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1.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21254702

RESUMO

Worldwide governments have rapidly deployed non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic, together with the large-scale rollout of vaccines since late 2020. However, the effect of these individual NPI and vaccination measures across space and time has not been sufficiently explored. By the decay ratio in the suppression of COVID-19 infections, we investigated the performance of different NPIs across waves in 133 countries, and their integration with vaccine rollouts in 63 countries as of 25 March 2021. The most effective NPIs were gathering restrictions (contributing 27.83% in the infection rate reductions), facial coverings (16.79%) and school closures (10.08%) in the first wave, and changed to facial coverings (30.04%), gathering restrictions (17.51%) and international travel restrictions (9.22%) in the second wave. The impact of NPIs had obvious spatiotemporal variations across countries by waves before vaccine rollouts, with facial coverings being one of the most effective measures consistently. Vaccinations had gradually contributed to the suppression of COVID-19 transmission, from 0.71% and 0.86% within 15 days and 30 days since Day 12 after vaccination, to 1.23% as of 25 March 2021, while NPIs still dominated the pandemic mitigation. Our findings have important implications for continued tailoring of integrated NPI or NPI-vaccination strategies against future COVID-19 waves or similar infectious diseases.

2.
Preprint | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-438614

RESUMO

The trimeric spike protein (S) mediates host-cell entry and membrane fusion of SARS-CoV-2. S protein is highly glycosylated, whereas its O-glycosylation is still poorly understood. Herein, we site-specifically examine the O-glycosylation of S protein through a mass spectrometric approach with HCD-triggered-ETD model. We identify 15 high-confidence O-glycosites and at least 10 distinct O-glycan structures on S protein. Peptide microarray assays prove that human ppGalNAc-T6 actively participates in O-glycosylation of S protein. Importantly, the upregulation of ppGalNAc-T6 expression can profoundly enhance the O-glycosylation level by generating new O-glycosites and increasing both O-glycan heterogeneity and intensities. Further molecular dynamics simulations reveal that the O-glycosylation on the protomer-interface regions, which are mainly modified by ppGalNAc-T6, can potentially stabilize the trimeric S protein structure. Our work provides deep molecular insights of how viral infection harnesses the host O-glycosyltransferases to dynamically regulate the O-glycosylation level of the viral envelope protein responsible for membrane fusion.

3.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 21(1): 57, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of miR-23b-3p in insulin resistance (IR) remained poorly understood. METHODS: After acacetin injection, obesity-induced IR model was constructed with or without miR-23b-3p upregulation and Neuraminidase 1 (NEU1) overexpression in mice. Body weight, serum metabolite and fat percent of the mice were measured. Tests on oral glucose and insulin tolerance were performed, and inflammatory cytokines C-reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) levels were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The binding sites between miR-23b-3p and NEU1 were predicted by TargetScan, and verified using dual-luciferase reporter assay. Relative expressions were detected with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. Proportion of Treg and Th17 cells in total CD4+ T cells was detected with flow cytometry. RESULTS: MiR-23b-3p offset the effects of acacetin on body weight, fat percent, inflammatory cytokines levels and expressions of markers of regulatory T cells (Treg cells) and T helper 17 cells (Th17 cells), NEU1 and miR-23b-3p. NEU1 was a target of miR-23b-3p, and overexpressed NEU1 reversed the effects of upregulated miR-23b-3p on reducing Treg cells but increased body weight, fat percent and inflammatory cytokines levels, percentage of Th17 cells, and upregulated NEU1 expression. CONCLUSION: Upregulation of miR-23b-3p offset the effects of acacetin on obesity-induced IR through regulating Treg/Th17 cell balance via targeting NEU1.The present findings provide a possible prevention strategy for obesity-induced IR.

4.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 34(3): 260-4, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787172

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the short-term prognosis of elderly patients with hip fracture after operation, and to explore the main factors affecting the recovery of daily life function. METHODS: From November 2015 to November 2016, 130 elderly patients with hip fracture were analyzed, including 43 males and 87 females, aged from 60 to 95 (77.54±8.49) years. The death, fall and complications were recorded 3 months after operation. The daily life function of the patients was followed up 3 months after operation with the functional recovery of daily life scale (FRS). T-test, analysis of variance and single factor linear regression analysis were used to analyze the general clinical data. The factors with P<0.05 were analyzed by multi factor linear regression method, and the influencing factors of postoperative ADL were obtained. RESULTS: Among 130 patients, 7 died (5.4%), 4 fell (3.1%), 103 (79.2%) had postoperative complications, and the FRS score of 123 patients was 65.92±22.79. The results showed that gender, age, fracture site, pre fracture Basel rating, frailty index, postoperative hospital stay and total number of postoperative complications had significant differences in the recovery of daily life function (P<0.05);multiple linear regression analysis showed that pre fracture Basel rating (t=-2.727, P=0.007), frailty index (t=-2.573, P=0.011) and postoperative hospital stay had significant differences. The days of hospital stay (t=-3.391, P=0.001) and the total number of postoperative complications (t=-3.281, P=0.001) were the independent risk factors for postoperative ADL in elderly patients with hip fracture (R2=0.411). CONCLUSION: The short term rehabilitation level of elderly patients with hip fracture after operation is poor. Basel rating before fracture, frailty index, postoperative hospital stay and total number of postoperative complications may be related risk factors affecting the recovery of daily life function of patients after operation.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Quadril , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Período Pós-Operatório , Fatores de Risco
5.
Int J Neural Syst ; : 2150016, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775230

RESUMO

Pathological slowing in the electroencephalogram (EEG) is widely investigated for the diagnosis of neurological disorders. Currently, the gold standard for slowing detection is the visual inspection of the EEG by experts, which is time-consuming and subjective. To address those issues, we propose three automated approaches to detect slowing in EEG: Threshold-based Detection System (TDS), Shallow Learning-based Detection System (SLDS), and Deep Learning-based Detection System (DLDS). These systems are evaluated on channel-, segment-, and EEG-level. The three systems perform prediction via detecting slowing at individual channels, and those detections are arranged in histograms for detection of slowing at the segment- and EEG-level. We evaluate the systems through Leave-One-Subject-Out (LOSO) cross-validation (CV) and Leave-One-Institution-Out (LOIO) CV on four datasets from the US, Singapore, and India. The DLDS achieved the best overall results: LOIO CV mean balanced accuracy (BAC) of 71.9%, 75.5%, and 82.0% at channel-, segment- and EEG-level, and LOSO CV mean BAC of 73.6%, 77.2%, and 81.8% at channel-, segment-, and EEG-level. The channel- and segment-level performance is comparable to the intra-rater agreement (IRA) of an expert of 72.4% and 82%. The DLDS can process a 30 min EEG in 4 s and can be deployed to assist clinicians in interpreting EEGs.

6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(3): 921-930, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754558

RESUMO

Fertilization is an effective way to improve soil quality, increase soil fertility and soil microbial diversity in paddy soil. To explore the changes of soil labile organic carbon (C) fractions and hydrolytic enzyme activity after 34 years fertilization treatments in a field experiment in double-cropping rice system of southern China. There were four treatments, including chemical fertilizer alone (MF), rice residue and chemical fertilizer (RF), 30% organic matter and 70% chemical fertilizer (OM), and the control without fertilizer input (CK). We measured soil organic carbon (SOC) content, soil labile organic C fractions, SOC related hydrolytic enzyme activity, correlation coefficients of soil enzyme activity with SOC content and its labile organic C fractions. The results showed that MF, RF and OM increased SOC content by 4.5%, 22.4% and 53.5%, respectively. Compared with MF and CK, RF and OM increased soil labile organic C fractions [cumulative C mineralization (Cmin), permanganate oxidizable C (KMnO4-C), particulate organic C (POC), dissolved organic C (DOC), light fraction organic C (LFOC), microbial biomass C (MBC)] and the proportion of each labile organic C fractions to total organic C. The contents of Cmin, KMnO4-C, POC, DOC, LFOC and MBC under OM treatment were 3.5, 3.1, 3.7, 1.9, 1.2 and 1.9 times higher than CK treatment, respectively. The proportion of labile organic C fractions to total organic C of RF and OM treatments was significantly higher than that in CK. The order of soil hydrolytic enzyme activity [α-glucosidase (αG), ß-glucosidase (ßG), ß-xylosidase (ßX), cellobiohydrolase (GBH), and N-acetyl-ß-glucosaminidase (NAG)] was OM>RF>MF>CK. The soil hydrolytic enzyme activity under OM treatment increased by 111.8%, 14.1%, 127.3%, 285.6% and 91.4% compared with CK, respectively. Furthermore, RF and OM treatments were beneficial to soil peroxidase (POD) activity. MF treatment was beneficial to soil polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity. There was a significant positive correlation between soil hydrolytic enzyme activity and SOC content and its labile organic C fractions. In conclusion, the combined application of organic manure, rice straw returning and chemical fertilizer is an effective method to improve soil labile organic C fractions and hydrolytic enzyme activity in a double-cropping rice paddy field of southern China.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Oryza , Agricultura , Carbono/análise , China , Fertilizantes/análise , Solo
7.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(2)2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669372

RESUMO

Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing exhibits a real-time and label-free feature to monitor the response of cells stimulated by various biochemical and mechanical signals. Alterations in the currents passing through the cell-electrode system characterize the impedance variations of cells. The impedance responses of HeLa cells under distinct chemotherapy drugs combine the effects of cell proliferation and cell-substrate adhesion. Optimal interdigitated electrodes were selected to explore the impedance responses of HeLa cells. Measurements of impedance of cells in response to three widely used chemotherapy drugs in clinical practice, namely cisplatin, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, were performed. The results demonstrated that distinct impedance responses of HeLa cells to drugs were exhibited and a decrease in measured impedance was observed after drug treatment, accompanied by alterations in the distribution and intensity of the adhesion-related protein vinculin and the rate of cell proliferation. The link between the impedance profiles of HeLa cells and their biological functions was developed based on the circuit model. This study demonstrated the weights of cell proliferation and adhesion of HeLa cells under the treatments of DDP, DOX, and 5-FU, resulted in distinct impedance responses of cells, providing an impedance-based evaluation methodology for cervical cancer treatment.

8.
Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc ; 55(1): 9-15, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650504

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the strength of the locking plate and lag screw construct that is applied in two different working lengths on the simple distal femur fracture model with a finite element analysis (FEA) method. METHODS: From the computerized tomography scan data of a 60-year-old healthy male, the AO/OTA 33A1-type fracture model was simulated; the fracture gap was stabilized with the models of locking plate construct with (groups C and D) or without an interfragmentary lag screw (groups A and B). Furthermore, 102-mm plate (groups A and C) and 82-mm plate working lengths (groups B and D) were tested using FEA. Two loading conditions (axial compression and torsion) were applied at the center of the femoral head. Construct stiffness, interfragmentary micromotion, and the peak von Mises stress (VMS) on the plate were assessed. RESULTS: Group D provided the highest axial stiffness (1347 N/mm), and group A was the weakest (439 N/mm). With the lag screw, shear micromotion remained generally low compared with that without the screw for all axial and torsional load levels and for both plate working lengths, i.e., 0.23 mm with lag screw versus 0.43 mm without lag screw (102 mm working length, 700 N). The percentage decreases of shear micromotion under axial (350/700/1400 N) and torsional loads for the 102-mm working length were >22% and 73%, respectively; while those for the 82-mm working length were >28% and 33%, respectively. The reduction of axial micromotion was observed with the lag screw for all axial load levels as well as for both plate working lengths, i.e., 0.33 mm with lag screw versus 0.87 mm without lag screw (102-mm working length, 700 N). The percentage decreases of axial micromotion under axial loading (350/700/1400 N) for 102 mm and 82 mm working lengths were >42% and 50%, respectively. The peak VMS on the plate stayed generally low with lag screw compared with without lag screw throughout all tested load levels, as well as for both plate working lengths, i.e., 124.26 MPa versus 244.39 MPa (102 mm working length, 700 N). The percentage decreases of the peak VMS under axial (350/700/1400 N) and torsional loads for the 102-mm working length were >40% and 69%, respectively, while those for the 82-mm working length were >47% and 61%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The current FEA concludes that in a simple distal femur fracture, adding a lag screw to a locking plate construct provides better torsional stability with a 102-mm plate working length and better axial stability with a 82-mm plate working length. Additionally, the strength of the materials is increased and implant failure can be minimized by using this technique.

9.
Oncol Rep ; 45(3): 1235-1248, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650672

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer amongst women worldwide, and numerous microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are involved in the initiation and progression of breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to identify hub miRNAs and determine the underlying mechanisms regulated by these miRNAs in breast cancer. Breast invasive carcinoma transcriptome data (including mRNAs and miRNAs), and clinical data were acquired from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Differential gene expression analysis, co­expression network analysis, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and prognosis analysis were used to screen the hub miRNAs and explore their functions. Functional experiments were used to determine the underlying mechanisms of the hub miRNAs in breast cancer cells. The results revealed that low miR150 expression predicted a more advanced disease stage, and was associated with a less favorable prognosis. Through the combined use of five miRNA­target gene prediction tools, 31 potential miR150 target genes were identified. GSEA revealed that low miR150 expression was associated with the upregulation of several cancer­associated signaling pathways, and the downregulation of several tumor suppressor genes. Furthermore, miR150 independently affected overall survival in patients, and interacted with its target genes to indirectly affect overall and disease­free survival. Functional experiments demonstrated that miR150 positively regulated B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA), and the downregulation of miR150 and BTLA combined promoted cell migration. In conclusion, the present study revealed that low miR150 expression was associated with less favorable clinical features, upregulation of several carcinogenic signaling pathways, and poor patient survival. Additionally, a miR150­BTLA axis was suggested to regulate cell viability and migration.

10.
Comput Med Imaging Graph ; 89: 101882, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684730

RESUMO

Neuroimaging data driven machine learning based predictive modeling and pattern recognition has been attracted strongly attention in biomedical sciences. Machine learning based diagnosis techniques are widely applied in diagnosis of neurological diseases. However, machine learning techniques are difficult to effectively extract deep information in neuroimaging data, resulting in low classification accuracy of mental illnesses. To address this problem, we propose a deep learning based automatic diagnosis first-episode psychosis (FEP), bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy controls (HC) method. Specifically, we design a convolutional neural network (CNN) framework to automatically diagnosis based on structural magnetic functional imaging (sMRI). Our dataset consists of 89 FEP patients, 40 BD patients and 83 HC. A three-way classifier (FEP vs. BD vs. HC) and three binary classifiers (FEP vs. BD, FEP vs. HC, BD vs. HC) are trained based on their gray matter volume images. Experiment results show that the performance of CNN-based method outperforms the classic classifiers both in two and three categories classification task. Our research reveals that abnormal gray matter volume is one of the main characteristics for discriminating FEP, BD and HC.

11.
Carbohydr Polym ; 260: 117769, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712127

RESUMO

Periodontal defect poses a significant challenge in orthopedics. Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) membrane is considered as one of the most successful methods applied to reconstruct alveolar bone and then to achieve periodontal defect repair/regeneration. In this paper, a novel polyamide-6/chitosan@nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide-6 (PA6/CS@n-HA/PA6) bilayered tissue guided membranes by combining a solvent casting and an electrospinning technique was designed. The developed PA6/CS@n-HA/PA6 composites were characterized by a series of tests. The results show that n-HA/PA6 and electrospun PA6/CS layers are tightly bound by molecular interaction and chemical bonding, which enhances the bonding strength between two distinct layers. The porosity and adsorption average pore diameter of the PA6/CS@n-HA/PA6 membranes are 36.90 % and 22.61 nm, respectively. The tensile strength and elastic modulus of PA6/CS@n-HA/PA6 composites are 1.41 ± 0.18 MPa and 7.15 ± 1.09 MPa, respectively. In vitro cell culture studies demonstrate that PA6/CS@n-HA/PA6 bilayered scaffolds have biological safety, good bioactivity, biocompatibility and osteoconductivity.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea , Caprolactama/análogos & derivados , Quitosana/química , Durapatita/química , Membranas Artificiais , Nanoestruturas/química , Polímeros/química , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Caprolactama/química , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Nanofibras/química , Nanoestruturas/toxicidade , Porosidade , Propriedades de Superfície , Resistência à Tração
12.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248742, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In dealing with community spread of COVID-19, two active interventions have been attempted or advocated-containment, and mitigation. Given the extensive impact of COVID-19 globally, there is international interest to learn from best practices that have been shown to work in controlling community spread to inform future outbreaks. This study explores the trajectory of COVID-19 infection in Singapore had the government intervention not focused on containment, but rather on mitigation. In addition, we estimate the actual COVID-19 infection cases in Singapore, given that confirmed cases are publicly available. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a COVID-19 infection model, which is a modified SIR model that differentiate between detected (diagnosed) and undetected (undiagnosed) individuals and segments total population into seven health states: susceptible (S), infected asymptomatic undiagnosed (A), infected asymptomatic diagnosed (I), infected symptomatic undiagnosed (U), infected symptomatic diagnosed (E), recovered (R), and dead (D). To account for the infection stages of the asymptomatic and symptomatic infected individuals, the asymptomatic infected individuals were further disaggregated into three infection stages: (a) latent (b) infectious and (c) non-infectious; while the symptomatic infected were disaggregated into two stages: (a) infectious and (b) non-infectious. The simulation result shows that by the end of the current epidemic cycle without considering the possibility of a second wave, under the containment intervention implemented in Singapore, the confirmed number of Singaporeans infected with COVID-19 (diagnosed asymptomatic and symptomatic cases) is projected to be 52,053 (with 95% confidence range of 49,370-54,735) representing 0.87% (0.83%-0.92%) of the total population; while the actual number of Singaporeans infected with COVID-19 (diagnosed and undiagnosed asymptomatic and symptomatic infected cases) is projected to be 86,041 (81,097-90,986), which is 1.65 times the confirmed cases and represents 1.45% (1.36%-1.53%) of the total population. A peak in infected cases is projected to have occurred on around day 125 (27/05/2020) for the confirmed infected cases and around day 115 (17/05/2020) for the actual infected cases. The number of deaths is estimated to be 37 (34-39) among those infected with COVID-19 by the end of the epidemic cycle; consequently, the perceived case fatality rate is projected to be 0.07%, while the actual case fatality rate is estimated to be 0.043%. Importantly, our simulation model results suggest that there about 65% more COVID-19 infection cases in Singapore that have not been captured in the official reported numbers which could be uncovered via a serological study. Compared to the containment intervention, a mitigation intervention would have resulted in early peak infection, and increase both the cumulative confirmed and actual infection cases and deaths. CONCLUSION: Early public health measures in the context of targeted, aggressive containment including swift and effective contact tracing and quarantine, was likely responsible for suppressing the number of COVID-19 infections in Singapore.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Saúde Pública , /prevenção & controle , Busca de Comunicante , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Quarentena , Singapura/epidemiologia
13.
Pharmacol Res ; 166: 105470, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529751

RESUMO

The beneficial effects of antioxidants against oxidative stress have been well described. However, the pharmacological impacts of antioxidants other than inhibiting the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) remain less understood. This study demonstrated that diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a canonical NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) inhibitor, effectively promoted non-opsonized bacterial phagocytosis. Indeed, DPI abrogated the elevation in the extracellular ATP level of Escherichia coli (E. coli) -infected murine peritoneal macrophages, thereby restoring the association of the purinergic receptor P2X7 with non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9) to upregulate the P2X7 -dependent phagocytosis of E. coli. DPI also suppressed inflammasome activation and reduced necroptosis in E. coli-infected macrophages by decreasing extracellular ATP levels. Mechanistically, DPI upregulated p38 MAPK phosphorylation to suppress the expression and activity of the hemichannel protein connexin 43 (CX43), leading to the inhibition of CX43-mediated ATP efflux in E. coli-infected macrophages. In a murine E. coli infection model, DPI effectively reduced ATP release, decreased bacterial load and inhibited inflammasome activation, thereby improving survival and ameliorating organ injuries in model mice. In summary, our study demonstrates a previously unknown function of DPI in conferring protection against bacterial infection and suggests a putative antimicrobial strategy of modulating CX43 -dependent ATP leakage.

14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 137: 111320, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578232

RESUMO

In China, Baitouweng Tang (BTWT) is a commonly prescribed remedy for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Herein, the present study aims to assess the anti-colitis activity of BTWT and its underlying mechanisms in UC BALB/c mice. Induction of UC in BALB/c mice was carried out by adding 3.5% DSS in the drinking water of underlined mice. After UC induction, the mice were administrated with BTWT for 7 days. Clinical symptoms were assessed, followed by analyzing the bile acids (BAs) in serum, liver, colon, bile, and feces of UC mice through UPLC-MS/MS. The modified 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing was carried out to examine the gut microbiota of feces. BTWT significantly improved the clinical symptoms such as and histological injury and colon shortening in UC induced mice. Furthermore, BTWT remarkably ameliorated colonic inflammatory response. After BTWT treatment, the increased concentrations of UDCA, HDCA, αMCA, ßMCA, CA, and GLCA in UC were decreased, and the levels of some BAs, especially CA, αMCA, and ßMCA were normalized. Moreover, the relative species abundance and gut microbiota diversity in the BTWT-exposed groups were found to be considerably elevated than those in the DSS-treated group. BTWT increased the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Tenericutes, and TM7, which were statistically lower in the fecal microbiota of UC mice. The relative abundance of Bacteroidetes was found to be elevated in the DSS group and normalized after BTWT treatment. BTWT increased the expression of FXR and TGR5 in the liver. BTWT administration improved DSS-induced mice signs by increasing the TGR5 and FXR expression levels. This result was achieved by the regulation of the BAs and gut microbiota.

15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(6): e24593, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goals of improving quality of life and increasing longevity are receiving growing amounts of attention. Body weight and lipid metabolism are closely related to various complications of diabetes. The aim of this study was to rank SGLT inhibitors according to their efficacy with regard to weight and evaluate the effect of SGLT inhibitors on lipid metabolism at 24 weeks of treatment. METHODS: The Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and Clinical Trials databases were electronically searched to collect randomized controlled trials involving patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus through June 2020. Two researchers independently screened and evaluated the selected studies and extracted the outcome indexes. ADDIS 1.16.5 and STATA 16 software were used to perform the network meta-analysis and draw the plots. RESULTS: Ultimately, 36 studies were selected and included in this study. We found that all SGLT inhibitors were effective at reducing weight; canagliflozin was the most effective. SGLT inhibitors and placebo were not associated with significantly different serum cholesterol levels. SGLT inhibitors lowered serum triglyceride levels and increased serum high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. SGLT inhibitors also reduced the level of alanine aminotransferase. CONCLUSIONS: SGLT inhibitors can bring about weight loss in patients with T2DM and can also improve lipid metabolism. Therefore, patients with hyperlipidemia who have been unsuccessful at losing weight should consider taking SGLT inhibitors. In addition, SGLT inhibitors are hepatoprotective and appear to be safe for patients with mild to moderate liver dysfunction. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CRD42020198516.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacologia
16.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e040718, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608398

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most common organ dysfunction in sepsis, and increases the risk of unfavourable outcomes. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is the predominant treatment for sepsis-associated AKI (SAKI). However, to date, no prospective randomised study has adequately addressed whether initiating RRT earlier will attenuate renal injury and improve the outcome of sepsis. The objective of the trial is to compare the early strategy with delayed strategy on the outcomes in patients with SAKI in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a large-scale, multicentre, randomised controlled trial about SAKI. In total, 460 patients with sepsis and evidence of AKI stage 2 of Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) will be recruited and equally randomised into the early group and the delay group in a ratio of 1:1. In the early group, continuous RRT (CRRT) will be started immediately after randomisation. In the delay group, CRRT will initiated if at least one of the following criteria was met: stage 3 of KDIGO, severe hyperkalaemia, pulmonary oedema, blood urea nitrogen level higher than 112 mg/dL after randomisation. The primary outcome is overall survival in a 90-day follow-up period (90-day all-cause mortality). Other end points include 28-day, 60-day and 1-year mortality, recovery rate of renal function by day 28 and day 90, ICU and hospital length of stay, the numbers of CRRT-free days, mechanical ventilation-free days and vasopressor-free days, the rate of complications potentially related to CRRT, CRRT-related cost, and concentrations of inflammatory mediators in serum. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial has been approved by the Clinical Research and Application Institutional Review Board of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University (2017-31-ks-01). Participants will be screened and enrolled from patients in the ICU with SAKI by clinicians, with no public advertisement for recruitment. Results will be disseminated in research journals and through conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03175328.

17.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(1): 333-339, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a global public health problem and China is one of the 22 countries with a high TB burden. The characteristics of the epidemic of TB in China include a high rate of infection, high prevalence, serious drug resistance, and low rate of decline and the TB epidemic in Guizhou Province is more serious than in other parts of the country. We conducted a survey during September and October 2019 to investigate public awareness of core TB information. METHODS: A multi-stage, stratified random sampling method was used to survey individuals at 18 investigation sites on their awareness of core information related to TB. SPSS22.0 software was used to analyze data and P<0.05 was considered statistically different. RESULTS: Of the 10,563 questionnaires collected, the total awareness rate of TB, the awareness rates of transmission, symptoms, treatment (doctor visit way), preferential policies, and prognosis of TB were 62.5% (95% CI: 0.6169-0.6329), 62.8% (95% CI: 0.6190-0.6374), 75.2% (95% CI: 0.7434-0.7599), 66.4% (95% CI: 0.6553-0.6733), 39.1% (95% CI: 0.3819-0.4005), 61.2% (95% CI: 0.6029-0.6215) respectively. The personal awareness qualified rate was 45.0% (95% CI: 0.4404-0.4594) and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that education was the main factor associated with awareness of TB. CONCLUSIONS: Public awareness of the core information about TB is low in Guizhou Province. Intensive education about TB should be carried out.

18.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590299

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study presents a retrospective study aimed to analyze the facial features at each stage of surgical-orthodontic treatment for skeletal class III malocclusion, and predict the changes in the lips after treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: There were 49 skeletal class III malocclusion patients treated with bimaxillary surgery and orthodontic treatment enrolled in this study. Lateral cephalograms were obtained before treatment (T0), 1 month before surgery (T1), 1 month after surgery (T2), and after debonding (T3) for cephalometric measurements. After the measurement of the required variables, paired t-test, Pearson's correlation analysis, and multiple linear regression were performed using SPSS 19.0. RESULTS: The main factors associated with changes in the upper lip included ΔUIE-V, ΔA-V, ΔU1A-V, and ΔL1A-V, and those associated with changes in the lower lip included ΔLIE-V, ΔL1A-V, ΔB-V, ΔPog-V, and Δfacial angle. The predicted regression equation for the horizontal change in the upper lip was represented as ΔUL-vertical reference line (VRL) = 9.430 + 0.779 (ΔUIE-VRL) - 0.542(VULT) (P < 0.05) with a mean error of 1.04 mm; the corresponding equation for the lower lip was ΔLL-VRL = -1.670 + 0.530 (ΔB-VRL) + 0.360 (Ls-E) + 0.393 (ΔLIE-VRL) (P < 0.05), with a mean error of 1.51 mm. CONCLUSIONS: This study explored the relationship between orthognathic surgery and changes in the lips and obtained the predictive equations of lip position after treatment by using multiple linear regression, which likely offers a reference for prediction of soft tissue changes before surgical-orthodontic treatment in patients with skeletal class III malocclusion. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The findings can help dentists to rapidly predict the lip changes after surgical-orthodontic treatment in patients with skeletal class III malocclusion. The study has been registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registration (No: ChiCTR1800017694).

19.
Neurochem Res ; 46(3): 564-572, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580369

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Increasing evidence shows that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) methylation plays an essential role in many diseases related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Since mitochondrial impairment is a key feature of AD, mtDNA methylation may also contribute to AD, but few studies have addressed this issue. Methylation changes of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (CYTB) and cytochrome c oxidase II (COX II) genes in AD have not been reported. We analyzed mtDNA methylation changes of the CYTB and COX II genes in an APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model of AD using pyrosequencing. We examined mtDNA copy numbers and the levels of expression by quantitative real-time PCR. Average methylation levels of different CpG sites were ≤ 4.0%. Methylated mtDNA accounted for only a small part of the total mtDNA. We also observed hypermethylation of mitochondrial CYTB and COX II genes with decreased mtDNA copy numbers and expression in the hippocampi of APP/PS1 transgenic mice. mtDNA methylation may play an important role in AD pathology, which may open a new window for AD therapy.

20.
Int J Neural Syst ; 31(5): 2050074, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438530

RESUMO

The diagnosis of epilepsy often relies on a reading of routine scalp electroencephalograms (EEGs). Since seizures are highly unlikely to be detected in a routine scalp EEG, the primary diagnosis depends heavily on the visual evaluation of Interictal Epileptiform Discharges (IEDs). This process is tedious, expert-centered, and delays the treatment plan. Consequently, the development of an automated, fast, and reliable epileptic EEG diagnostic system is essential. In this study, we propose a system to classify EEG as epileptic or normal based on multiple modalities extracted from the interictal EEG. The ensemble system consists of three components: a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)-based IED detector, a Template Matching (TM)-based IED detector, and a spectral feature-based classifier. We evaluate the system on datasets from six centers from the USA, Singapore, and India. The system yields a mean Leave-One-Institution-Out (LOIO) cross-validation (CV) area under curve (AUC) of 0.826 (balanced accuracy (BAC) of 76.1%) and Leave-One-Subject-Out (LOSO) CV AUC of 0.812 (BAC of 74.8%). The LOIO results are found to be similar to the interrater agreement (IRA) reported in the literature for epileptic EEG classification. Moreover, as the proposed system can process routine EEGs in a few seconds, it may aid the clinicians in diagnosing epilepsy efficiently.

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