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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639831

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Epidemics lead to an increase in occupational stress and psychological strain among healthcare workers. However, the impact of a pandemic outbreak on healthcare systems is yet to be clearly defined. Therefore, this work aims to describe and analyze specific areas of workload among different groups of healthcare workers during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A sample of N = 8088 persons working in the German-speaking healthcare sector participated in the VOICE/egePan online survey, which addressed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic during the second quarter of 2020. We used 15 self-constructed items, based on the work of Matsuishi et al. (2012), to identify potential COVID-19-specific topics. RESULTS: N = 7542 records of healthcare workers were analyzed. Of these, 60.80% reported, retrospectively, an increase in stress since the outbreak of the pandemic. Problem areas tended to be indicated more frequently by the women surveyed than by the men. Nurses, paramedics and medical technicians reported the highest fear of infecting others while physicians reported the highest fear of physical or mental exhaustion. With respect to age, older respondents indicated less fear and felt more protected. Men and people living alone were more likely to use dysfunctional coping strategies. Migrants reported a higher fear of becoming infected or infecting others as well as they reported about increased levels of smoking. DISCUSSION: Retrospectively, the COVID-19 pandemic led to an increase in stress among healthcare workers. Problem areas have different focuses with regard to different living situations, environmental conditions and professions. In order to lay the best basis for healthy and efficient work, it seems necessary to take measures especially tailored to the needs of different groups of healthcare workers.

2.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is a continuing burden on society and the health system. The vaccination willingness among healthcare workers is of particular interest, as these groups play a key role in the pandemic response. OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated how the willingness of healthcare workers in Germany to get vaccinated depends on sociodemographic, occupational, and COVID-19-specific characteristics, as well as mental health. METHODS: Between November 2020 and January 2021, 6217 employees in the German healthcare system were questioned about their vaccination willingness, sociodemographic, occupational, COVID-19-specific, and psychosocial characteristics using the online VOICE survey within the framework of the University Medicine Network (NUM). RESULTS: The vaccination willingness of the sample group was 65.3%. A higher vaccination willingness was associated with male gender; age > 40 years; having no children or no migration background; not working in direct patient care; belonging to a COVID-19 risk group or professional group of physicians and psychologists in comparison with nursing staff; feeling sufficiently informed about COVID-19 and protected by the measures of the national or local authorities and the employer; fear of infection; and lack of signs of depression. Physicians showed the highest willingness to get vaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: During the study period, an overall moderate vaccination willingness against COVID-19 in the health sector was described. Information about the disease and vaccination, especially for younger people, females, and non-physicians, adequate protective measures and prevention of depressive symptoms could increase the vaccination willingness.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255211, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310616

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in severe detrimental effects on the mental well-being of health care workers (HCW). Consequently, there has been a need to identify health-promoting resources in order to mitigate the psychological impact of the pandemic on HCW. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the association of sense of coherence (SOC), social support and religiosity with self-reported mental symptoms and increase of subjective burden during the COVID-19 pandemic in HCW. METHODS: Our sample comprised 4324 HCW of four professions (physicians, nurses, medical technical assistants (MTA) and pastoral workers) who completed an online survey from 20 April to 5 July 2020. Health-promoting resources were assessed using the Sense of Coherence Scale Short Form (SOC-3), the ENRICHD Social Support Inventory (ESSI) and one item on religiosity derived from the Scale of Transpersonal Trust (TPV). Anxiety and depression symptoms were measured with the PHQ-2 and GAD-2. The increase of subjective burden due to the pandemic was assessed as the retrospective difference between burden during the pandemic and before the pandemic. RESULTS: In multiple regressions, higher SOC was strongly associated with fewer anxiety and depression symptoms. Higher social support was also related to less severe mental symptoms, but with a smaller effect size, while religiosity showed minimal to no correlation with anxiety or depression. In professional group analysis, SOC was negatively associated with mental symptoms in all groups, while social support only correlated significantly with mental health outcomes in physicians and MTA. In the total sample and among subgroups, an increase of subjective burden was meaningfully associated only with a weaker SOC. CONCLUSION: Perceived social support and especially higher SOC appeared to be beneficial for mental health of HCW during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the different importance of the resources in the respective occupations requires further research to identify possible reasons.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Pandemias , Senso de Coerência , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Religião , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Neuroimage Clin ; 31: 102731, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: So far findings on emotional face processing among depressed individuals reveal an inconsistent image, with only some studies supporting a mood-congruent bias in salience processing. Thereby, many results are based on the processing of sad emotions and mostly focused on resting-state connectivity analysis. The present study aimed to target this misbalance by implementing a social oddball paradigm, with a special focus on the amygdala, the ACC, the insula and subdivisions of insula and ACC. METHODS: Twenty-seven depressed patients and twenty-seven non-depressed controls took part in a fMRI event-related social oddball paradigm based on smiling facial expressions as target stimuli embedded in a stream of neutral facial expressions. FMRI activation and functional connectivity analysis were calculated for the pre-defined ROIs of the salience network (SN), with a special focus on twelve insular subdivisions and six ACC subdivisions. RESULTS: For both groups the social oddball paradigm triggered similar BOLD responses within the pre-defined ROIs, while the quality of functional connectivity showed pronounced alterations from the salience network to the ventral attention- and default mode network (DMN). CONCLUSION: On a first level of target detection, smiling faces are equally processed and trigger similar bold responses in structures of the salience network. On a second level of inter-network communication the brain of depressed participants tends to be pre-formed for self-referential processing and rumination instead of fast goal directed behavior and socio-emotional cognitive processing.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Reconhecimento Facial , Córtex Cerebral , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Expressão Facial , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
5.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 131: 105326, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182250

RESUMO

Psychological treatments of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with non-response rates of up to 50%. This fact highlights the need to identify characteristics of poorer treatment outcome. Among others, previous evidence focused on the role of dysfunctional cortisol secretion which has been related to the development, maintenance and treatment of PTSD. Particularly, promising evidence stems from research using hair cortisol analysis which allows for a reliable assessment of cortisol secretion over several months. Another variable that has been linked to both HCC and non-response to treatment is childhood maltreatment (CM). In order to examine the predictive value of pre-treatment hair cortisol concentrations (HCC), treatment-related changes in HCC as well as CM for changes in PTSD symptomatology, we set up a prospective study in which we followed 52 female PTSD patients over the course of a trauma-focused inpatient treatment. Specifically, 3-month integrated HCC were assessed at treatment entry, at discharge and on average five months later accompanied by assessments of PTSD, overall and depressive symptomatology. CM was measured at treatment entry. Self-report indices improved following inpatient treatment. No evidence for pre-treatment HCC to be associated with changes in PTSD symptoms was revealed. However, attenuated pre-treatment HCC predicted less improvement in overall symptomatology from treatment entry to discharge. This effect lost significance after adjusting for baseline dissociative symptoms. Neither changes in HCC nor CM were predictive of treatment response. Pre-treatment cross-sectional analyses revealed no association between HCC and CM. The current hair cortisol data provided little evidence for a predictive role of lower long-term integrated cortisol secretion for poorer inpatient treatment outcome. If corroborated by further research in larger PTSD samples with much more methodological rigor, these data might be a valuable basis for future tailored research projects.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is impacting mental health worldwide, particularly among healthcare workers (HCWs). Risk and protective factors for depression and generalized anxiety in healthcare workers need to be identified to protect their health and ability to work. Social support and optimism are known protective psychosocial resources, but have not been adequately studied in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic among healthcare workers in Germany. METHODS: Within the first wave of the VOICE study (n = 7765), a longitudinal web-based survey study among healthcare workers in Germany, we assessed symptoms of depression (PHQ-2) and generalized anxiety (GAD-2), social support (ENRICHD Social Support Inventory; ESSI), and generalized optimism as well as sociodemographic, occupational, and COVID-19 related variables. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between the constructs. RESULTS: The analyses revealed that higher levels of social support and optimism were associated with lower levels of depression and generalized anxiety. They showed a higher association with depression and generalized anxiety than demographic or occupational risk factors such as female gender and direct contact with infected individuals. CONCLUSION: Psychosocial resources such as social support and optimism appear to contribute to successful coping with the COVID-19 pandemic and should be considered in future studies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Fatores de Proteção , SARS-CoV-2 , Apoio Social
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Refeeding is the cornerstone of anorexia nervosa (AN) treatment, but little is known regarding the optimal pace and dietary composition or possible adverse effects of current clinical practices. Plasma lipids may be a moderating factor underlying unfavorable refeeding effects in AN, such as an abnormal central body fat distribution. The objective of this study was to analyze the plasma lipidome in the acutely underweight state of AN before and after refeeding. METHOD: Using high-throughput quantitative mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomics, we measured 13 lipid classes and 204 lipid species or subspecies in the plasma of young female patients with acute AN, before (n = 39) and after (n = 23) short-term weight restoration during an intensive inpatient refeeding program (median body mass index [BMI] increase = 26.4%), in comparison to those in healthy control participants (n = 37). RESULTS: Before inpatient treatment, patients with AN exhibited increased concentrations of cholesterol and several other lipid classes. After refeeding, multiple lipid classes including cholesterol and ceramides, as well as certain ceramide species previously associated with obesity or overfeeding, showed increased concentrations, and a pattern of shorter and more saturated triacylgycerides emerged. A machine learning model trained to predict BMI based on the lipidomic profiles revealed a sizable overprediction in patients with AN after weight restoration. CONCLUSION: The results point toward a profound lipid dysregulation with similarities to obesity and other features of the metabolic syndrome after short-term weight restoration. Thus, this study provides evidence for possible short-term adverse effects of current refeeding practices on the metabolic state and should inspire more research on nutritional interventions in AN.

8.
J Psychosom Res ; 144: 110415, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743398

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cross-sectional web-based study was to examine self-reported mental distress, psychosocial burdens, working conditions and potential risk and protective factors for depressive and anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic in health care workers (HCW). METHODS: In the largest survey on mental health of HCW conducted during the first wave of COVID-19 in Europe (N = 8071 HCW), we investigated depressive (Patient Health Questionnaire-2, PHQ-2), and anxiety symptoms (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2, GAD-2), working conditions, and psychosocial burden of 3678 HCW of three health care professions in hospitals: physicians (n = 1061), nurses (n = 1275), and medical technical assistants (MTA, n = 1342). RESULTS: The prevalence of clinically significant levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms was 17.4% and 17.8% for physicians, 21.6% and 19.0% for nurses, and 23.0% and 20.1% for MTA, respectively. All three professions demonstrated significantly elevated PHQ-2 and GAD-2 scores, when compared with general German population before the pandemic, but lower scores in relation to that during the pandemic. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with insufficient recovery during leisure time, increased alcohol consumption, and less trust in colleagues in difficult situations at work. In addition, elevated anxiety scores were related to increased fear of becoming infected with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: During the pandemic HCW demonstrated a lower burden of mental distress compared to the general population. Nevertheless, a high percentage of HCW demonstrates psychosocial distress, so that the establishment of regular mental health screening and prevention programmes for HCW is indicated.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Hospitais , Saúde Mental , Local de Trabalho , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Fatores de Proteção , Funcionamento Psicossocial , Fatores de Risco
9.
Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol ; 71(7): 274-283, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440450

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Women with postpartum mental disorders often have a delayed bonding to their child with negative consequences for the child's development. In several countries it has been demonstrated that a specific mother-child treatment has positive effects on maternal psychopathology and mother-child bonding. Data for German-speaking countries are rare, partly due to the lack of adequately financed mother-baby units. The objectives of this study were to characterize the patients and to evaluate the treatment in a psychosomatic-psychotherapeutic mother-child day clinic. METHODS: A total of 270 patients were examined at admission and discharge from the mother-child day clinic. The evaluation included main and secondary diagnoses according to ICD-10, duration of treatment, medication, information on the child, and psychometric questionnaires on maternal psychopathology, mother-child bonding, and parental sense of competence. RESULTS: Of the women examined, 75% had more than one, on average 2.3 mental diagnoses. The most frequent main diagnoses were affective disorders (38.5%), neurotic, stress and somatoform disorders (30.7%) and personality and behavioral disorders (20.4%). About 56% reported impaired mother-child bonding. The average duration of therapy was 32 treatment days. Between admission and discharge, a highly significant improvement in symptoms was observed with a high effect size [F=288.557 (df=1), p<0.001, Eta²=0.549]. At discharge, 86.6% of patients showed no signs of mother-child bonding disorder. DISCUSSION: The results indicate high potential effects of an interaction-centered treatment on maternal mental health and mother-child bonding. CONCLUSIONS: The joint treatment of mother and child should be a fixed and financed component of the mental health system in order to prevent chronification and negative developmental consequences for the child.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The endocannabinoid system has been suggested to modulate energy metabolism and stress response and could be an important factor in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa (AN). In the context of AN, excessive physical activity may influence endocannabinoid concentrations. The objective of this study was to investigate hair endocannabinoid concentrations at different stages of the disorder. Measurement in hair allows for a cumulative assessment of endocannabinoid concentrations independent of circadian rhythms. METHODS: In a combined cross-sectional and longitudinal design, we measured hair concentrations of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol and the endocannabinoid-related compounds palmitoylethanolamide, oleoylethanolamide, and stearoylethanolamide in female underweight patients with acute AN (n = 67, reassessment of n = 47 after short-term weight restoration with a body mass index increase of at least 14%), individuals long-term recovered from AN (n = 27), and healthy control participants (n = 84). RESULTS: Hair concentrations of anandamide and all endocannabinoid-related compounds were elevated in acute AN and decreased over the course of short-term weight restoration. Anandamide concentrations remained elevated in long-term recovered AN patients. In long-term recovered patients, physical activity correlated positively with the concentrations of all endocannabinoid-related compounds. CONCLUSION: The current study provides evidence for a significant alteration of the endocannabinoid system in acute AN, which may partly persist into long-term recovery. The endocannabinoid system may be a possible target for pharmaceutical interventions in AN, which should be explored in further preclinical and subsequently clinical randomized controlled trials.

11.
Behav Sleep Med ; 19(3): 303-317, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249601

RESUMO

Background: Poor sleep quality is a common problem in pregnant women, however there is scarce research evidence regarding the association between maternal perinatal insomnia and later social-emotional child development.Participants: This study is part of the Akershus Birth Cohort, a longitudinal population-based study. Birth record and questionnaire data of 1,346 women were used.Methods: Maternal symptoms of insomnia were measured at pregnancy week 32 and at eight weeks postpartum and social-emotional child development was assessed at two years of child age. Correlational and multiple linear regression analyzes were performed.Results: Both, pre- and postnatal symptoms of insomnia were significantly correlated with poorer social-emotional child development two years later (r = 0.09, p < .01 and r = 0.13, p < .001). Adjusting for potential confounding factors, the prospective effect of maternal symptoms of perinatal insomnia on social-emotional child development remained significant in the multiple linear regression analyzes (ß = 0.08, p < .01 and ß = 0. 10, p < .01).Conclusions: We found a prospective effect of maternal symptoms of perinatal insomnia on social-emotional child development, highlighting the potential relevance of both pre- and postnatal maternal sleep for later social-emotional child development. Future studies ought to examine the bio-psycho-social mechanisms and implications of poor maternal sleep in the perinatal time in more detail.

12.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e040123, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334832

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Success rates of psychotherapy in post-traumatic stress disorder related to childhood maltreatment (PTSD-CM) are limited. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Observer-blind multicentre randomised clinical trial (A-1) of 4-year duration comparing enhanced methods of STAIR Narrative Therapy (SNT) and of trauma-focused psychodynamic therapy (TF-PDT) each of up to 24 sessions with each other and a minimal attention waiting list in PTSD-CM. Primary outcome is severity of PTSD (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 total) assessed by masked raters. For SNT and TF-PDT, both superiority and non-inferiority will be tested. Intention-to-treat analysis (primary) and per-protocol analysis (secondary). Assessments at baseline, after 10 sessions, post-therapy/waiting period and at 6 and 12 months of follow-up. Adult patients of all sexes between 18 and 65 years with PTSD-CM will be included. Continuing stable medication is permitted. To be excluded: psychotic disorders, risk of suicide, ongoing abuse, acute substance related disorder, borderline personality disorder, dissociative identity disorder, organic mental disorder, severe medical conditions and concurrent psychotherapy. To be assessed for eligibility: n=600 patients, to be e randomly allocated to the study conditions: n=328. Data management, randomisation and monitoring will be performed by an independent European Clinical Research Infrastructure Network (ECRIN)-certified data coordinating centre for clinical trials (KKS Marburg). Report of AEs to a data monitoring and safety board. Complementing study A-1, four inter-related add-on projects, including subsamples of the treatment study A-1, will examine (1) treatment integrity (adherence and competence) and moderators and mediators of outcome (B-1); (2) biological parameters (B-2, eg, DNA damage, reactive oxygen species and telomere shortening); (3) structural and functional neural changes by neuroimaging (B-3) and (4) cost-effectiveness of the treatments (B-4, costs and utilities). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Approval by the institutional review board of the University of Giessen (AZ 168/19). Following the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials statement for non-pharmacological trials, results will be reported in peer-reviewed scientific journals and disseminated to patient organisations and media. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: DRKS 00021142.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Terapia Narrativa , Transtornos Psicóticos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Psicoterapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1505, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of Western women work during their reproductive years, but past research has often neglected the influence of work-related factors on postpartum mental health. Especially postpartum depression (PPD) is an enormous psychological burden for mothers. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the prospective impact of precarious working conditions and psychosocial work stress during pregnancy (such as work-privacy conflict and effort-reward imbalance at the job) on symptoms of maternal PPD. METHODS: In the prospective-longitudinal cohort study DREAM (DResdner Studie zu Elternschaft, Arbeit und Mentaler Gesundheit), N = 587 employed women were questioned about their work during pregnancy and their mental health 8 weeks after delivery. RESULTS: Multiple regression analyses revealed that work-privacy conflict, low reward at work, and precarious working conditions significantly predicted symptoms of PPD, even when controlling for lifetime depression, anxiety, education, parity, and age. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that psychosocial work stress and precarious working conditions have important implications for maternal peripartum mental health. They might act as prospective risk factors for PPD during the period of maternal leave. Hence, future research should focus on preventative measures targeting work life.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto/etiologia , Emprego/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Licença Parental/estatística & dados numéricos , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Saúde Mental , Paridade , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e035733, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033083

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the delirium severity (DS), its risk factors and association with adverse patient outcomes in chronically critically ill (CCI) patients. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: A tertiary care hospital with postacute intensive care units (ICUs) in Germany. PARTICIPANTS: N=267 CCI patients with critical illness polyneuropathy and/or critical illness myopathy, aged 18-75 years, who had undergone elective tracheotomy for weaning failure. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASURES: Primary outcomes: DS was assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit-7 delirium severity score, within 4 weeks (t1) after the transfer to a tertiary care hospital. In post hoc analyses, univariate linear regressions were employed, examining the relationship of DS with clinical, sociodemographic and psychological variables. Secondary outcomes: additionally, correlations of DS with fatigue (using the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory-20), quality of life (using the Euro-Quality of Life) and institutionalisation/mortality at 3 (t2) and 6 (t3) months follow-up were computed. RESULTS: Of the N=267 patients analysed, 9.4% showed severe or most severe delirium symptoms. 4.1% had a full-syndromal delirium. DS was significantly associated with the severity of illness (p=0.016, 95% CI -0.1 to -0.3), number of medical comorbidities (p<0.001, 95% CI .1 to .3) and sepsis (p<0.001, 95% CI .3 to 1.0). Patients with a higher DS at postacute ICU (t1), showed a higher mental fatigue at t2 (p=0.008, 95% CI .13 to .37) and an increased risk for institutionalisation/mortality (p=0.043, 95% CI 1.1 to 28.9/p=0.015, 95% CI 1.5 to 43.2). CONCLUSIONS: Illness severity is positively associated with DS during postacute care in CCI patients. An adequate management of delirium is essential in order to mitigate functional and cognitive long-term sequelae following ICU. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: DRKS00003386.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Delírio , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cuidados Críticos , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/epidemiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto Jovem
15.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 66(3): 220-242, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876550

RESUMO

Psychological stress caused by epidemics among health care workers and implications for coping with the corona crisis: a literature review Objectives: COVID-19 has significantly changed the working and living conditions within a short period. Despite the milder course of the disease in comparison to other countries, employees in the German health care system are particularly affected by the massive impact of the disease on their professional and private lives. From a scientific point of view, summarized empirical evidence made during other epidemics and at the beginning of the COVID-19-pandemic is largely missing. Methods: Narrative review article, literature search on PubMed database. Results: A total of 56 studies were included, 35 of them on the SARS epidemic and seven on COVID-19; included studies reported overall increased stress levels, anxiety and PTSD symptoms due to health care work during various epidemics. Direct contact with patients, quarantine experiences and perceived health risks were further stress factors in epidemics. Participation in intervention studies enabled better management of epidemic-related situations. Conclusions: Healthcare workers are exposed to high workloads because of epidemics, which can have a variety of adverse effects. Recommendations are made for dealing with periods of high exposure during the COVID-19-pandemic.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 593, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670115

RESUMO

Due to a close functional relation between brain areas processing emotion and those processing olfaction, major depression is often accompanied by reduced olfactory function. Such hyposmia can be improved by regular olfactory training (OT) over several months. As this training furthermore improves subjective well-being, we explored whether OT is a useful complementary strategy for depression treatment. A total of 102 depressive outpatients were randomly assigned to OT or a control training condition, which were performed twice a day for 16 weeks. Compliance was continuously monitored. Before and after training we measured depression severity and olfactory function. About half of the patients of both groups did not complete the training. Among the remaining patients, depression severity decreased significantly in both groups. The absence of an interaction effect indicated no selective impact of OT and the variance of depression improvement explained by OT was as little as 0.1%. The low compliance suggests that OT is not feasible for large parts of our sample of depressive outpatients, most likely due to a disease-immanent lack of motivation. In those patients who completed the training, lack of specific effects suggest that OT is not more useful then unspecific activation or attention training. Clinical Trial Registration: This clinical trial was registered at German Registry for Clinical Trials (DRKS), main ID: DRKS00016350, URL: http://www.drks.de/DRKS00016350.

17.
J Affect Disord ; 272: 388-397, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many mothers combine two sides of their life: They are both educated employees and family organizers. The aim of this study is to investigate risk and protective factors of depressive symptoms during the postpartum period (PPD symptoms) on both those sides of mothers' life, including education, job-, and housework-related factors. METHODS: Data (n = 689) were drawn from the prospective-longitudinal cohort study "Dresden Study on Parenting, Work, and Mental Health" (DREAM). Education, job satisfaction, job burden, and the housework-related factor ministering to family needs (MTFN) were measured during pregnancy. Depressive symptoms were measured 8 weeks postpartum. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: While education was not significantly associated with PPD symptoms, low job satisfaction, high job burden, and low MTFN levels were significant risk factors for PPD symptoms. When controlling for further potential confounders, job satisfaction and job burden remained significant predictors. LIMITATIONS: Generalization of findings might be limited due to participation bias and some systematic dropout. CONCLUSIONS: Job characteristics should be considered in future research on postpartum mental health. For the prevention of PPD symptoms, it seems important to ensure satisfying and less burdensome working conditions during pregnancy. Additionally, the results indicate that further research on the effects of housework-related factors on PPD symptoms is worthwhile.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto , Depressão , Criança , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Feminino , Serviço de Limpeza , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Mães , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Addict Behav ; 110: 106488, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599496

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Alcohol addiction compromises cardiovascular health, possibly due to impaired control of the heart and vasculature by the autonomic nervous system. We aimed to assess the effects of National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) acupuncture on cardiovascular autonomic functions, psychiatric comorbidities and abstinence in patients addicted to alcohol. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A randomized sham controlled three-arm study was undertaken in 72 patients (nine females, aged 43.7 ± 9.2 years, mean ± SD) undergoing in-patient rehabilitation for alcohol addiction. Patients were randomly allocated (1:1:1) to receive twenty 30-minute NADA or sham acupuncture sessions within six weeks or no intervention. They were evaluated for craving, depression, anxiety and autonomic control of the heart (heart rate variability, HRV), vasculature (laser Doppler flowmetry) and sweat glands (sympathetic skin response). Testing was performed at baseline, immediately post intervention (sham intervention or control period, respectively) and another four weeks later. Abstinence was assessed one year after study completion. RESULTS: Patients in the NADA arm displayed increased HRV immediately post-intervention compared to baseline (SDNN: 72.8 ms ± 34.2 ms vs. 57.9 ms ± 31.2 ms, p = 0.001). This increase was sustained four weeks later (66.2 ms ± 32.4 ms, p = 0.015). HRV remained unaltered following sham or no acupuncture (p = n.s.). Autonomic function of vasculature and sweat glands, psychiatric comorbidities and one-year abstinence did not differ between study arms. CONCLUSIONS: NADA acupuncture may improve autonomic cardiac function. However, this improvement appears not to translate into alleviation of psychiatric comorbidities or sustained abstinence.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Alcoolismo , Adulto , Alcoolismo/terapia , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Feminino , Coração , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Maturitas ; 136: 1-6, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence and specificity of sociodemographic and psychological factors on the perception of symptoms associated with menopause. STUDY DESIGN: Data are based on a nationwide cross-sectional survey study in Germany. A representative sample of 1350 females aged 14-95 years was examined. Sociodemographic factors, perceived stress, and self-efficacy were assessed. Women were divided into three age groups (young women ≤ 44 years; perimenopausal women 45-60 years; older women ≥ 61 years), and the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) was used over the entire life span. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total score on the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and hot flushes/sweating assessed via the MRS. RESULTS: The MRS total score increased with age. Both MRS total score and hot flushes were positively associated with perceived stress in all three age groups. The MRS total score was negatively associated with self-efficacy; for hot flushes, this association could be shown for perimenopausal women only. Furthermore, interaction effects between perceived stress and self-efficacy were found: in perimenopausal and older women, the association between perceived stress and the MRS total score was stronger the lower self-efficacy was. This interaction effect was not observed in younger women. No interaction effect was found in any age group for hot flushes. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that self-efficacy influences the severity of symptoms measured with the MRS. Interventions aimed to reduce stress and strengthen self-efficacy could lead to a lower symptom burden in perimenopausal women.


Assuntos
Climatério/fisiologia , Climatério/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha , Fogachos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sudorese , Adulto Jovem
20.
Eur J Nutr ; 59(8): 3791-3799, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166384

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The gut-brain axis could be a possible key factor in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa. The neuropeptide peptide YY3-36, secreted by endocrine L cells of the gastrointestinal tract, is a known regulator of appetite and food intake. The objective of this study was to investigate peptide YY3-36 plasma concentrations at different stages of anorexia nervosa in a combined cross-sectional and longitudinal design to differentiate between effects of acute undernutrition and more enduring characteristics. METHODS: We measured fasting plasma peptide YY3-36 concentrations in young patients with acute anorexia nervosa (n = 47) and long-term recovered patients (n = 35) cross-sectionally in comparison to healthy control participants (n = 58), and longitudinally over the course of inpatient treatment. Physical activity was controlled as it may modulate peptide YY secretion. RESULTS: There was no group difference in peptide YY3-36 concentration among young acutely underweight anorexia nervosa patients, long-term recovered anorexia nervosa patients, and healthy control participants. Longitudinally, there was no change in peptide YY3-36 concentration after short-term weight rehabilitation. For acute anorexia nervosa patients at admission to treatment, there was a negative correlation between peptide YY3-36 concentration and body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: The current study provides additional evidence for a normal basal PYY3-36 concentration in AN. Future studies should study multiple appetite-regulating peptides and their complex interplay and also use research designs including a food challenge.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Peptídeo YY , Apetite , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Magreza
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