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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(22): 4800-4805, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872585

RESUMO

Due to the increasing incidence of central nervous system diseases,especially the increasing incidence and mortality of stroke,brain-targeted drug delivery has attached more and more attention. Nasal administration,as one of the ways of brain-targeted administration,can effectively make the drug delivered to the brain in a targeted way after by passing the blood-brain barrier,providing a new idea for the treatment of central nervous system diseases. Therefore,it is a promising administration way. In recent years,the treatment of encephalopathy by nasal administration of traditional Chinese medicine has become a hot topic in the research of traditional Chinese medicine. Ischemic stroke is one of the most important diseases endangering human health. Nasal administration has a history of thousands of years in treatment of stroke. Modern medical research has proved that there is a subtle connection between the nasal cavity and the brain,and the complex and ingenious structure of the nasal cavity provides the possibility for drugs delivery to the brain through the nose. Drug administration through nasal cavity has obvious advantages in treatment of central nervous system diseases represented by ischemic stroke. Nasal administration is characterized by non-invasion,low infection,rapid absorption and brain targeting. The author will expound the theoretical basis of brain targeting of nasal administration from the aspects of anatomy and physiology,and summarize the transport pathway of drugs through the nose into the brain,the in vitro and in vivo experimental research basis of the " nose-brain"pathway,and the clinical nasal administration of traditional Chinese medicine to prevent cerebral ischemia. It provides a reference for better research of drugs to prevent and treat cerebral ischemia injury through the " nose-brain"pathway and lays a foundation for further research of the " nose-brain" pathway.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Administração Intranasal , Encéfalo , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Mucosa Nasal
2.
Immunol Lett ; 212: 98-105, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260744

RESUMO

The effects of maternal vitamin D status on offspring's Th1/Th2 cell function and the related mechanisms have not been reported. In this study, we established the rat model of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy. 48 female Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were randomly assigned to three groups (n = 16/group): control group (fed with standard AIN-93 G diet until parturition), vitamin D deficiency group (VDD group, fed with vitamin D deficient diet until parturition) and vitamin D supplementation group (VDS group, fed with vitamin D deficient diet prior to mating and with standard AIN-93 G diet during pregnancy). At 4 weeks of age, the ratio of T helper type 1/ T helper type 2 (Th1/Th2) cells and the levels of Th1/Th2 cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13) in offspring rats were determined by Flow Cytometry and Meso Scale Discovery, respectively. Furthermore, DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity as well as the methylation levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 genes were measured. As a result, rats in the VDD group showed a significant decrease in Th1/Th2 ratio and IFN-γ level and an increase in IL-4 level. Additionally, up-regulated DNMT activity and increased methylation rate of IFN-γ gene was shown in VDD offspring rats. Supplementation with vitamin D during pregnancy reversed the above abnormalities. In conclusion, maternal vitamin D deficiency affected the function of Th1/Th2 cells and methylation of IFN-γ gene in offspring rats. Meanwhile, maternal vitamin D deficiency had the potential to regulate DNMT activity, which may determine the status of methylation.

3.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 390, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phytohormones are key regulators of plant growth, development, and signalling networks involved in responses to diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. Transcriptional reference maps of hormone responses have been reported for several model plant species such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, and Brachypodium distachyon. However, because of species differences and the complexity of the wheat genome, these transcriptome data are not appropriate reference material for wheat studies. RESULTS: We comprehensively analysed the transcriptomic responses in wheat spikes to seven phytohormones, including indole acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ET), cytokinin (CK), salicylic acid (SA), and methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA). A total of 3386 genes were differentially expressed at 24 h after the hormone treatments. Furthermore, 22.7% of these genes exhibited overlapping transcriptional responses for at least two hormones, implying there is crosstalk among phytohormones. We subsequently identified genes with expression levels that were significantly and differentially induced by a specific phytohormone (i.e., hormone-specific responses). The data for these hormone-responsive genes were then compared with the transcriptome data for wheat spikes exposed to biotic (Fusarium head blight) and abiotic (water deficit) stresses. CONCLUSION: Our data were used to develop a transcriptional reference map of hormone responses in wheat spikes.


Assuntos
Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Transcriptoma , Triticum/genética , Desidratação/genética , Desidratação/metabolismo , Flores/efeitos dos fármacos , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Fusarium , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 238: 111884, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995546

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Desertliving Cistanche herb was first recorded in "Shen Nong'Herbal Classic" and listed as the top grade herbal medicine in it. Phenylethanoid glycosides are indicative components for identification and content determination of Desertliving Cistanche herb in Chinese pharmacopoeia, which is also one of the main active components. In this research, we explored the mechanism of phenylethanoid glycosides of Desertliving Cistanche herb to the perimenopausal model rats. AIM: The purpose of this study is to research the effects of phenylethanoid glycosides of Desertliving Cistanche herb (PGC) on the neuroendocrine-immune function of perimenopausal syndrome by perimenopausal model rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar female rats were selected. The left ovaries for all rats except in the blank control group(BC) were removed, and the right ovaries were removed in 80%. The vaginal smear showed irregular estrous cycle changes for the perimenopausal model rats. And the perimenopausal model rats were gavaged Gengnian'an, Phenylethanoid Glycosides of Desertliving Cistanche herb high, medium, low suspension which is 450mg/(kg day), 133.33mg/(kg day), 66.67mg/(kg day), 33.33mg/(kg day); the group of BC and model group (MC)were given distilled water in the same volume as the drugs group for 30 consecutive days. Horizontal-vertical exercise scores were measured at 29 days of dosing. After the last administration, the blood was taken from the abdominal aorta, and levels of E2, LH, FSH, GnRH, BGP in serum, and the levels ß-EP in plasma were measured respective. Organ indexes of thymus, spleen, and uterus were calculated. The content of estrogen receptor (ER) in the hypothalamic, pituitary and uterus tissues and the content of androgen receptor (AR) in the hypothalamic homogenate were measured. The pathological changes of the thymus, spleen, uterus, ovary were observed by HE staining. RESULTS: Compared with MC, PGC increase the activity, the organ index (thymus, spleen, uterus), E2, T, BGP level in serum, ß-EP level in plasma, AR level in hypothalamus, ER level in hypothalamus, pituitary, uterus in perimenopausal model rats. And it also reduced FSH, LH, GnRH level in serum, and improved uterine and ovarian lesions in perimenopausal model rats. CONCLUSION: Each dose of PCG could counteract the disorder of sex hormone in perimenopausal model rats, correct the imbalance of ER and AR level, enhance and restore the effect of uterus and the nerve cells of hypothalamic, and improve immune function.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Cistanche/química , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Glicosídeos/química , Plantas Medicinais , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fenômenos Reprodutivos Fisiológicos
5.
Sci Rep ; 7: 46129, 2017 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28387243

RESUMO

Fusarium graminearum is the major causal agent of fusarium head blight in wheat, a serious disease worldwide. Linoleic acid isomerase (LAI) catalyses the transformation of linoleic acid (LA) to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which is beneficial for human health. We characterised a cis-12 LAI gene of F. graminearum (FGSG_02668; FgLAI12), which was downregulated by salicylic acid (SA), a plant defence hormone. Disruption of FgLAI12 in F. graminearum resulted in decreased accumulation of cis-9,trans-11 CLA, enhanced sensitivity to SA, and increased accumulation of LA and SA in wheat spikes during infection. In addition, mycelial growth, accumulation of deoxynivalenol, and pathogenicity in wheat spikes were reduced. Re-introduction of a functional FgLAI12 gene into ΔFgLAI12 recovered the wild-type phenotype. Fluorescent microscopic analysis showed that FgLAI12 protein was usually expressed in the septa zone of conidia and the vacuole of hyphae, but was expressed in the cell membrane of hyphae in response to exogenous LA, which may be an element of LA metabolism during infection by F. graminearum. The cis-12 LAI enzyme encoded by FgLAI12 is critical for fungal response to SA, mycelial growth and virulence in wheat. The gene FgLAI12 is potentially valuable for biotechnological synthesis of cis-9,trans-11 CLA.


Assuntos
Fusarium/genética , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Genes Fúngicos , Isomerases/genética , Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Biocatálise/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Deleção de Genes , Teste de Complementação Genética , Isomerases/metabolismo , Isomerismo , Ácido Linoleico/química , Micélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Esporos Fúngicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Esporos Fúngicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia , Virulência/efeitos dos fármacos , Virulência/genética
6.
Anal Biochem ; 512: 8-17, 2016 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27523645

RESUMO

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs), utilized as carriers are attractive materials widely applied in biomedical fields, but target-specific SPIO NPs with lower toxicity and excellent biocompatibility are still lacking for intracellular visualization in human brain tumor diagnosis and therapy. Herein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) coated superparamagnetic iron oxide, i.e. γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (BSA-SPIO NPs), are synthesized. Tumor-specific ligand folic acid (FA) is then conjugated onto BSA-SPIO NPs to fabricate tumor-targeted NPs, FA-BSA-SPIO NPs as a contrast agent for MRI imaging. The FA-BSA-SPIO NPs are also labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) for intracellular visualization after cellular uptake and internalization by glioma U251 cells. The biological effects of the FA-BSA-SPIO NPs are investigated in human brain tumor U251 cells in detail. These results show that the prepared FA-BSA-SPIO NPs display undetectable cytotoxicity, excellent biocompatibility, and potent cellular uptake. Moreover, the study shows that the made FA-BSA-SPIO NPs are effectively internalized for MRI imaging and intracellular visualization after FITC labeling in the targeted U251 cells. Therefore, the present study demonstrates that the fabricated FITC-FA-BSA-SPIO NPs hold promising perspectives by providing a dual-modal imaging as non-toxic and target-specific vehicles in human brain tumor treatment in future.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Meios de Contraste , Fluoresceína-5-Isotiocianato , Ácido Fólico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Soroalbumina Bovina , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Meios de Contraste/química , Meios de Contraste/farmacologia , Fluoresceína-5-Isotiocianato/química , Fluoresceína-5-Isotiocianato/farmacologia , Ácido Fólico/química , Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Soroalbumina Bovina/farmacologia
7.
World J Gastroenterol ; 22(7): 2357-65, 2016 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26900298

RESUMO

AIM: To explore the changes of X-box binding protein 1 splicing (XBP1s) and inflammatory cytokine expression in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). METHODS: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were performed to detect the forms of XBP1s and the expression of interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-γ, and IL-17α. Differences between patients with UC and normal subjects were then determined. RESULTS: Mononuclear cells of the peripheral blood of normal subjects and UC patients with were stimulated with no drugs (control), phytohemagglutinin (PHA), thapsigargin (TG), or both PHA and TG. XBP1s in patients with UC exhibited splicing, which was greater with co-stimulation than single stimulation. Co-stimulation increased the expression level of IL-2, IFN-γ, and IL-17α. CONCLUSION: The T lymphocytes of both normal subjects and patients with UC responded to ERS by activating the XBP1s-mediated signalling pathway, upregulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines, and increasing the occurrence of inflammation. The mononuclear cells in the peripheral blood of patients with UC were more sensitive to ERS than those in the peripheral blood of normal subjects.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Colite Ulcerativa/sangue , Colite Ulcerativa/genética , Colite Ulcerativa/imunologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/genética , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/genética , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fito-Hemaglutininas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Tapsigargina/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima , Proteína 1 de Ligação a X-Box/genética , Proteína 1 de Ligação a X-Box/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Neurotoxicology ; 52: 98-103, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26616912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects and mechanisms of preweaning Manganese (Mn) exposure on cognitive dysfunction remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effects of preweaning Mn exposure on spatial learning and memory as well as the protein expression of CaMKIIα and p-CaMKIIα. METHODS: We treated neonate rats with Mn(2+) doses of 0 (control group), 10, 20 and 30mg of Mn(2+) per kg body weight (Mn-exposed groups) over postnatal day (PND) 1-21 by intraperitoneal injection. The ability of spatial learning and memory was tested on PND 22 using the Morris water maze (MWM), while the protein expressions of CaMKIIα and p-CaMKIIα in the hippocampus were evaluated by Western blotting. The levels of Mn in the blood and hippocampus were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). RESULTS: The rats in Mn-exposed groups showed a significant delay in spatial learning ability on the third day of the MWM without dose-dependent differences, but there was no effect on the spatial memory ability. p-CaMKIIα, but not CaMKIIα protein expression significantly reduced in the Mn-exposed group. CONCLUSION: These findings suggested that the inhibition of p-CaMKIIα could be one of the mechanisms involved in the occurrence of Mn-induced cognitive impairments.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Manganês/toxicidade , Aprendizagem Espacial/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/biossíntese , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Manganês/sangue , Manganês/metabolismo , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Aprendizagem Espacial/fisiologia
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 59(8): 3641-8, 2011 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21395338

RESUMO

Two previous studies have reported that pu-erh tea contains a high level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and has several physiological functions. However, two other researchers have demonstrated that the GABA content of several pu-erh teas was low. Due to the high value and health benefits of GABA, analysis of mass-produced pu-erh tea is necessary to determine whether it is actually enriched with GABA. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of GABA in tea, the results of which were verified by amino acid analysis using an Amino Acid Analyzer (AAA). A total of 114 samples of various types of Chinese tea, including 62 pu-erh teas, 13 green teas, 8 oolong teas, 8 black teas, 3 white teas, 4 GABA teas, and 16 process samples from two industrial fermentations of pu-erh tea (including the raw material and the first to seventh turnings), were analyzed using HPLC. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the GABA content in pu-erh tea was significantly lower than that in other types of tea (p < 0.05) and that the GABA content decreased during industrial fermentation of pu-erh tea (p < 0.05). This mass analysis and comparison suggested GABA was not a major bioactive constituent and resolved the disagreement GABA content in pu-erh tea. In addition, the GABA content in white tea was found to be significantly higher than that in the other types of tea (p < 0.05), leading to the possibility of producing GABA-enriched white tea.


Assuntos
Chá/química , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Limite de Detecção
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