Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 203
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-22, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755571

RESUMO

Sand rice (Agriophyllum squarrosum) is prized for its well-balanced nutritional properties, broad adaptability in Central Asia and highly therapeutic potentials. It has been considered as a potential climate-resilient crop. Its seed has comparable metabolite profile with Chenopodium quinoa and is rich in proteins, essential amino acids, minerals, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and phenolics, but low in carbohydrates. Phenolics like protocatechuic acid and quercetins have been characterized with biological functions on regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism in addition to anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Sand rice is thus an important source for developing functional and nutraceutical products. Though historical consumption has been over 1300 years, sand rice has undergone few agronomic improvements until recently. Breeding by individual selection has been performed and yield of the best genotype can reach up to 1295.5 kg/ha. Furthermore, chemical mutagenesis has been used to modify the undesirable traits and a case study of a dwarf line (dwarf1), which showed the Green Revolution-like phenotypes, is presented. Utilization of both breeding methodologies will accelerate its domestication process. As a novel crop, sand rice research is rather limited compared with quinoa. More scientific input is urgently required if the nutritional and commercial potentials are to be fully realized.

2.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818919

RESUMO

Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat. Identifying novel resistance genes applicable for developing disease resistant cultivars is important for the sustainable control of wheat stripe rust. Chinese wheat landrace Xiaohemai (XHM) is an elite germplasm line with all-stage resistance (ASR) effective against predominant Chinese Pst races. In this study, we performed a bulked segregant analysis coupled with exome capture sequencing (BSE-seq) to identify a candidate genomic region strongly associated with stripe rust resistance on chromosome 1AL in 173 F2:3 lines derived from cross XHM × Avocet S. The gene, designated as YrXH-1AL, was validated by a conventional quantitative trait locus analysis using newly developed Kompetitive allele-specific PCR (KASP) markers, explaining up to 48.50% of the phenotypic variance. By testing a secondary mapping population comprising 144 lines from the same cross at the seedling stage with prevalent Pst race CYR34, YrXH-1AL was identified as a single Mendelian factor in a 1.5 cM interval flanked by KASP markers KP1A_484.33 and KP1A_490.09. This region corresponded to a 5.76 Mb genomic interval on Chinese Spring chromosome 1AL. Furthermore, two co-segregating KASP markers showed high polymorphisms among 130 Chinese wheat cultivars and could be used for marker-assisted selection. Because no other Yr genes for ASR that originated from common wheat have been detected on chromosome 1AL, YrXH-1AL is likely a novel gene that can be incorporated into modern breeding materials to develop wheat cultivars with enhanced stripe rust resistance.

3.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 706, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improvement of wheat gercTriticum aestivum L.) yield could relieve global food shortages. Kernel size, as an important component of 1000-kernel weight (TKW), is always a significant consideration to improve yield for wheat breeders. Wheat related species possesses numerous elite genes that can be introduced into wheat breeding. It is thus vital to explore, identify, and introduce new genetic resources for kernel size from wheat wild relatives to increase wheat yield. RESULTS: In the present study, quantitative trait loci (QTL) for kernel length (KL) and width (KW) were detected in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between a wild emmer accession 'LM001' and a Sichuan endemic tetraploid wheat 'Ailanmai' using the Wheat 55 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array-based constructed linkage map and phenotype from six different environments. We identified eleven QTL for KL and KW including two major ones QKL.sicau-AM-3B and QKW.sicau-AM-4B, the positive alleles of which were from LM001 and Ailanmai, respectively. They explained 17.57 to 44.28% and 13.91 to 39.01% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. For these two major QTL, Kompetitive allele-specific PCR (KASP) markers were developed and used to successfully validate their effects in three F3 populations and two natural populations containing a panel of 272 Chinese wheat landraces and that of 300 Chinese wheat cultivars, respectively. QKL.sicau-AM-3B was located at 675.6-695.4 Mb on chromosome arm 3BL. QKW.sicau-AM-4B was located at 444.2-474.0 Mb on chromosome arm 4BL. Comparison with previous studies suggested that these two major QTL were likely new loci. Further analysis indicated that the positive alleles of QKL.sicau-AM-3B and QKW.sicau-AM-4B had a great additive effect increasing TKW by 6.01%. Correlation analysis between KL and other agronomic traits showed that KL was significantly correlated to spike length, length of uppermost internode, TKW, and flag leaf length. KW was also significantly correlated with TKW. Four genes, TRIDC3BG062390, TRIDC3BG062400, TRIDC4BG037810, and TRIDC4BG037830, associated with kernel development were predicted in physical intervals harboring these two major QTL on wild emmer and Chinese Spring reference genomes. CONCLUSIONS: Two stable and major QTL for KL and KW across six environments were detected and verified in three biparental populations and two natural populations. Significant relationships between kernel size and yield-related traits were identified. KASP markers tightly linked the two major QTL could contribute greatly to subsequent fine mapping. These results suggested the application potential of wheat related species in wheat genetic improvement.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal , Triticum , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tetraploidia , Triticum/genética
4.
Theor Appl Genet ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647130

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Six major QTLs for wheat grain size and weight were identified on chromosomes 4A, 4B, 5A and 6A across multiple environments, and were validated in different genetic backgrounds. Grain size and weight are crucial components of wheat yield. Dissection of their genetic control is thus essential for the improvement of yield potential in wheat breeding. We used a doubled haploid (DH) population to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for grain width (GW), grain length (GL), and thousand grain weight (TGW) in five environments. Six major QTLs, QGw.cib-4B.2, QGl.cib-4A, QGl.cib-5A.1, QGl.cib-6A, QTgw.cib-4B, and QTgw.cib-5A, were consistently identified in at least three individual environments and in best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) datasets, and explained 5.65-34.06% of phenotypic variation. QGw.cib-4B.2, QTgw.cib-4B, QGl.cib-5A.1 and QGl.cib-6A had no effect on grain number per spike (GNS). In addition to QGl.cib-4A, the other major QTLs were further validated by using Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) markers in different genetic backgrounds. Moreover, significant interactions between the three major GL QTLs and two major TGW QTLs were observed. Comparison analysis showed that QGl.cib-5A.1 and QGl.cib-6A are likely new loci. Notably, QGw.cib-4B.2 and QTgw.cib-4B were co-located on chromosome 4B and improved TGW by increasing only GW, unlike nearby or overlapped loci reported previously. Three genes associated with grain development within the QGw.cib-4B.2/QTgw.cib-4B interval were identified by searches on sequence similarity, spatial expression patterns, and orthologs. The major QTLs and KASP markers reported here will be useful for elucidating the genetic architecture of grain size and weight and for developing new wheat cultivars with high and stable yield.

5.
Theor Appl Genet ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661696

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A novel light intensity-dependent lesion mimic mutant with enhanced disease resistance was physiologically, biochemically, and genetically characterized, and the causative gene was fine mapped to a 1.28 Mbp interval containing 17 high-confidence genes. Lesion mimic mutants are ideal for studying disease resistance and programmed cell death photosynthesis in plants to improve crop yield. In this study, a novel light intensity-dependent lesion mimic mutant (MC21) was obtained from the wheat variety Chuannong16 (CN16) by ethyl methane sulfonate treatment. The mutant initially developed tiny lesion spots on the basal part of the leaves, which then gradually proceeded down to leaf sheaths, stems, shells, and awns at the flowering stage. The major agronomic traits were significantly altered in the mutant compared to that in the wild-type CN16. Furthermore, the mutant exhibited a lesion phenotype with degenerated chloroplast structure, decreased chlorophyll content, increased level of reactive oxygen species, and increased resistance to stripe rust and powdery mildew. Genetic analysis indicated that the lesion phenotype was controlled by a novel single semi-dominant nuclear gene. The target gene was mapped on chromosome arm 2AL located between Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) markers, KASP-4211 and KASP-5353, and tentatively termed as lesion mimic 5 (Lm5). The fine mapping suggested that Lm5 was located in a 1.28 Mbp interval between markers KASP-5825 and KASP-9366; 17 high-confidence candidate genes were included in this genomic region. This study provides an important foundational step for further cloning of Lm5 using a map-based approach.

6.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487615

RESUMO

The AGAMOUS-LIKE6 (AGL6)-like genes are ancient MADS-box genes and are functionally studied in a few model plants. The knowledge of these genes in wheat remains limited. Here, by studying a 'double homoeolog mutant' of the AGL6 gene in tetraploid wheat, we showed that AGL6 was required for the development of all four whorls of floral organs with dosage-dependent effect on floret fertility. Yeast two-hybrid analyses detected interactions of AGL6 with all classes of MADS-box proteins in the ABCDE model for floral organ development. AGL6 was found to interact with several additional proteins, including the G protein ß and γ (DEP1) subunits. Analysis of the DEP1-B mutant showed a significant reduction in spikelet number per spike in tetraploid wheat, while overexpression of AGL6 in common wheat increased the spikelet number per spike and hence the grain number per spike. RNA-seq analysis identified the regulation of several meristem activity genes by AGL6, such as FUL2 and TaMADS55. Our work therefore extensively updated the wheat ABCDE model and proposed an alternative approach to improve wheat grain yield by manipulating the AGL6 gene.

7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wheat is an essential source of starch. The GBSS or waxy genes are responsible for synthesizing amylose in cereals. The present study identified a novel Wx-A1 null mutant line from an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized population of common wheat cv. SM126 using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and agarose gel analyses. RESULTS: The alignment of the Wx-A1 gene sequences from the mutant and parental SM126 lines showed only one single nucleotide polymorphism causing the appearance of a premature stop codon and Wx-A1 inactivation. The lack of Wx-A1 protein resulted in decreased amylose, total starch and resistant starch. The starch morphology assessment revealed that starch from mutant seeds was more wrinkled, increasing its susceptibility to digestion. Regarding the starch thermodynamic properties, the gelatinization temperature was remarkably reduced in the mutant compared to parental line SM126. The digestibility of native, gelatinized, and retrograded starches was analyzed for mutant M4-627 and the parental SM126 line. In the M4-627 line, rapidly digestible starch contents were increased, whereas resistant starch was decreased in the three types of starch. CONCLUSION: Waxy protein is essential for starch synthesis. The thermodynamic characteristics were decreased in the Wx-A1 mutant line. The digestibility properties of starch were also affected. Therefore, the partial waxy mutant M3-627 might play a significant role in food improvement. Furthermore, it might also be used to produce high-quality noodles. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

8.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 732837, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531890

RESUMO

Spikelet number per spike (SNS) is the primary factor that determines wheat yield. Common wheat breeding reduces the genetic diversity among elite germplasm resources, leading to a detrimental effect on future wheat production. It is, therefore, necessary to explore new genetic resources for SNS to increase wheat yield. A tetraploid landrace "Ailanmai" × wild emmer wheat recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was used to construct a genetic map using a wheat 55K single- nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. The linkage map containing 1,150 bin markers with a total genetic distance of 2,411.8 cm was obtained. Based on the phenotypic data from the eight environments and best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) values, five quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for SNS were identified, explaining 6.71-29.40% of the phenotypic variation. Two of them, QSns.sau-AM-2B.2 and QSns.sau-AM-3B.2, were detected as a major and novel QTL. Their effects were further validated in two additional F2 populations using tightly linked kompetitive allele-specific PCR (KASP) markers. Potential candidate genes within the physical intervals of the corresponding QTLs were predicted to participate in inflorescence development and spikelet formation. Genetic associations between SNS and other agronomic traits were also detected and analyzed. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the wheat 55K SNP array developed for common wheat in the genetic mapping of tetraploid population and shows the potential application of wheat-related species in wheat improvement programs.

9.
J Food Sci ; 86(9): 3909-3925, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390261

RESUMO

Crush-tear-curl (CTC) black tea is a popular beverage, owing to its unique taste characteristics and health benefits. However, differences in the taste quality and chemical profiles of CTC black tea from different geographical regions remain unclear. In this study, 28 CTC black tea samples were collected from six geographical regions and analyzed using electronic tongue and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-Orbitrap-mass spectroscopy. The e-tongue analysis indicated that each region's CTC black tea has its own relatively prominent taste characteristics: Sri Lanka (more umami and astringent), North India (more umami), China (more sweetness and astringent), South India (moderate umami and sweetness), and Kenya (moderate umami and astringent). Based on multivariate statistical analysis, 78 metabolites were tentatively identified and used as potential markers for CTC black tea of different origins, mainly including amino acids, flavone/flavonol glycosides, and pigments. Different metabolites, which contributed to the taste characteristics of CTC black tea, were clarified by partial least squares regression correlation analysis. Our findings may serve as useful references for future studies on origin traceability and quality characteristic determination of CTC black teas. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study provides useful references for future studies on the origin traceability and taste characteristic determination of CTC black teas from different geographical regions.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise de Alimentos , Espectrometria de Massas , Aminoácidos/análise , Camellia sinensis/química , Camellia sinensis/classificação , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Glicosídeos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445203

RESUMO

Wheat is a major staple food crop worldwide, due to its total yield and unique processing quality. Its grain yield and quality are threatened by Fusarium head blight (FHB), which is mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum. Salicylic acid (SA) has a strong and toxic effect on F. graminearum and is a hopeful target for sustainable control of FHB. F. graminearum is capable of efficientdealing with SA stress. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we characterized FgMFS1 (FGSG_03725), a major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporter gene in F. graminearum. FgMFS1 was highly expressed during infection and was upregulated by SA. The predicted three-dimensional structure of the FgMFS1 protein was consistent with the schematic for the antiporter. The subcellular localization experiment indicated that FgMFS1 was usually expressed in the vacuole of hyphae, but was alternatively distributed in the cell membrane under SA treatment, indicating an element of F. graminearum in response to SA. ΔFgMFS1 (loss of function mutant of FgMFS1) showed enhanced sensitivity to SA, less pathogenicity towards wheat, and reduced DON production under SA stress. Re-introduction of a functional FgMFS1 gene into ∆FgMFS1 recovered the mutant phenotypes. Wheat spikes inoculated with ΔFgMFS1 accumulated more SA when compared to those inoculated with the wild-type strain. Ecotopic expression of FgMFS1 in yeast enhanced its tolerance to SA as expected, further demonstrating that FgMFS1 functions as an SA exporter. In conclusion, FgMFS1 encodes an SA exporter in F. graminearum, which is critical for its response to wheat endogenous SA and pathogenicity towards wheat.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fusarium/metabolismo , Genes Fúngicos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/microbiologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Fusarium/genética
11.
Nano Lett ; 21(17): 7405-7410, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232665

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials such as GaSe recently have emerged as novel nonlinear optical materials with exceptional properties. Although exhibiting large nonlinear susceptibilities, the nonlinear responses of 2D materials are generally limited by the short interaction lengths with light, thus further enhancement via resonant photonic nanostructures is highly desired for building high-efficiency nonlinear devices. Here, we demonstrate a giant second-harmonic generation (SHG) enhancement by coupling 2D GaSe flakes to silicon metasurfaces supporting quasi-bound states in the continuum (quasi-BICs) under continuous-wave (CW) operation. Taking advantage of both high-quality factors and large mode areas of quasi-BICs, SHG from a GaSe flake is uniformly enhanced by nearly 4 orders of magnitude, which is promising for high-power coherent light sources. Our work provides an effective approach for enhancing nonlinear optical processes in 2D materials within the framework of silicon photonics, which also brings second-order nonlinearity associated with 2D materials to silicon photonic devices.

12.
Theor Appl Genet ; 134(11): 3625-3641, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309684

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Two major and stable QTLs for spike compactness and length were detected and validated in multiple genetic backgrounds and environments, and their pleiotropic effects on yield-related traits were analyzed. Spike compactness (SC) and length (SL) are greatly associated with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain yield. To detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with SC and SL, two biparental populations derived from crosses of Chuanmai42/Kechengmai1 and Chuanmai42/Chuannong16 were employed to perform QTL mapping in five environments. A total of 34 QTLs were identified, in which six major QTLs were repeatedly detected in more than four environments and the best linear unbiased prediction datasets, explaining 7.13-33.6% of phenotypic variation. These major QTLs were co-located in two genomic regions on chromosome 5A and 6A, namely QSc/Sl.cib-5A and QSc/Sl.cib-6A, respectively. By developing kompetitive allele-specific PCR (KASP) markers that linked to them, the two loci were validated in different genetic backgrounds, and their interactions were also analyzed. Comparison analysis showed that QSc/Sl.cib-5A was not Vrn-A1 and Q, and QSc/Sl.cib-6A was likely a new locus for SC and SL. Both QSc/Sl.cib-5A and QSc/Sl.cib-6A had pleiotropic effects on other yield-related traits including plant height, thousand grain weight and grain length. Therefore, the two loci combined with the developed KASP markers might be potentially applicable in wheat breeding. Furthermore, based on the spatiotemporal expression patterns, gene annotation, orthologous search and sequence differences, TraesCS5A01G301400 and TraesCS6A01G090300 were considered as potential candidates for QSc/Sl.cib-5A and QSc/Sl.cib-6A, respectively. These results provided valuable information for fine mapping and cloning of the two loci in the future.


Assuntos
Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/genética , Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Patrimônio Genético , Ligação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Pleiotropia Genética , Fenótipo
13.
Adv Mater ; 33(32): e2101717, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219296

RESUMO

Most contemporary X-ray detectors adopt device structures with non/low-gain energy conversion, such that a fairly thick X-ray photoconductor or scintillator is required to generate sufficient X-ray-induced charges, and thus numerous merits for thin devices, such as mechanical flexibility and high spatial resolution, have to be compromised. This dilemma is overcome by adopting a new high-gain device concept of a heterojunction X-ray phototransistor. In contrast to conventional detectors, X-ray phototransistors allow both electrical gating and photodoping for effective carrier-density modulation, leading to high photoconductive gain and low noise. As a result, ultrahigh sensitivities of over 105  µC Gyair -1  cm-2 with low detection limit are achieved by just using an ≈50 nm thin photoconductor. The employment of ultrathin photoconductors also endows the detectors with superior flexibility and high imaging resolution. This concept offers great promise in realizing well-balanced detection performance, mechanical flexibility, integration, and cost for next-generation X-ray detectors.

14.
Light Sci Appl ; 10(1): 158, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326302

RESUMO

Optical microcavities have widely been employed to enhance either the optical excitation or the photon emission processes for boosting light-matter interactions at the nanoscale. When both the excitation and emission processes are simultaneously facilitated by the optical resonances provided by the microcavities, as referred to the dual-resonance condition in this article, the performances of many nanophotonic devices approach to the optima. In this work, we present versatile accessing of dual-resonance conditions in deterministically coupled quantum-dot (QD)-micropillars, which enables emission from neutral exciton (X)-charged exciton (CX) transition with improved single-photon purity. In addition, the rarely observed up-converted single-photon emission process is achieved under dual-resonance conditions. We further exploit the vectorial nature of the high-order cavity modes to significantly improve the excitation efficiency under the dual-resonance condition. The dual-resonance enhanced light-matter interactions in the quantum regime provide a viable path for developing integrated quantum photonic devices based on cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) effect, e.g., highly efficient quantum light sources and quantum logical gates.

15.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 667493, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34163507

RESUMO

Kernel size (KS) and kernel weight play a key role in wheat yield. Phenotypic data from six environments and a Wheat55K single-nucleotide polymorphism array-based constructed genetic linkage map from a recombinant inbred line population derived from the cross between the wheat line 20828 and the line SY95-71 were used to identify quantitative trait locus (QTL) for kernel length (KL), kernel width (KW), kernel thickness (KT), thousand-kernel weight (TKW), kernel length-width ratio (LWR), KS, and factor form density (FFD). The results showed that 65 QTLs associated with kernel traits were detected, of which the major QTLs QKL.sicau-2SY-1B, QKW.sicau-2SY-6D, QKT.sicau-2SY-2D, and QTKW.sicau-2SY-2D, QLWR.sicau-2SY-6D, QKS.sicau-2SY-1B/2D/6D, and QFFD.sicau-2SY-2D controlling KL, KW, KT, TKW, LWR, KS, and FFD, and identified in multiple environments, respectively. They were located on chromosomes 1BL, 2DL, and 6DS and formed three QTL clusters. Comparison of genetic and physical interval suggested that only QKL.sicau-2SY-1B located on chromosome 1BL was likely a novel QTL. A Kompetitive Allele Specific Polymerase chain reaction (KASP) marker, KASP-AX-109379070, closely linked to this novel QTL was developed and used to successfully confirm its effect in two different genetic populations and three variety panels consisting of 272 Chinese wheat landraces, 300 Chinese wheat cultivars most from the Yellow and Huai River Valley wheat region, and 165 Sichuan wheat cultivars. The relationships between kernel traits and other agronomic traits were detected and discussed. A few predicted genes involved in regulation of kernel growth and development were identified in the intervals of these identified major QTL. Taken together, these stable and major QTLs provide valuable information for understanding the genetic composition of kernel yield and provide the basis for molecular marker-assisted breeding.

16.
Genome ; 64(12): 1067-1080, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058097

RESUMO

The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) family of genes encode transcription factors that play key roles in plant growth and development. In this study, a total of 92 HvbZIP genes were identified and compared with previous studies using recently released barley genome data. Two novel genes were characterized in this study, and some misannotated and duplicated genes from previous studies have been corrected. Phylogenetic analysis results showed that 92 HvbZIP genes were classified into 10 groups and three unknown groups. The gene structure and motif distribution of the three unknown groups implied that the genes of the three groups may be functionally different. Expression profiling indicated that the HvbZIP genes exhibited different patterns of spatial and temporal expression. Using qRT-PCR, more than 10 HvbZIP genes were identified with expression patterns similar to those of starch synthase genes in barley. Yeast one-hybrid analysis revealed that two of the HvbZIP genes exhibited in vitro binding activity to the promoter of HvAGP-S. The two HvbZIP genes may be candidate genes for further study to explore the mechanism by which they regulate the synthesis of barley starch.

17.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(4)2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924292

RESUMO

Lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs), especially the all-inorganic perovskite NCs, have drawn substantial attention for both fundamental research and device applications in recent years due to their unique optoelectronic properties. To build high-performance nanophotonic devices based on perovskite NCs, it is highly desirable to couple the NCs to photonic nanostructures for enhancing the radiative emission rate and improving the emission directionality of the NCs. In this work, we synthesized high-quality CsPbI3 NCs and further coupled them to dielectric circular Bragg gratings (CBGs). The efficient couplings between the perovskite NCs and the CBGs resulted in a 45.9-fold enhancement of the photoluminescence (PL) intensity and 3.2-fold acceleration of the radiative emission rate. Our work serves as an important step for building high-performance nanophotonic light emitting devices by integrating perovskite NCs with photonic nanostructures.

18.
Food Chem ; 356: 129699, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33873144

RESUMO

Anthocyanins and selenium have vital biological functions for human and plants, they were investigated thoroughly and separately in plants. Previous studies indicated pigmented fruits and vegetables had higher selenium concentration, but whether there is a relationship between anthocyanins and selenium is unclear. In this study, a combined phenotypic and genotypic methodological approach was undertaken to explore the potential relationship between anthocyanins and selenium accumulation by using phenotypic investigation and RNA-seq analysis. The results showed that pigmented cultivars enrichment in Se is a general phenomenon observed for these tested species, this due to pigmented cultivars have higher Se efficiency absorption. Se flow direction mainly improve concentration of S-rich proteins of LMW-GS. This may be a result of the MYB and bHLH co-regulate anthocyanins biosynthesis and Se metabolism at the transcriptional level. This thesis addresses a neglected aspect of the relevant relationship between anthocyanins and selenium.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Antocianinas/análise , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fertilizantes/análise , Humanos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/química , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Selênio/análise , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcrição Genética , Triticum/metabolismo
19.
New Phytol ; 230(5): 1940-1952, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651378

RESUMO

Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS), the germination of grain before harvest, is a serious problem resulting in wheat yield and quality losses. Here, we mapped the PHS resistance gene PHS-3D from synthetic hexaploid wheat to a 2.4 Mb presence-absence variation (PAV) region and found that its resistance effect was attributed to the pleiotropic Myb10-D by integrated omics and functional analyses. Three haplotypes were detected in this PAV region among 262 worldwide wheat lines and 16 Aegilops tauschii, and the germination percentages of wheat lines containing Myb10-D was approximately 40% lower than that of the other lines. Transcriptome and metabolome profiling indicated that Myb10-D affected the transcription of genes in both the flavonoid and abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis pathways, which resulted in increases in flavonoids and ABA in transgenic wheat lines. Myb10-D activates 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) by biding the secondary wall MYB-responsive element (SMRE) to promote ABA biosynthesis in early wheat seed development stages. We revealed that the newly discovered function of Myb10-D confers PHS resistance by enhancing ABA biosynthesis to delay germination in wheat. The PAV harboring Myb10-D associated with grain color and PHS will be useful for understanding and selecting white grained PHS resistant wheat cultivars.


Assuntos
Dioxigenases , Triticum , Dioxigenases/genética , Germinação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética
20.
Genome ; 64(9): 847-856, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661713

RESUMO

Subgenome asymmetry (SA) has routinely been attributed to different responses between the subgenomes of a polyploid to various stimuli during evolution. Here, we compared subgenome differences in gene ratio and relative diversity between artificial and natural genotypes of several allopolyploid species. Surprisingly, consistent differences were not detected between these two types of polyploid genotypes, although they differ in times exposed to evolutionary selection. The estimated ratio of shared genes between a subgenome and its diploid donor was invariably higher for the artificial allopolyploid genotypes than those for the natural genotypes, which is expected as it is now well-known that many genes in a species are not shared among all individuals. As the exact diploid parent for a given subgenome is unknown, the estimated ratios of shared genes for the natural genotypes would also include difference among individual genotypes of the diploid donor species. Further, we detected the presence of SA in genotypes before the completion of the polyploidization events as well as in those which were not formed via polyploidization. These results indicate that SA may, to a large degree, reflect differences between its diploid donors or that changes occurred during polyploid evolution are defined by their donor genomes.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...