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1.
J Affect Disord ; 266: 753-759, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychological Strain Scales (PSS) were developed to measure four types of strain comprising value strain, deprivation strain, aspiration strain, and coping strain. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of 40-item PSS in suicide attempters and community controls of rural China. METHODS: Data of this study came from the investigation of 132 suicide attempters and their paired community controls matched with the same sex, age (±3 years) and residence in five counties in rural Shandong, China. The Chinese version of PSS, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI) and the Self-esteem Scale (SES) were administered and reliability test and validity test of the PSS were conducted. RESULTS: Cronbach's α and Guttman Spilt-Half coefficient of PSS was 0.942 and 0.842 for suicide attempters, and 0.950 and 0.874 for community controls. For both suicide attempters and community controls, the Exploratory Factor Analysis indicated a one-factor structure of each strain scale, which accorded with the original factor structure proposed by the authors. The scores of the total PSS and four subscales were positively correlated with the scores of CES-D and TAI; and negatively correlated with the score of SES, which indicated a good performance in convergent validity. LIMITATIONS: This study was limited to its generalizability to the Chinese urban population. CONCLUSIONS: The Chinese version of the 40-item PSS has satisfactory psychometric properties in terms of reliability and validity in Chinese rural suicide attempters and community controls.

2.
Vet Microbiol ; 242: 108588, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122592

RESUMO

Coinfection with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Mycoplasma hyorhinis (Mhr) can induce more-severe disease than a single infection with either. We evaluated the efficacy of a new vaccine combining inactivated PCV2 and Mhr, in a model of PCV2 and Mhr infection. Twenty-five 35-day-old PCV2- and Mhr-free pigs were randomly divided into five groups, with five pigs in each group. The pigs in groups 1 and 2 were vaccinated with the combined vaccine and then challenged with Mhr or PCV2, respectively. The pigs in groups 3 and 4 were not vaccinated and then challenged with PCV2 or Mhr, respectively, and group 5 was used as the unvaccinated unchallenged control. Two weeks after booster immunization via the intramuscular route, all the pigs except those in control group 5 were challenged with PCV2 or Mhr. All the pigs were euthanized 28 days after challenge. The pigs in vaccinated groups 1 and 2 showed a significant increase in weight after challenge with PCV2 or Mhr (P < 0.001), with an average daily gain (ADG) of 0.315 kg compared with unvaccinated groups 3 and 4 (0.279 kg). Mhr was isolated from the unvaccinated pig lungs after Mhr challenge, whereas it was not isolated from the vaccinated pigs. No PCV2 or Mhr was detected with PCR or histochemical staining in vaccinated groups 1 and 2. A statistical analysis showed that the PCV2 and Mhr combined vaccine providing protected against PCV2 infection causing viremia and inguinal lymphadenopathy (5 pigs protected out 5) or against Mhr infection causing fiber inflammation (4 pigs out 5). Thus, we have developed an effective combined vaccine for the prevention and control of PCV2 or Mhr infections in swine herds, this will help reduce prevalence of PCV2 and Mhr coinfections.

3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 112775, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205259

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sophora alopecuroides L is one of the most commonly used plants in traditional medicine for the management conditions including inflammatory and gastrointestinal disease. However, the therapeutic mechanism of Sophora alopecuroides L.particularly in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the treatment effects of total alkaloids of Sophora alopecuroides L. in a ulcerative colitis (UC) mouse model and explore the therapeutic mechanism of KDZ on UC based on bile acid metabolism and gut microbiota. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Colitis was induced in BALB/c mice by administering 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days. The mice were then given KDZ (300, 150, and 75 mg/kg) and the positive drug sulfasalazine (SASP, 450 mg/kg) via oral administration for 7 days. The levels of 23 bile acids in the liver, bile, serum, cecum content, and colon were determined through ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The cecum microbiota was characterized through high-throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing. RESULTS: KDZ treatment significantly increased the disease activity index (DAI) scores and ameliorated colonic injury in DSS-treated mice. The expression of IL-1ß, TGF-ß1 were suppressed, yet, IL-10 was up-regulated by KDZ and SASP treatment compared to the model group. Meanwhile, the serum contents of total bile acid and total cholesterol in the DSS group increased significantly compared with those in the control group, but reversed by SASP and KDZ. The relative abundance of Firmicutes increased after KDZ administration, whereas the amount of Bacteroidetes decreased. αMCA, ßMCA, ωMCA, and CA in the SASP and KDZ groups did not differ from those in the control group, whereas these parameters significantly increased in the DSS group. CONCLUSIONS: KDZ had a protective effect on DSS-induced colitis by mitigating colonic injury, preventing gut microbiota dysbiosis, and regulating bile acid metabolism.

4.
J Gene Med ; : e3188, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the potential role of miR-96-5p in breast cancer. METHODS: Breast cancer tissues and matched para-cancerous tissues were collected. The expression of microRNA-96-5p (miR-96-5p) and arginine kinase 3 (AK3) was detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The correlation between miR-96-5p and AK3 was calculated by Pearson's Chi-square test. Moreover, mimics or inhibitors of miR-96-5p were applied to explore whether miR-96-5p influences the migration capacity in Transwell and wound healing assays. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to identify the target genes of miR-96-5p through the TargetScan, miRDB and miRanda databases. A luciferase reporter assay was performed to verify AK3 as a downstream target gene of miR-96-5p. RESULTS: The expression of miR-96-5p was significantly increased in breast cancer tissue and breast cancer cell lines compared with para-cancerous tissue and a breast cell line, respectively. The expression of miR-96-5p negatively correlated with AK3 gene expression. AK3 was demonstrated to be a direct mRNA target of miR-96-5p. AK3 was positively associated with the overall survival of breast cancer patients. Kaplan-Meier curve and log rank test analyses revealed that decreased AK3 levels were significantly associated with reduced overall survival. miR-96-5p was shown to promote the migration of breast cancer cells through the MEK/ERK signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: Our results identify a role for miR-96-5p in promoting breast cancer cell migration through activation of MEK/ERK signaling by targeting AK3.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(12): 14468-14475, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129596

RESUMO

Mechanical strength and toughness are usually mutually exclusive, but they can both appear in natural rubber (NR). Previous studies ascribe such excellent properties to highly cis stereoregularity of NR. To our surprise, after the removal of non-rubber components (NRC) by centrifugation, the strength and toughness of NR decrease dramatically. It is still a challenge for us to make out for the problem of how NRC affect the properties of NR. Our group ascribes the superior mechanical robustness of NR to NRC. To further verify such a viewpoint, we add phospholipids (phosphatidylcholines) into NR without NRC. Phosphatidylcholines construct a sacrificial network, which ruptures preferentially upon deformation to dissipate energy. Moreover, some of phosphatidylcholines participate in the vulcanization reaction, which further improves the mechanical strength and energy dissipation. As a result, the mechanical strength and toughness of samples are as high as 21.1 MPa and 49.6 kJ/m2, respectively, which have reached the same level as that of NR. Therefore, this work not only imitates the excellent mechanical robustness of NR but also further provides a rational design for elastomers with excellent mechanical robustness.

6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 1771-1786, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214810

RESUMO

Purpose: In this study, pH-sensitive poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)-poly(lactic acid)-poly(ß-amino ester) (PEOz-PLA-PBAE) triblock copolymers were synthesized and were conjugated with an antimalaria drug artesunate (ART), for inhibition of a colon cancer xenograft model. Methods: The as-prepared polymer prodrugs are tended to self-assemble into polymeric micelles in aqueous milieu, with PEOz segment as hydrophilic shell and PLA-PBAE segment as hydrophobic core. Results: The pH sensitivity of the as-prepared copolymers was confirmed by acid-base titration with pKb values around 6.5. The drug-conjugated polymer micelles showed high stability for at least 96 h in PBS and 37°C, respectively. The as-prepared copolymer prodrugs showed high drug loading content, with 9.57%±1.24% of drug loading for PEOz-PLA-PBAE-ART4. The conjugated ART could be released in a sustained and pH-dependent manner, with 92% of released drug at pH 6.0 and 57% of drug released at pH 7.4, respectively. In addition, in vitro experiments showed higher inhibitory effect of the prodrugs on rodent CT-26 cells than that of free ART. Animal studies also demonstrated the enhanced inhibitory efficacy of PEOz-PLA-PBAE-ART2 micelles on the growth of rodent xenograft tumor. Conclusion: The pH-responsive artesunate polymer prodrugs are promising candidates for colon cancer adjuvant therapy.

7.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; : 1-10, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. Utilization and waste in diagnostic imaging have substantially increased worldwide. The purpose of this study was to highlight the utilization of contrast material and cost savings resulting from implementation of a multidose bulk IV contrast delivery system. MATERIALS AND METHODS. An observational study was conducted in October-November 2018 in eight hospitals in eight provinces in China. Contrast media specifications were 100-mL single-use IV contrast vials and 200-mL and 500-mL bulk packaging. Linear regression analysis was performed to identify the factors influencing contrast media use. Cost-minimization and sensitivity analyses were performed from patient and payer perspectives. RESULTS. A total of 1032 patients, some of whom underwent more than one CT examination, were enrolled in this study (100-mL package, 776 CT examinations; 200-mL package, 382 CT examinations). The mean injected volume of contrast medium was 75.46 mL. Number of scanned body parts, specification of amount of contrast medium (0, 100 mL; 1, 200 mL), whether the examination was CT angiography (CTA) (0, not CTA; 1, CTA), and patient weight all had a positive impact on the injected volume of contrast medium (p < 0.001 for all variables). Implementation of a multidose bulk IV contrast delivery system combined with different reimbursement units resulted in substantial waste reduction, estimated at US$5.59-6.04 per contrast-enhanced CT examination from the payer perspective, US$12.84-14.66 per examination from the patient perspective, and a total reduction of US$18.29-20.70 per examination. CONCLUSION. Use of multidose packaging of contrast media combined with reimbursement units for patients undergoing IV contrast-enhanced CT was found to be cost saving compared with use of single-dose packaging.

8.
Thyroid ; 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031055

RESUMO

Background: Sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a relatively uncommon neuroendocrine malignancy and the molecular tumorigenesis of its sporadic type (sMTC) is only partially understood. In this study, we performed a study focusing on the genomic and transcriptomic characterization of sMTC. Methods: Twenty-nine sMTC patients were included. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was carried out in 18 patients, including both tumor samples and matched noncancerous tissues. Whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed in all 29 tumors. WES, RNA-Seq, and copy number alteration (CNA) data were analyzed. A Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to evaluate cell proliferation. Results: Among the somatic mutations, RET was the only recurrently cancer-related mutated gene (5/18, 27.8%). In the germline, FAT1 and FAT4, two members of the FAT gene family, were identified as the two most common mutated genes. CNA analysis found that FAT1 and FAT4, both located on chromosome 4q, were also two of the genes most commonly affected by somatic chromosomal deletions (4/18, 22.2%). Using TT and MZ-CRC-1 cell lines, the CCK-8 assay showed that FAT1 and FAT4 knockdown could promote MTC cell proliferation. Based on the gene expression profile, patients were clustered into two molecular subtypes: the mesenchymal-like subtype is characterized by epithelial-mesenchymal transition, while the proliferative-like subtype is associated with enrichment of cell cycle pathways. Most events of structural recurrence (80%) occurred in the proliferative-like subtype. Conclusion: In addition to RET, these findings demonstrate that FAT1/FAT4 genomic alterations appear to be frequent in sMTC. Two molecular subtypes of sMTC with distinct biological behavior could be identified. However, these results need to be validated by larger samples and more comprehensive experiments in the future, especially for the frequency and function of FAT1/FAT4 germline variants.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065261

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate a radiomic approach for the stratification of diffuse gliomas with distinct prognosis and provide additional resolution of their clinicopathological and molecular characteristics. METHODS: For this retrospective study, a total of 704 radiomic features were extracted from the multi-channel MRI data of 166 diffuse gliomas. Survival-associated radiomic features were identified and submitted to distinguish glioma subtypes using consensus clustering. Multi-layered molecular data were used to observe the different clinical and molecular characteristics between radiomic subtypes. The relative profiles of an array of immune cell infiltrations were measured gene set variation analysis approach to explore differences in tumor immune microenvironment. RESULTS: A total of 6 categories, including 318 radiomic features were significantly correlated with the overall survival of glioma patients. Two subgroups with distinct prognosis were separated by consensus clustering of radiomic features that significantly associated with survival. Histological stage and molecular factors, including IDH status and MGMT promoter methylation status were significant differences between the two subtypes. Furthermore, gene functional enrichment analysis and immune infiltration pattern analysis also hinted that the inferior prognosis subtype may more response to immunotherapy. CONCLUSION: A radiomic model derived from multi-parameter MRI of the gliomas was successful in the risk stratification of diffuse glioma patients. These data suggested that radiomics provided an alternative approach for survival estimation and may improve clinical decision-making.

10.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(5): 4983, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048735
11.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 190: 172870, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035078

RESUMO

The robust antidepressant effects of (R,S)-ketamine are among the most important discoveries in mood research over the last half century. Off-label use of (R,S)-ketamine, which is an equal mixture of (R)-ketamine and (S)-ketamine, has become especially popular in the United States (US) for treatment-resistant depression. On March 5, 2019, the US Food and Drug Administration approved an (S)-ketamine nasal spray for use in treatment-resistant depression, though its use has been limited to certified medical offices or clinics. On December 19, 2019, (S)-ketamine nasal spray was approved for the same indication in Europe. However, despite its potential for benefit, there are several concerns about the efficacy of (S)-ketamine nasal spray. Accumulating evidence from preclinical studies show that (R)-ketamine has greater potency and longer lasting antidepressant effects than (S)-ketamine in animal models of depression, and that (R)-ketamine has fewer detrimental side effects than either (R,S)-ketamine or (S)-ketamine. As such, clinical studies of (R)-ketamine in humans are now underway by Perception Neuroscience Ltd. In this article, we review the brief history of (R,S)-ketamine and its two enantiomers as novel antidepressants. We also discuss the mechanisms of ketamine's antidepressant actions.

12.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: RNA interference (RNAi)-based pest management requires efficient delivery and large-batch production of double-stranded (ds)RNA. We previously developed a nanocarrier-mediated dsRNA delivery system that could penetrate an insect's body and efficiently silence gene expression. However, there is a great need to improve the plasmid-Escherichia coli system for the mass production of dsRNA. Here, for efficient dsRNA production, we removed the rnc gene encoding endoribonuclease RNase III in E. coli BL21(DE3) and matched with the RNAi expression vector containing a single T7 promoter. RESULTS: The novel pET28-BL21(DE3) RNase III-system was successfully constructed to express vestigial (vg)-dsRNA against Harmonia axyridis. dsRNA was extracted and purified from cell cultures in four E. coil systems, and the yields of dsRNA in pET28-BL21(DE3) RNase III-, pET28-HT115(DE3), L4440-BL21(DE3) RNase III- and L4440-HT115(DE3) were 4.23, 2.75, 0.88 and 1.30 µg mL-1 respectively. The dsRNA expression efficiency of our novel E. coil system was three times that of L4440-HT115(DE3), a widely used dsRNA production system. The RNAi efficiency of dsRNA produced by our system and by biochemical synthesis was comparable when injected into Harmonia axyridis. CONCLUSION: Our system expressed dsRNA more efficiently than the widely used L4440-HT115(DE3) system, and the produced dsRNA showed a high gene-silencing effect. Notably, our pET28-BL21(DE3) RNase III-system provides a novel method for the mass production of dsRNA at low cost and high efficiency, which may promote gene function analysis and RNAi-based pest management. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(8): 9718-9725, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027112

RESUMO

Bacterial infection is the main cause of implantation failure worldwide, and the importance of antibiotics on medical devices has been undermined because of antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial hydrogels have emerged as a promising approach to combat infections associated with medical devices and wound healing. However, hydrogel coatings that simultaneously possess both antifouling and antimicrobial attributes are scarce. Herein, we report an antimicrobial hydrogel that incorporates adhesion-inhibiting polyethylene glycol (PEG) and colony-suppressing chitosan (CS) as a dressing to combat bacterial infections. These two polymers have important environmentally benign characteristics including low toxicity, low volatility, and biocompatibility. Although hydrogels containing PEG and CS have been reported for applications in the fields of wound dressing, tissue repair, water purification, drug delivery, and scaffolds for bone regeneration, there still has been no report on the application of CS/PEG hydrogel coatings in dental applications. Herein, this biointerface shows superior activity in early-stage adhesion inhibition (98.8%, 5 h) and displays remarkably long-lasting colony-suppression activity (93.3%, 7 d). Thus, this novel nanomaterial, which has potential as a dual-functional platform with integrated antifouling and antimicrobial functions with excellent biocompatibility, might be used as a safe and effective antimicrobial coating in biomedical device applications.

14.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 14: 429-434, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32099327

RESUMO

Background: Calycosin (CAL), a type of O-methylated isoflavone extracted from the herb Astralagusmembranaceus (AM), is a bioactive chemical with antioxidative, antiphlogistic and antineoplastic activities commonly used in traditional alternative Chinese medicine. AM has been shown to confer health benefits as an adjuvant in the treatment of a variety of diseases. Aim: The main objective of this study was to determine whether CAL influences the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) system involved in drug metabolism. Methods: Midazolam, tolbutamide, omeprazole, metoprolol and phenacetin were selected as probe drugs. Rats were randomly divided into three groups, specifically, 5% Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) for 8 days (Control), 5% CMC for 7 days + CAL for 1 day (single CAL) and CAL for 8 days (conc CAL), and metabolism of the five probe drugs evaluated using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Results: No significant differences were observed for omeprazole and midazolam, compared to the control group. T max and t1/2 values of only one probe drug, phenacetin, in the conc CAL group were significantly different from those of the control group (T max h: 0.50±0.00 vs 0.23±0.15; control vs conc CAL). C max of tolbutamide was decreased about two-fold in the conc CAL treatment group (conc vs control: 219.48 vs 429.56, P<0.001). Conclusion: Calycosin inhibits the catalytic activities of CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP2C9. Accordingly, we recommend caution, particularly when combining CAL as a modality therapy with drugs metabolized by CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP2C9, to reduce the potential risks of drug accumulation or ineffective treatment.

15.
J Chromatogr A ; : 460978, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106966

RESUMO

To explore the retention and separation of stevioside polar compounds on a sulfonic acid-functionalized cation exchange column, the effects of different organic solvent-water mobile phases on the retention behavior of polar rebaudioside A (RA) and its analogues on the column were investigated over a wide range of organic solvent contents. The obtained U-shape curves hinted that the retention of the compounds on the same column transitioned from a reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) mode to a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mode when the water-rich state in the mobile phases changed to an organic solvent-rich state. Under the RPLC mode, no separation of RA from its analogues was observed. The HILIC mode was beneficial to the retention and separation of RA and its analogues. Compared with polar protic solvents, aprotic solvents were more conducive to the retention and separation of the polar compounds based on the HILIC mode in organic solvent-rich mobile phases. Three models were used to evaluate and discuss the HILIC retention and separation of the compounds on the column. In the aprotic solvent-rich mobile phase, the HILIC retention of RA and its analogues was effectively described by a mixed-mode model; in the polar proton solvent-rich mobile phase, the retention of analytes was best described by an linear solvation strength (LSS) model. The content and composition of the organic solvent in the mobile phase were determined to be important influencing factors that regulated the retention time for the RA and its analogues, and even the separation mechanism for HILIC. The present work provides a theoretical basis for guiding one to prepare high-purity RA from its analogues by predicting the retention time.

16.
Plant J ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031710

RESUMO

Phytohormonal interactions are crucial for plant development. Auxin and cytokinin (CK) both play critical roles in regulating plant growth and development; however, the interaction between these two phytohormones is complex and not fully understood. Here, we isolated a wild apple (Malus sieversii Roem) GRETCHEN HAGEN3 (GH3) gene, MsGH3.5, encoding an indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-amido synthetase. Overexpression of MsGH3.5 significantly reduced the free IAA content and increased the content of some IAA-amino acid conjugates, and MsGH3.5-overexpressing lines were dwarfed and produced fewer adventitious roots (ARs) than the control. This phenotype is consistent with the role of GH3 in conjugating excess free active IAA to amino acids in auxin homeostasis. Surprisingly, overexpression of MsGH3.5 significantly increased CK concentrations in the whole plant, and altered the expression of genes involved in CK biosynthesis, metabolism and signaling. Furthermore, exogenous CK application induced MsGH3.5 expression through the activity of the CK type-B response regulator, MsRR1a, which mediates the CK primary response. MsRR1a activated MsGH3.5 expression by directly binding to its promoter, linking auxin and CK signaling. Plants overexpressing MsRR1a also displayed fewer ARs, in agreement with the regulation of MsGH3.5 expression by MsRR1a. Taken together, we reveal that MsGH3.5 affects apple growth and development by modulating auxin and CK levels and signaling pathways. These findings provide insight into the interaction between the auxin and CK pathways, and might have substantial implications for efforts to improve apple architecture.

17.
J Affect Disord ; 266: 465-472, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipid profile disturbances are frequently observed in major depressive disorder (MDD) and constitute to high mortality rates. However, less is known about whether this risk is present in patients with first-episode MDD. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to examine if lipid parameters differed between healthy controls and first-episode MDD patients. METHODS: Cochrane Library, PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Chinese Journal Net, and WanFang databases were searched from inception to October 23, 2018. The primary outcomes were triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and total cholesterol levels. RESULTS: A total of 11 case-control studies compared 690 subjects with first-episode MDD and 614 healthy controls were included and analyzed. Compared to healthy controls, patients with first-episode MDD were significantly associated with higher triglyceride (SMD = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.48, P = 0.004) and lower HDL cholesterol levels (SMD = -0.54, 95% CI: -0.86, -0.22, P = 0.001). Subgroup analyses revealed that first-episode MDD patients with higher triglyceride and lower HDL levels were found only in Chinese and plasma group when compared to healthy controls (P < 0.05). Meta-regression analysis showed that the significant heterogeneity for triglyceride and HDL cholesterol was partly explained by the quality of study. No significant difference was found in LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol levels between the two groups. LIMITATIONS: Heterogeneity was relatively high among the included studies. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated triglyceride and decreased HDL cholesterol levels may be associated with first-episode MDD. Findings support early lipid monitoring and interventions targeting healthy lifestyle.

18.
Bioorg Chem ; 96: 103536, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972463

RESUMO

Angiogenesis is known to serve an important role in embryonic development, wound healing, tissue regeneration, and growth. Two new abietane-type diterpenoids (3, 5), a new lanosterol triterpenoid (8) and seven known compounds haven been isolated from the Euphorbia neriifolia Linn. The structures of all compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and comparing their NMR data with reported data. Furthermore, we found that compounds 6 and 9 had the antiangiogenic effects in vitro. They could inhibit HUVEC migration and microvessel sprouting in rat aortic rings. Moreover, compound 6 inhibited VEGFR and phosphorylation of Akt, but compound 9 only shown inhibitory effect on phosphorylation of Akt. Taken together, these results suggest that inhibition of VEGF signaling and downstream pathways may be responsible for the antiangiogenic activity of compounds 6 and 9.

19.
Adv Mater ; 32(7): e1907067, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930630

RESUMO

Developing high-performance materials in physiological conditions to clinically repair stiff tissue for long lifespan remains a great challenge. Here, an enamel repair strategy is reported by efficiently growing a biocompatible ZrO2 ceramic layer on defective enamel through controllable hydrolysis of Zr4+ in oral-tolerable conditions. Detailed analysis of the grown layer indicates that the grown ZrO2 ceramic is amorphous without grain boundary and dislocation, which endows the repaired enamel with natural enamel comparable mechanical performance (modulus ≈82.5 GPa and hardness ≈5.2 GPa). Besides, the strong chemical connection between unsaturated coordinated Zr4+ in amorphous structure and PO4 3- greatly strengthen the crystalline-amorphous interface of the repaired enamel to endure the long-time mastication damage. Moreover, these ZrO2 ceramics provide hydrophilic, electronegative, and smooth surfaces to resist the adhesion and proliferation of cariogenic bacteria. The hybrid amorphous-crystalline interface design with advantages in biomechanical compatibility would promote the evolution of a variety of cutting-edge functional materials for medical and engineering application.

20.
J Mater Chem B ; 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904075

RESUMO

Biomedical devices that involved continuous and real-time health-care monitoring have drawn much attention in modern medicine, of which skin electronics and implantable devices are widely investigated. Skin electronics are characterized for their non-invasive access to the physiological signals, and implantable devices are superior at the diagnosis and therapy integration. Despite the significant progress achieved, many gaps remain to be explored to provide a more comprehensive overview of human health. As the connecting point of the outer environment and human systems, the oral cavity contains many unique biomarkers that are absent in skin or inner organs, and hence, this could become a promising alternative locus for designing health-care monitoring devices. In this review, we outline the status of the oral cavity during the communication of the environment and human systems and compare the intraoral devices with skin electronics and implantable devices from the biophysical and biochemical aspects. We further summarize the established diagnosis database and technologies that could be adopted to design intraoral biosensors. Finally, the challenges and potential opportunities for intraoral biosensors are discussed. Intraoral biosensors could become an important complement for existing biomedical devices to constitute a more reliable health-care monitoring system.

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