirements vary considerably between individuals. Various innovative vancomycin dosing strategies have been developed for dose optimization; however, the utilization of individual factors and extensibility is insufficient. We aimed to develop an optimal dosing algorithm for vancomycin based on the high-dimensional data using the proposed variable engineering and machine-learning methods. METHODS: This study proposed a variable engineering process that automatically generates second-order variable interactions. We performed an initial examination of independent variables and interactive variables using eXtreme Gradient Boosting. The vancomycin dose prediction model was established based on the derived variables. RESULTS: Based on the evaluation of the model performance in the validation cohort, our algorithm accounted for 67.5% of variations in the vancomycin doses. Subgroup analysis showed better performance in patients with medium and high body weight (with the ideal predictive percentage of 72.7% and 73.7%), and low and medium levels of serum creatinine (with the ideal predictive percentage of 77.8% and 73.1%) than in other groups. CONCLUSION: The new vancomycin dose prediction model is potentially useful for patients whose population profiles are similar to those of our patients and yielded desired reference of clinical indicators with specific breakpoints.

3.
Water Res ; 198: 117123, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865028

RESUMO

Biodegradable polymers have been regarded as a promising solution to tackle the pollutions caused by the wide use of conventional polymers. However, during the biodegradation process, the material fragmentation leads to microplastics. In this work, the formation of microplastics from biodegradable poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) in different aquatic environments was investigated and compared with the common non-biodegradable low-density polyethylene (LDPE). The results showed that a much larger quantity of plastic fragments/particles were formed in all aquatic environments from PBAT than from LDPE. In addition, UV-A pretreatment, simulating the exposure to sunlight, increased the rate of PBAT microplastic formation significantly. The size distribution and shapes of the formed microplastics were systematically studied, along with changes in the polymer physicochemical properties such as molecular weight, thermal stability, crystallinity, and mechanical properties, to reveal the formation process of microplastics. This study shows that the microplastic risk from biodegradable polymers is high and needs to be further evaluated with regards to longer timeframes, the biological fate of intermediate products, and final products in freshwater, estuarine and seawater natural habitats. Especially, considering that these microplastics may have good biodegradability in warmer 20 - 25° water but will most likely be highly persistent in the world's cold deep seas.

4.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(2)2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669852

RESUMO

The rapid development of advanced high-frequency mobile communication techniques has advanced urgent requirements for polymer materials with high-temperature resistance and good dielectric properties, including low dielectric constants (low-Dk) and low dielectric dissipation factors (low-Df). The relatively poor dielectric properties of common polymer candidates, such as standard polyimides (PIs) greatly limited their application in high-frequency areas. In the current work, benzoxazole units were successfully incorporated into the molecular structures of the fluoro-containing PIs to afford the poly(imide-benzoxazole) (PIBO) nano-fibrous membranes (NFMs) via electrospinning fabrication. First, the PI NFMs were prepared by the electrospinning procedure from organo-soluble PI resins derived from 2,2'-bis(3,4-dicarboxy-phenyl)hexafluoropropane dianhydride (6FDA) and aromatic diamines containing ortho-hydroxy-substituted benzamide units, including 2,2-bis[3-(4-aminobenzamide)-4-hydroxylphenyl]hexafluoropropane (p6FAHP) and 2,2-bis[3-(3-aminobenzamide)-4-hydroxyphenyl]hexafluoropropane (m6FAHP). Then, the PI NFMs were thermally dehydrated at 350 °C in nitrogen to afford the PIBO NFMs. The average fiber diameters (dav) for the PIBO NFMs were 1225 nm for PIBO-1 derived from PI-1 (6FDA-p6FAHP) precursor and 816 nm for PIBO-2 derived from PI-2 (6FDA-m6FAHP). The derived PIBO NFMs showed good thermal stability with the glass transition temperatures (Tgs) over 310 °C and the 5% weight loss temperatures (T5%) higher than 500 °C in nitrogen. The PIBO NFMs showed low dielectric features with the Dk value of 1.64 for PIBO-1 and 1.82 for PIBO-2 at the frequency of 1 MHz, respectively. The Df values were in the range of 0.010~0.018 for the PIBO NFMs.

5.
Perfusion ; : 267659121995999, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673787

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has already become a global pandemic as a public health emergency of international concern. Previous evidence from similar patient populations proved that carefully selected patients with severe ARDS who did not benefit from conventional treatment might be successfully supported with Veno-Venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO). We now share the case reports of COVID-19 patients with ECMO combined prone position strategies.

6.
J Nutr ; 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although recent studies have revealed an association between the composition of the gut microbiota and obesity, whether specific gut microbiota cause obesity has not been determined. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to determine the causal relationship between specific gut microbiota and abdominal obesity. Based on genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics, we performed a 2-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to evaluate whether the gut microbiota affects abdominal obesity. METHODS: Gut microbiota GWAS in 1126 twin pairs (age range, 18-89 years; 89% were females) from the TwinsUK study were used as exposure data. The primary outcome tested was trunk fat mass (TFM) GWAS in 492,805 participants (age range, 40-69 years; 54% were females) from the UK Biobank. The gut microbiota were classified at family, genus, and species levels. A feature was defined as a distinct family, genus, or species. MR analysis was mainly performed by an inverse variance-weighted test or Wald ratio test, depending on the number of instrumental variables (IVs) involved. A sensitivity analysis was performed on significant results by a weighted median test and a weighted genetic risk score (GRS) analysis. RESULTS: Results of MR analyses provided evidence of a causal association between 3 microbiota features and TFM, including 1 family [Lachnosiraceae; P = 0.02; ß = 0.001 (SEE, 4.28 × 10-4)], 1 genus [Bifidobacterium; P = 5.0 × 10-9; ß = -0.08 (SEE, 0.14)], and 1 species [Prausnitzii; P = 0.03; ß = -0.007 (SEE, 0.003)]. Both the weighted median test and GRS analysis successfully validated the association of the genetically predicted family, Lachnosiraceae (Pweighted median = 0.03; PGRS = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provided evidence of a causal association between gut microbiota and TFM in UK adults and identified specific bacteria taxa that may regulate the fat metabolism, thus offering new direction for the treatment of obesity.

7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733742

RESUMO

No one can have missed the growing global environmental problems with plastics ending up as microplastics in food, water, and soil, and the associated effects on nature, wildlife, and humans. A hitherto not specifically investigated source of microplastics is polymer blends. A 1 g polymer blend can contain millions to billions of micrometer-sized species of the dispersed phase and therefore aging-induced fragmentation of the polymer blends can lead to the release of an enormous amount of microplastics. Especially if the stability of the dispersed material is higher than that of the surrounding matrix, the risk of microplastic migration is notable, for instance, if the matrix material is biodegradable and the dispersed material is not. The release can also be much faster if the matrix polymer is biodegradable. The purpose of writing this feature article is to arise public and academic attention to the large microplastic risk from polymer blends during their development, production, use, and waste handling.

8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(4): 972-980, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645104

RESUMO

This study aims to establish a method for the determination of the concentration of five main components of phthalide target areas of Chaxiong(CPTA) and its inclusion of ß-CD in the plasma of rats, and determine the pharmacokinetic parameters, absolute bioavailability and relative bioavailability of CPTA/ß-CD inclusion compound in vivo. The plasma concentrations of senkyunolide A, N-butylphthalide, new osthol lactone, Z-ligustilide and butenyl phthalide were determined with UPLC-MS/MS. The content determination was conducted at the chromatographic conditions as follows: Shim-pack GIST C_(18)-AQ HP column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 3 µm), mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid solution(A)-acetonitrile(B), gradient elution, flow rate of 0.3 mL·min~(-1), column temperature of 35 ℃ and injection volume of 2 µL. The mass spectra were obtained with electrospray ion source(ESI), positive ion mode and multi reaction monitoring. CPTA/ß-CD inclusion compound was prepared by grinding method, DAS 2.0 software was used to model the data, and the absolute bioavailability of CPTA and relative bioavailability of inclusion compound were calculated. Finally, the methods for the determination of five components of senkyunolide A, N-butylphthalide, new osthol lactone, Z-ligustilide and butenyl phthalide in CPTA, were successfully established. The linear relationship among the five components was good within their respective ranges, r>0.99. The absolute bioavailability of the five components in rats was 22.30%, 16.32%, 21.90%, 10.16% and 12.43%, respectively. After CPTA/ß-CD inclusion was prepared, the relative bioavailability of the five components was 138.69%, 198.39%, 218.01%, 224.54% and 363.55%, respectively, significantly improved. This method is rapid, accurate and sensitive, so it is suitable for the pharmacokinetic study of extracts in traditional Chinese medicine and their preparations.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Benzofuranos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Immunol Invest ; : 1-16, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655821

RESUMO

To clarify the role of Y-27632, a selective inhibitor of Rho-associated coiled-coil forming protein kinase (ROCK), in acute lung injury (ALI) induced by myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Mice were randomized into Sham, I/R, and Y-27632 (10, 20 or 30 mg/kg) + I/R groups, and hemodynamics, infarcted area, the protein concentration, neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels were assessed. Pathological changes were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining; protein and gene expression were measured by Western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR); and apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining. ROCK1 and ROCK2 expression was up-regulated in lung tissues of I/R mice compared to sham mice. Y-27632 decreased the protein concentration and the neutrophils in BALF in I/R mice, improved hemodynamics and reduced infarct size (IS)/area at risk (AAR) ratio. In addition, pathological changes in lung tissues of Y-27632-treated mice were mitigated, and these alterations were accompanied by decreases in MDA levels in lung tissues and increases in SOD and GSH-Px levels. Moreover, in I/R group, the number of apoptotic cells in lung tissue was higher than that in sham group, and p53, Caspase-3 and Bax expression was up-regulated; however, following treatment with Y-27632 (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg), these changes were reversed. Inhibition of ROCK pathway by Y-27632 ameliorated ALI in myocardial I/R mice by mitigating oxidative stress, inflammation and cell apoptosis.

10.
Plant Physiol ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764466

RESUMO

Cucurbits are economically important crops worldwide. The genomic data of many cucurbits are now available. However, functional analyses of cucurbit genes and non-coding RNAs have been impeded because genetic transformation is difficult for many cucurbitaceous plants. Here, we developed a set of tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV)-based vectors for gene and microRNA (miRNA) function studies in cucurbits. A TRSV-based expression vector could simultaneously express GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN (GFP) and heterologous viral suppressors of RNA silencing in TRSV-infected plants, while a TRSV-based gene silencing vector could knock down endogenous genes exemplified by PHYTOENE DESATURASE (PDS) in Cucumis melo, Citrullus lanatus, Cucumis sativus, and Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We also developed a TRSV-based miRNA silencing vector to dissect the functions of endogenous miRNAs. Four representative miRNAs, namely, miR159, miR166, miR172, and miR319, from different cucurbits were inserted into the TRSV vector using a short tandem target mimic strategy and induced characteristic phenotypes in TRSV-miRNA-infected plants. This TRSV-based vector system will facilitate functional genomic studies in cucurbits.

11.
Neuroscience ; 461: 118-129, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689862

RESUMO

Poststroke depression (PSD) is a common complication of stroke and has long been a serious threat to human health. PSD greatly affects neurological recovery, quality of life and mortality. Recent studies have shown that 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), an important epigenetic modification, is enriched in the brain and associated with many neurological diseases. However, its role in PSD is still unclear. In this study, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and spatial restraint stress were used to successfully induce a PSD mouse model and resulted in reduced 5hmC levels, which were caused by Tet2. Furthermore, genome-wide analysis of 5hmC revealed that differentially hydroxymethylated regions (DhMRs) were associated with PSD. DhMRs were enriched among genes involved in the Wnt signaling pathway, neuron development and learning or memory. In particular,DhMRs were strongly enriched in genes with lymphoid enhancer factor 1 (LEF1) binding motifs. Finally, we demonstrated that decreases in TET2 expression in the brain caused PSD by decreasing Wnt/ß-catenin/LEF1 pathway signaling to promote inflammatory factor IL-18 expression. In conclusion, our data highlight the potential for 5hmC modification as a therapeutic target for PSD.

12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(10): e25127, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725913

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Prognostic nutritional index (PNI) could reflect the nutrition and inflammation status in cancer patients. This study aims to identify the prognostic significance of PNI in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC).A total of 694 RCC patients from our institution were included in this study. The prognostic correlation between PNI and overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) was analyzed respectively using Kaplan-Meier method and univariate and multivariate Cox model. Studies about the association between pretreatment or preoperative PNI and prognosis of RCC were systemically reviewed and a meta-analysis method was performed to further evaluate the pooled prognostic value of PNI in RCC.267 (38.47%) RCC patients had low PNI according to the cut off value (49.08). Low PNI was associated with poor OS (P < .001) and RFS (P < .001), respectively. In the multivariate Cox analysis, PNI was identified to be an independent prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.13, 95%CI: 1.25-3.62, P = .005). Compared to other nutritional indexes, this risk correlation of PNI is better than that of geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI; HR = 1.19; P = .531), while is no better than that of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR; 1/HR = 2.56; P < .001) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR; 1/HR = 2.85; P < .001) respectively. Meanwhile, additional 4785 patients from 6 studies were included into pooled analysis. For RCC patients who underwent surgery, low preoperative PNI was significantly associated with worse OS (pooled HR = 1.57, 95%CI: 1.37-1.80, P < .001) and worse RFS (pooled HR = 1.69, 95%CI: 1.45-1.96, P < .001). Furthermore, low PNI (<41-51) was also significantly associated with poor OS (HR = 1.78, 95%CI: 1.26-2.53 P < .05) and poor RFS (HR = 2.03, 95%CI: 1.40-2.95, P < .05) in advanced cases treated with targeted therapies.The present evidences show that PNI is an independent prognostic factor in RCC. Low PNI is significant associated with poor prognosis of RCC patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Adulto , Carcinoma de Células Renais/complicações , Carcinoma de Células Renais/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/cirurgia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Neoplasias Renais/complicações , Neoplasias Renais/imunologia , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Nefrectomia , Estado Nutricional/imunologia , Período Pré-Operatório , Prognóstico , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Mol Pharm ; 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754729

RESUMO

Except for routine scaling and root planing, there are few effective nonsurgical therapeutic interventions for periodontitis and associated alveolar bone loss. Simvastatin (SIM), one of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-cosenzyme A reductase inhibitors, which is known for its capacity as a lipid-lowering medication, has been proven to be an effective anti-inflammatory and bone anabolic agent that has shown promising benefits in mitigating periodontal bone loss. The local delivery of SIM into the periodontal pocket, however, has been challenging due to SIM's poor water solubility and its lack of osteotropicity. To overcome these issues, we report a novel SIM formulation of a thermoresponsive, osteotropic, injectable hydrogel (PF127) based on pyrophosphorolated pluronic F127 (F127-PPi). After mixing F127-PPi with F127 at a 1:1 ratio, the resulting PF127 was used to dissolve free SIM to generate the SIM-loaded formulation. The thermoresponsive hydrogel's rheologic behavior, erosion and SIM release kinetics, osteotropic property, and biocompatibility were evaluated in vitro. The therapeutic efficacy of SIM-loaded PF127 hydrogel on periodontal bone preservation and inflammation resolution was validated in a ligature-induced periodontitis rat model. Given that SIM is already an approved medication for hyperlipidemia, the data presented here support the translational potential of the SIM-loaded PF127 hydrogel for better clinical management of periodontitis and associated pathologies.

14.
Food Res Int ; 141: 110146, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33642012

RESUMO

Hong Qu glutinous rice wine (HQ wine) is a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in China by fermenting cooked rice using a fermentation starter prepared with the fungus Monascus purpureus. This starter (Hong Qu, HQ) is made empirically by open spontaneous fermentation that is hard to control and standardize, resulting in inconsistent wine quality. This study investigates representative HQ samples from a large geographic region. It explores fungal microbiome compositions, identifies characteristic differences important for the production of various HQ wine styles, and reveals the key fungi responsible for HQ wine fermentation characteristics. The source of the HQ inoculum was found to be the main factor influencing fungal community composition and diversity, followed by processing technology and geographical distribution. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) uncovered 14 genera as potential biomarkers to distinguish regional varieties of HQ. Significant differences were also found in fermentation characteristics such as liquefying power (LP), saccharifying power (SP), fermenting power (FP), total acid content (TA) and liquor-producing power (LPP). The key fungi responsible for LP (5 genera), SP (3 genera), FP (1 genera), LPP (4 genera), and TA (4 genera) were determined using redundancy correlation analysis. Finally, Spearman's correlation analysis indicated that LPP shows a strong positive correlation with FP and LP, while TA displays a strong negative correlation with FP. The results of this study may be utilized to prepare consistently high quality, next-generation HQ by better controlling fungal community structures, and to design fermentation processes for HQ wines with desirable oenological characteristics.

15.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(2): 609-617, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650371

RESUMO

The wastes such as sewage sludge (SS) can be used to amend soil of abandoned rare-earth mine land (ARL). The energy plant Jatropha curcas could be used as a pioneer tree species in the ARL. In a pot experiment to address the responses of growth and element uptake of J. curcas, three treatments were established: adding SS to the soil of ARL (T1), adding SS and bagasse to the soil of ARL (T2), adding SS, bagasse and passivator to the soil of ARL (T3), with the untreated soil of the ARL as the control (CK). The results showed that compared with CK, T1 only significantly increased the plant height of J. curcas, T2 and T3 significantly increased the plant height, ground diameter and dry biomass of J. curcas, of which the total dry biomass increased by more than 184.7%. All the three treatments significantly increased the contents of N, P, K and Cu in J. curcas. T1 and T2 significantly increased the proportion of exchangeable Zn, Cd and Ni in the substrates, while T3 showed the opposite effects. T3 significantly decreased the migration factor (M) and mobility factor (MF) of Zn, Cd, Ni in the substrates, and significantly reduced the contents of Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni in J. curcas, with an inhibition rate of over 36.1%. The comprehensive evaluation of the membership function showed that the order of growth promotion effects on J. curcas was T2>T3>T1>CK, while the order of capacity of inhibiting J. curcas to accumulate Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni was T3>CK>T2>T1. The combined application of SS and bagasse significantly promoted the growth and element accumulation of J. curcas, and the addition of passivator significantly reduced heavy metals uptake without affecting the growth of J. curcas.


Assuntos
Jatropha , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Metais Pesados/análise , Esgotos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
16.
BMJ ; 372: n48, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify redundant clinical trials evaluating statin treatment in patients with coronary artery disease from mainland China, and to estimate the number of extra major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) experienced by participants not treated with statins in those trials. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: 2577 randomized clinical trials comparing statin treatment with placebo or no treatment in patients with coronary artery disease from mainland China, searched from bibliographic databases to December 2019. PARTICIPANTS: 250 810 patients with any type of coronary artery disease who were enrolled in the 2577 randomized clinical trials. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Redundant clinical trials were defined as randomized clinical trials that initiated or continued recruiting after 2008 (ie, one year after statin treatment was strongly recommended by clinical practice guidelines). The primary outcome is the number of extra MACEs that were attributable to the deprivation of statins among patients in the control groups of redundant clinical trials-that is, the number of extra MACEs that could have been prevented if patients were given statins. Cumulative meta-analyses were also conducted to establish the time points when statins were shown to have a statistically significant effect on coronary artery disease. RESULTS: 2045 redundant clinical trials were identified published between 2008 and 2019, comprising 101 486 patients in the control groups not treated with statins for 24 638 person years. 3470 (95% confidence interval 3230 to 3619) extra MACEs were reported, including 559 (95% confidence interval 506 to 612) deaths, 973 (95% confidence interval 897 to 1052) patients with new or recurrent myocardial infarction, 161 (132 to 190) patients with stroke, 83 (58 to 105) patients requiring revascularization, 398 (352 to 448) patients with heart failure, 1197 (1110 to 1282) patients with recurrent or deteriorated angina pectoris, and 99 (95% confidence interval 69 to 129) unspecified MACEs. CONCLUSIONS: Of more than 2000 redundant clinical trials on statins in patients with coronary artery disease identified from mainland China, an extra 3000 MACEs, including nearly 600 deaths, were experienced by participants not treated with statins in these trials. The scale of redundancy necessitates urgent reform to protect patients.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , China , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
17.
Pancreas ; 50(2): 119-129, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565788

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Microorganisms can help maintain homeostasis in humans by providing nutrition, maintaining hormone balance, and regulating inflammatory responses. In the case of imbalances, these microbes can cause various diseases, even malignancy. Pancreatic cancer (PC) is characterized by high tumor invasiveness, distant metastasis, and insensitivity to traditional chemotherapeutic drugs, and it is confirmed that PC is closely related to microorganisms. Recently, most studies based on clinical samples or case reports discussed the positive or negative relationships between microorganisms and PC. However, the specific mechanisms are blurry, especially the involved immunological pathways, and the roles of beneficial flora have usually been ignored. We reviewed studies published through September 2020 as identified using PubMed, MEDLINE, and Web of Science. We mainly introduced the traits of oral, gastrointestinal, and intratumoral microbes in PC and summarized the roles of these microbes in tumorigenesis and tumoral development through immunological pathways, in addition to illustrating the relationships between metabolic diseases with PC by microorganism. In addition, we identified microorganisms as biomarkers for early diagnosis and immunotherapy. This review will be significant for greater understanding the effect of microorganisms in PC and provide more meaningful guidance for future clinical applications.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593833

RESUMO

Two novel ISCR1-associated dfr genes, dfrA42 and dfrA43, were identified from trimethoprim (TMP)-resistant Proteus strains and were shown to confer high level TMP resistance (MIC ≥ 1024 mg/L) when cloned into Escherichia coli These genes were hosted by complex class 1 integrons suggesting their potentials for dissemination. Analysis of enzymatic parameters and TMP affinity were performed, suggesting that the mechanism of TMP resistance for these novel DHFRs is the reduction of binding with TMP.

19.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Discharge against medical advice may be associated with more readmissions. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate DAMA in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and identify the relationship between DAMA and 30-day unplanned readmissions. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: The National Readmission Database was used to identify inpatients with a primary diagnosis of AIS who were either discharged home or DAMA between 2010 and 2017 in the USA. MEASURES: Demographic features, hospital type, comorbidities, stroke risk factors, severity indices, and treatments were compared between patients discharged routinely and DAMA. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of DAMA, and a double robust inverse probability of treatment weighting method was used to assess the association between DAMA and 30-day unplanned readmissions. KEY RESULTS: Overall, 1,335,484 patients with AIS were included, of whom 2.09% (n = 27,892) were DAMA. The prevalence of DAMA in AIS patients increased from 1.65 in 2010 to 2.57% in 2017. The rates of 30-day unplanned readmissions for DAMA and non-DAMA patients were 16.81% and 7.78%, respectively. Patients with drug abuse, alcohol abuse, smoking, prior stroke, psychoses, and intravenous thrombolysis had greater odds of DAMA. DAMA was associated with all-cause readmissions (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 2.01-2.07) and remained a strong predictor for transient ischemic attack/stroke-specific and cardiac-specific causes of readmissions. CONCLUSIONS: Although the DAMA rate is low in AIS patients, DAMA is a risk factor for all-cause and recurrent stroke-specific readmissions. Future studies are needed to address issues around compliance and engagement with health care to reduce DAMA.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527195

RESUMO

Feng Shi Gu Tong (FSGT) capsule is a commonly used Chinese Traditional Patent Medicine in clinical practice, which has been proven to be effective for the treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, due to its complex composition, the precise molecular mechanism of the FSGT capsule in the treatment of RA is still indistinct. Therefore, the method of systemic pharmacology was used to obtain candidate compounds through absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination (ADME) parameters, and supplementation of references. Network construction and analysis were also included to reveal the potential mechanism of FSGT capsule in treating RA. A total of 119 compounds were obtained in FSGT capsule, and a total of 107 compounds with targets were included in the study. These compounds acted on 267 targets in total. In addition, there were 317 targets related to RA disease. All constructed networks included four major networks and four minor networks. In addition, the clusters of RA disease protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and FSGT capsule-RA disease targets network revealed that the biological process involved in these clusters including immune response and apoptosis, etc. The pathways enriched by the direct targets of FSGT capsule acted on RA also highly overlapped with the pathways enriched by the RA PPI network, such as the TNF signaling pathway. Our research has managed to predict and explain the pharmacological effects and the molecular mechanisms of the FSGT capsule in RA, and provided a realistic exploration method for studying the potentially active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines simultaneously.

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