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1.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; : AAC0066921, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491804

RESUMO

The mucociliary clearance of lower airways is modulated by different physiologic stimuli and also by pathophysiologic agents like polluting substances or pharmaceutical molecules. In the present investigation, we measured the particle transport velocity (the PTV) of mouse tracheae as a surrogate for mucociliary clearance. In mouse tracheal preparations, we detected a sustained increase in the PTV under the application of the echinocandins caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin. In further experiments we observed the effects of echinocandins on the PTV were dependent on intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. In Ca2+-free buffer solutions, the amplitude of the echinocandin-evoked rise in the PTV was significantly reduced relative to in the experiments in Ca2+-containing solutions. Depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by caffeine completely prevented an increase in the PTV with subsequent caspofungin applications. Mitochondrial Ca2+ stores seemed to be unaffected by echinocandin treatment. We also observed no altered generation of reactive oxygen species under the application of echinocandins as probable mediators of the PTV. Consequently, the observed echinocandin effects on the PTV depend upon the Ca2+ influx and Ca2+ contents of the ER. We assume that all three echinocandins may act intracellularly on ER Ca2+ stores to activate Ca2+-dependent signal-transduction cascades, enhancing the PTV.

3.
Anaesthesist ; 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A pre-existing anticoagulation treatment and predisposing diseases for thromboembolic events represent common problems in patients with sepsis or septic shock; however, these conditions are not addressed in current national guidelines for sepsis and septic shock. One of the aims of this nationwide survey in Germany was therefore to determine how intensive care physicians deal with these problems. METHODS: From October 2019 to May 2020, we conducted a nationwide survey among German medical directors of intensive care units (ICU) addressing anticoagulation and drug-based prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with sepsis and sepsis-induced coagulopathy. One focus was the procedure for patients with a pre-existing anticoagulation treatment or a previously known heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) type 2 (acute symptomatic vs. dating back years). RESULTS: In most of the participating ICUs pre-existing anticoagulation is largely continued with low molecular weight heparin preparations or unfractionated heparin. In patients with pre-existing HIT type 2 both acute symptomatic and dating back years, argatroban represents the drug of choice. There is a high degree of variability in the definition of the target values, usually being well above the range for pure VTE prophylaxis. CONCLUSION: Data on the continuation of anticoagulation beyond VTE prophylaxis with a subsequently increased risk of bleeding in patients with sepsis and septic shock is limited and treatment decisions are in many cases subject to individual consideration by the practitioner. The results of our survey imply the need for a systematic work-up of this topic in order to support daily practice in many ICUs with the required evidence.

4.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 295, 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensive Care Resources are heavily utilized during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, risk stratification and prediction of SARS-CoV-2 patient clinical outcomes upon ICU admission remain inadequate. This study aimed to develop a machine learning model, based on retrospective & prospective clinical data, to stratify patient risk and predict ICU survival and outcomes. METHODS: A Germany-wide electronic registry was established to pseudonymously collect admission, therapeutic and discharge information of SARS-CoV-2 ICU patients retrospectively and prospectively. Machine learning approaches were evaluated for the accuracy and interpretability of predictions. The Explainable Boosting Machine approach was selected as the most suitable method. Individual, non-linear shape functions for predictive parameters and parameter interactions are reported. RESULTS: 1039 patients were included in the Explainable Boosting Machine model, 596 patients retrospectively collected, and 443 patients prospectively collected. The model for prediction of general ICU outcome was shown to be more reliable to predict "survival". Age, inflammatory and thrombotic activity, and severity of ARDS at ICU admission were shown to be predictive of ICU survival. Patients' age, pulmonary dysfunction and transfer from an external institution were predictors for ECMO therapy. The interaction of patient age with D-dimer levels on admission and creatinine levels with SOFA score without GCS were predictors for renal replacement therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Using Explainable Boosting Machine analysis, we confirmed and weighed previously reported and identified novel predictors for outcome in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Using this strategy, predictive modeling of COVID-19 ICU patient outcomes can be performed overcoming the limitations of linear regression models. Trial registration "ClinicalTrials" (clinicaltrials.gov) under NCT04455451.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Aprendizado de Máquina , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Terminal/terapia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde
5.
PLoS Med ; 18(8): e1003735, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 antigen rapid diagnostic tests (Ag-RDTs) are increasingly being integrated in testing strategies around the world. Studies of the Ag-RDTs have shown variable performance. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we assessed the clinical accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of commercially available Ag-RDTs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We registered the review on PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42020225140). We systematically searched multiple databases (PubMed, Web of Science Core Collection, medRvix, bioRvix, and FIND) for publications evaluating the accuracy of Ag-RDTs for SARS-CoV-2 up until 30 April 2021. Descriptive analyses of all studies were performed, and when more than 4 studies were available, a random-effects meta-analysis was used to estimate pooled sensitivity and specificity in comparison to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing. We assessed heterogeneity by subgroup analyses, and rated study quality and risk of bias using the QUADAS-2 assessment tool. From a total of 14,254 articles, we included 133 analytical and clinical studies resulting in 214 clinical accuracy datasets with 112,323 samples. Across all meta-analyzed samples, the pooled Ag-RDT sensitivity and specificity were 71.2% (95% CI 68.2% to 74.0%) and 98.9% (95% CI 98.6% to 99.1%), respectively. Sensitivity increased to 76.3% (95% CI 73.1% to 79.2%) if analysis was restricted to studies that followed the Ag-RDT manufacturers' instructions. LumiraDx showed the highest sensitivity, with 88.2% (95% CI 59.0% to 97.5%). Of instrument-free Ag-RDTs, Standard Q nasal performed best, with 80.2% sensitivity (95% CI 70.3% to 87.4%). Across all Ag-RDTs, sensitivity was markedly better on samples with lower RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values, i.e., <20 (96.5%, 95% CI 92.6% to 98.4%) and <25 (95.8%, 95% CI 92.3% to 97.8%), in comparison to those with Ct ≥ 25 (50.7%, 95% CI 35.6% to 65.8%) and ≥30 (20.9%, 95% CI 12.5% to 32.8%). Testing in the first week from symptom onset resulted in substantially higher sensitivity (83.8%, 95% CI 76.3% to 89.2%) compared to testing after 1 week (61.5%, 95% CI 52.2% to 70.0%). The best Ag-RDT sensitivity was found with anterior nasal sampling (75.5%, 95% CI 70.4% to 79.9%), in comparison to other sample types (e.g., nasopharyngeal, 71.6%, 95% CI 68.1% to 74.9%), although CIs were overlapping. Concerns of bias were raised across all datasets, and financial support from the manufacturer was reported in 24.1% of datasets. Our analysis was limited by the included studies' heterogeneity in design and reporting. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we found that Ag-RDTs detect the vast majority of SARS-CoV-2-infected persons within the first week of symptom onset and those with high viral load. Thus, they can have high utility for diagnostic purposes in the early phase of disease, making them a valuable tool to fight the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Standardization in conduct and reporting of clinical accuracy studies would improve comparability and use of data.


Assuntos
Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/métodos , Fatores Etários , Antígenos Virais/análise , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/etiologia , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/normas , Portador Sadio/diagnóstico , Portador Sadio/virologia , Humanos , Nasofaringe/virologia , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Padrões de Referência , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Carga Viral
6.
Anaesthesist ; 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) will come into effect in January 2022. Among other things, The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (SEPSIS­3 definition) will be implemented in it. This defines sepsis as a "life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection". The aim of the present secondary analysis of a survey on the topic of "sepsis-induced coagulopathy" was to evaluate whether the SEPSIS­3 definition, 4 years after its international introduction, has arrived in everyday clinical practice of intensive care units (ICU) run by anesthesiologists in Germany and thus the requirements for its use of the ICD-11 are given. METHODS: Between October 2019 and May 2020, we carried out a nationwide survey among German medical directors of ICUs. In a separate block of questions we asked about the definition of sepsis used in daily practice. In addition, we asked whether the quick-sequential (sepsis-related) organ failure assessment (qSOFA) score is used in screening for sepsis in the hospital to which to the participating ICU belongs. RESULTS: A total of 50 medical directors from anesthesiological ICUs took part in the survey. In total, the ICUs evaluated stated that they had around 14% of the high-care beds registered in Germany. The SEPSIS­3 definition is integrated into everyday clinical practice at 78.9% of the university hospitals and 84.0% of the participating teaching hospitals. In contrast, the qSOFA screening test is only used by 26.3% of the participating university hospitals, but at least 52% of the teaching hospitals and 80% of the other hospitals. CONCLUSION: The data show that both SEPSIS­3 and qSOFA have become part of everyday clinical practice in German hospitals. The cautious use of qSOFA at university hospitals with simultaneous broad acceptance of the SEPSIS­3 definition can be interpreted as an indication that the search for a suitable screening test for sepsis has not yet been completed.

7.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255154, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has been reported in over 40million people globally with variable clinical outcomes. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we assessed demographic, laboratory and clinical indicators as predictors for severe courses of COVID-19. METHODS: This systematic review was registered at PROSPERO under CRD42020177154. We systematically searched multiple databases (PubMed, Web of Science Core Collection, MedRvix and bioRvix) for publications from December 2019 to May 31st 2020. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to calculate pooled odds ratios and differences of medians between (1) patients admitted to ICU versus non-ICU patients and (2) patients who died versus those who survived. We adapted an existing Cochrane risk-of-bias assessment tool for outcome studies. RESULTS: Of 6,702 unique citations, we included 88 articles with 69,762 patients. There was concern for bias across all articles included. Age was strongly associated with mortality with a difference of medians (DoM) of 13.15 years (95% confidence interval (CI) 11.37 to 14.94) between those who died and those who survived. We found a clinically relevant difference between non-survivors and survivors for C-reactive protein (CRP; DoM 69.10 mg/L, CI 50.43 to 87.77), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; DoM 189.49 U/L, CI 155.00 to 223.98), cardiac troponin I (cTnI; DoM 21.88 pg/mL, CI 9.78 to 33.99) and D-Dimer (DoM 1.29mg/L, CI 0.9 to 1.69). Furthermore, cerebrovascular disease was the co-morbidity most strongly associated with mortality (Odds Ratio 3.45, CI 2.42 to 4.91) and ICU admission (Odds Ratio 5.88, CI 2.35 to 14.73). DISCUSSION: This comprehensive meta-analysis found age, cerebrovascular disease, CRP, LDH and cTnI to be the most important risk-factors that predict severe COVID-19 outcomes and will inform clinical scores to support early decision-making.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , COVID-19/metabolismo , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/metabolismo , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/virologia , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Troponina I/metabolismo
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34079986

RESUMO

We report a case of resistance development towards cefiderocol in a patient with intra-abdominal and bloodstream infections caued by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter cloacae within 21 days of cefiderocol therapy. Whole genome sequencing revealed heterogeneous mutations in the cirA gene, encoding a catecholate siderophore receptor, conferring phenotypic resistance to cefiderocol.

9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(25): e26403, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160425

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sepsis and septic shock are the most severe forms of infection affecting predominantly elderly people, preterm and term neonates, and young infants. Even in high-income countries sepsis causes about 8% of admissions to pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). Early diagnosis, rapid anti-infective treatment, and prompt hemodynamic stabilization are crucial for patient survival. In this context, it is essential to identify the causative pathogen as soon as possible to optimize antimicrobial treatment. To date, culture-based diagnostic procedures (e.g., blood cultures) represent the standard of care. However, they have 2 major problems: on the one hand, in the case of very small sample volumes (and thus usually in children), they are not sufficiently sensitive. On the other hand, with a time-to-result of 2 to 5 days, blood cultures need a relatively long time for the anti-infective therapy to be calculated. To overcome these problems, culture-independent molecular diagnostic procedures such as unbiased sequence analysis of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from plasma samples of septic patients by next-generation sequencing (NGS) have been tested successfully in adult septic patients. However, these results still need to be transferred to the pediatric setting. METHODS: The Next GeneSiPS-Trial is a prospective, observational, non-interventional, multicenter study used to assess the diagnostic performance of an NGS-based approach for the identification of causative pathogens in (preterm and term) neonates (d1-d28, n = 50), infants (d29 to <1 yr, n = 50), and toddlers (1 yr to <5 yr, n = 50) with suspected or proven severe sepsis or septic shock (according to the pediatric sepsis definition) by the use of the quantitative sepsis indicating quantifier (SIQ) score in comparison to standard of care (culture-based) microbiological diagnostics. Potential changes in anti-infective treatment regimens based on these NGS results will be estimated retrospectively by a panel of 3 independent clinical specialists. DISCUSSION: Neonates, infants, and young children are significantly affected by sepsis. Fast and more sensitive diagnostic approaches are urgently needed. This prospective, observational, non-interventional, multicenter study seeks to evaluate an NGS-based approach in critically ill children suffering from sepsis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: DRKS-ID: DRKS00015705 (registered October 24, 2018). https://www.drks.de/drks_web/navigate.do?navigationId=trial.HTML&TRIAL_ID=DRKS00015705.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Choque Séptico/diagnóstico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Hemocultura , Pré-Escolar , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Masculino , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Choque Séptico/sangue , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico , Choque Séptico/microbiologia
10.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(6): 622-642, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965003

RESUMO

The zoonotic SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 continues to spread worldwide, with devastating consequences. While the medical community has gained insight into the epidemiology of COVID-19, important questions remain about the clinical complexities and underlying mechanisms of disease phenotypes. Severe COVID-19 most commonly involves respiratory manifestations, although other systems are also affected, and acute disease is often followed by protracted complications. Such complex manifestations suggest that SARS-CoV-2 dysregulates the host response, triggering wide-ranging immuno-inflammatory, thrombotic, and parenchymal derangements. We review the intricacies of COVID-19 pathophysiology, its various phenotypes, and the anti-SARS-CoV-2 host response at the humoral and cellular levels. Some similarities exist between COVID-19 and respiratory failure of other origins, but evidence for many distinctive mechanistic features indicates that COVID-19 constitutes a new disease entity, with emerging data suggesting involvement of an endotheliopathy-centred pathophysiology. Further research, combining basic and clinical studies, is needed to advance understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms and to characterise immuno-inflammatory derangements across the range of phenotypes to enable optimum care for patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Endotélio/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imunidade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/fisiopatologia , Gravidade do Paciente , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of extended postoperative intensive care on short- and long-term patient outcome after elective abdominal aortic surgery and to assess the risk factors for patient survival after extended intensive care unit (ICU) treatment. METHODS: The data of 231 patients that underwent open or endovascular abdominal aortic surgery were retrospectively analysed with regard to extended postoperative intensive care, defined as ICU treatment for more than 24 consecutive hours. Pre- and intraoperative factors were evaluated. The endpoints of the study were postoperative complications, mortality, and long-term follow-up. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors of worse overall survival. RESULTS: Extended postoperative intensive care was needed in 84 patients (63 after open and 21 after endovascular surgery). The period of ICU treatment was similar in both groups. Only the wound complications (31.8% vs. 9.5%, p=.0498; OR 4.42 (0.94-20.84)) and the rate of acute kidney injury (82.5% vs. 57.1%, p=.0352; OR 3.55 (1.20-0.46)) were more frequent after open surgery, whereas brief reactive psychosis (38.1% vs. 14.3%, p=.0281; OR 0.27 (0.09- 0.84)) was more frequent after endovascular surgery. ICU stay of ≥8 days correlated with significantly lower survival rates compared to a shorter ICU stay (p=.0034), independent of open or endovascular techniques. Other multivariate risk factors for worse survival were the absence of preoperative aspirin medication, a body mass index (BMI) of <25, chronic renal insufficiency (CRI), and coronary artery disease (CAD). Endovascular therapy was a positive predictive factor of short ICU stay of ≤3 days. CONCLUSIONS: The outcome after extended intensive care following elective aortic surgery is strongly dependent on the length of ICU stay.

12.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251800, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999966

RESUMO

We investigate the feasibility of molecular-level sample classification of sepsis using microarray gene expression data merged by in silico meta-analysis. Publicly available data series were extracted from NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus and EMBL-EBI ArrayExpress to create a comprehensive meta-analysis microarray expression set (meta-expression set). Measurements had to be obtained via microarray-technique from whole blood samples of adult or pediatric patients with sepsis diagnosed based on international consensus definition immediately after admission to the intensive care unit. We aggregate trauma patients, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) patients, and healthy controls in a non-septic entity. Differential expression (DE) analysis is compared with machine-learning-based solutions like decision tree (DT), random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVM), and deep-learning neural networks (DNNs). We evaluated classifier training and discrimination performance in 100 independent iterations. To test diagnostic resilience, we gradually degraded expression data in multiple levels. Clustering of expression values based on DE genes results in partial identification of sepsis samples. In contrast, RF, SVM, and DNN provide excellent diagnostic performance measured in terms of accuracy and area under the curve (>0.96 and >0.99, respectively). We prove DNNs as the most resilient methodology, virtually unaffected by targeted removal of DE genes. By surpassing most other published solutions, the presented approach substantially augments current diagnostic capability in intensive care medicine.

14.
Anaesthesist ; 70(7): 621-630, 2021 07.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851229

RESUMO

As the incidence of diseases during pregnancy or in the puerperium necessitating intensive medical care is very low, intensive care physicians are faced with a multitude of unfamiliar challenges in the treatment of this patient collective. The physiological and pathophysiological alterations during pregnancy induce some specific features with respect to the intensive medical treatment of pregnant or postpartum patients. Therefore, the first article in this CME series summarizes the most important principles and current recommendations on the care of pregnant or postpartum patients who need intensive medical treatment, always under consideration of the well-being of mother and child. The second article describes the diagnostics and treatment of special selected pathologies.

15.
Anaesthesist ; 70(8): 717-730, 2021 08.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851230

RESUMO

As the incidence of diseases during pregnancy that necessitate intensive medical care is very low, intensive care physicians are faced with a multitude of unfamiliar challenges in the treatment of these patients. The physiological and pathophysiological alterations during pregnancy induce some specific features with respect to the intensive medical treatment of pregnant or postpartum patients. After the most important principles and current recommendations on the care of pregnant or postpartum patients who need intensive medical treatment were dealt with in the first article in this CME series, the second article focuses on the diagnostics and treatment of special selected pathologies.

16.
Ann Surg ; 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914472

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the role of gastric venous congestion (GVC) in mortality after total pancreatectomy (TP). BACKGROUND: Data from a nationwide administrative database revealed that TP is associated with a 23% mortality rate in Germany. METHODS: A total of 585 consecutive patients who had undergone TP (n = 514) or elective completion pancreatectomy (n = 71) between January 2015 and December 2019 were analyzed. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify risk factors for GVC and 90-day mortality. RESULTS: GVC was observed in 163 patients (27.9%) requiring partial or total gastrectomy. Splenectomy (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.25-3.80, p = 0.007) and coronary vein resection (OR 5.49, 95% CI 3.19-9.64, p < 0.001) were independently associated with GVC. The overall 90-day mortality after TP was 4.1% (24 of 585 patients), 7.4% in patients with GVC and 2.8% in those without GVC (p = 0.014). Of the 24 patients who died after TP, 12 (50%) had GVC. CONCLUSION: GVC is a frequent albeit not well-known finding after TP, especially when splenectomy and resection of the coronary vein are performed. Adequate decision making for partial gastrectomy during TP is crucial. Insufficient gastric venous drainage after TP is life-threatening.

18.
Life (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809741

RESUMO

Changes in the gut microbiome have already been associated with postoperative complications in major abdominal surgery. However, it is still unclear whether these changes are transient or a long-lasting effect. Therefore, the aim of this prospective clinical pilot study was to examine long-term changes in the gut microbiota and to correlate these changes with the clinical course of the patient. Methods: In total, stool samples of 62 newly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients undergoing primary tumor resection were analyzed by 16S-rDNA next-generation sequencing. Stool samples were collected preoperatively in order to determine the gut microbiome at baseline as well as at 6, 12, and 24 months thereafter to observe longitudinal changes. Postoperatively, the study patients were separated into two groups-patients who suffered from postoperative complications (n = 30) and those without complication (n = 32). Patients with postoperative complications showed a significantly stronger reduction in the alpha diversity starting 6 months after operation, which does not resolve, even after 24 months. The structure of the microbiome was also significantly altered from baseline at six-month follow-up in patients with complications (p = 0.006). This was associated with a long-lasting decrease of a large number of species in the gut microbiota indicating an impact in the commensal microbiota and a long-lasting increase of Fusobacterium ulcerans. The microbial composition of the gut microbiome shows significant changes in patients with postoperative complications up to 24 months after surgery.

19.
Anaesthesist ; 70(8): 662-670, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the context of sepsis and septic shock, coagulopathy often occurs due to the close relationship between coagulation and inflammation. Sepsis-induced coagulopathy (SIC) is the most severe and potentially fatal form. Anticoagulants used in prophylactic or therapeutic doses are discussed to potentially exert beneficial effects in patients with sepsis and/or SIC; however, due to the lack of evidence recent guidelines are limited to recommendations for drug prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism (VTE), while treatment of SIC has not been addressed. METHODS: In order to determine the status quo of VTE prophylaxis as well as treatment of SIC in German intensive care units (ICU), we conducted a Germany-wide online survey among heads of ICUs from October 2019 to May 2020. In April 2020, the survey was supplemented by an additional block of questions on VTE prophylaxis and SIC treatment in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. RESULTS: A total of 67 senior doctors took part in the survey. The majority (n = 50; 74.6%) of the responses were from ICU under the direction of an anesthesiologist and/or a department of anesthesiology. Most of the participants worked either at a university hospital (n = 31; 47.8%) or an academic teaching hospital (n = 27; 40.3%). The survey results show a pronounced heterogeneity in clinical practice with respect to the prophylaxis of VTE as well as SIC treatment. In an exemplary case of pneumogenic sepsis, low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) were by far the most frequently mentioned group of medications (n = 51; 76.1% of the responding ITS). In the majority of cases (n = 43; 64.2%), anti-FXa activity is not monitored with the use of LMWH in prophylaxis doses. Unfractionated heparin (UFH) was listed as a strategy for VTE prophylaxis in 37.3% of the responses (n = 25). In an exemplary case of abdominal sepsis 54.5% of the participants (n = 36; multiple answers possible) stated the use of UFH or LMWH and UFH with dosage controlled by PTT is used on two participating ICUs. The anti-FXa activity under prophylactic anticoagulation with LMWH is monitored in 7 participating clinics (10.6%) in abdominal sepsis. Systematic screening for sepsis-associated coagulation disorders does not take place in most hospitals and patterns in the use of anticoagulants show significant variability between ICUs. In the case of COVID-19 patients, it is particularly noticeable that in three quarters of the participating ICUs the practice of drug-based VTE prophylaxis and SIC treatment does not differ from that of non-COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: The heterogeneity of answers collected in the survey suggests that a systematic approach to this topic via clinical trials is urgently needed to underline individualized patient care with the necessary evidence.

20.
HPB (Oxford) ; 23(9): 1339-1348, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical relevance of hyperamylasemia after distal pancreatectomy (DP) remains unclear and no internationally accepted definition of postoperative acute pancreatitis (POAP) exists. The aim of this study was to characterize POAP after DP and to assess the role of serum amylase (SA) in POAP. METHODS: Outcomes of 641 patients who had undergone DP between 2015 and 2019 were analyzed. Postoperative SA was determined in all patients. POAP was defined based on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) or intraoperative findings during relaparotomy. RESULTS: An elevation of SA on postoperative day 1 (hyperamylasemiaPOD1) was found in 398 patients (62.1%). Twelve patients (1.87%) were identified with POAP. Ten patients demonstrated radiologic criteria for POAP and in two patients POAP was diagnosed during relaparotomy. Outcome of POAP patients was worse than that of patients with hyperamylasemiaPOD1 alone and that with normal SAPOD1 without POAP evidence (postoperative pancreatic fistula 50% vs 30.6% vs 18.5%; length of hospital stay 26 days vs 12 vs 11, respectively). The overall 90-day mortality of all 641 patients was 0.6%. CONCLUSION: POAP is a serious but rare complication after DP. HyperamylasemiaPOD1 is of prognostic relevance after DP, but it seems not sufficient as a single parameter to diagnose POAP.

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