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1.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376737

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite good prognosis for patients with low-risk endometrial cancer, a small subset of women with low-grade/low-stage endometrial cancer experience disease recurrence and death. The aim of this study was to characterize clinical features and mutational profiles of recurrent, low-grade, non-myoinvasive, 'ultra-low risk' endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinomas. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IA endometrioid endometrial cancers who underwent primary surgery at our institution, between January 2009 and February 2017, with follow-up of ≥12 months. 'Ultra-low risk' was defined as FIGO tumor grade 1, non-myoinvasive, and lacking lymphovascular space invasion. Tumor-normal profiling using massively parallel sequencing targeting 468 genes was performed. Microsatellite instability was assessed using MSIsensor. DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein proficiency was determined by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: A total of 486 patients with ultra-low risk endometrioid endometrial cancers were identified: 14 (2.9%) of 486 patients developed a recurrence. Median follow-up for non-recurrent endometrioid endometrial cancers: 34 (range 12-116) months; for recurrent endometrioid endometrial cancers: 50.5 (range 20-116) months. Patients with recurrent disease were older, had lower body mass index, and were most commonly non-White (p=0.025, p<0.001, and p<0.001, respectively). Other clinical characteristics did not differ. MMR immunohistochemistry was obtained for 211 (43%) tumors: 158 (75%) MMR-proficient and 53 (25%) MMR-deficient. Primary tumors of 9 recurrent and 27 non-recurrent endometrioid endometrial cancers underwent mutational profiling. Most were microsatellite stable (6/9, 67% recurrent; 25/27, 93% non-recurrent). Recurrent PTEN and PIK3CA mutations were present in both groups. Exon 3 CTNNB1 hotspot mutations were found in 4/9 (44%) recurrent and 8/27 (30%) non-recurrent (p=0.44). CONCLUSIONS: Patients diagnosed with ultra-low risk endometrioid endometrial cancers have an overall excellent prognosis. However, in our study, 2.9% of patients with no identifiable clinical or pathologic risk factors developed recurrence. Further work is warranted to elucidate the mechanism for recurrence in this population.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383186

RESUMO

Hyalinizing trabecular tumors of the thyroid are rare and mostly benign epithelial neoplasms of follicular cell origin, which have recently been shown to be underpinned by the PAX8-GLIS3 fusion gene. In our study, we sought to investigate the potential oncogenic mechanisms of the PAX8-GLIS3 fusion gene. Forced expression of PAX8-GLIS3 was found to increase proliferation, clonogenic potential and migration of human nonmalignant thyroid (Nthy-ori 3-1) and embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells. Moreover, in xenografts, Nthy-ori 3-1 PAX8-GLIS3 expressing cells generated significantly larger and more proliferative tumors compared to controls. These oncogenic effects were found to be mediated through activation of the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) pathway. Targeting of smoothened (SMO), a key protein in the SHH pathway, using the small molecule inhibitor Cyclopamine partially reversed the increased proliferation, colony formation and migration in PAX8-GLIS3 expressing cells. Our data demonstrate that the oncogenic effects of the PAX8-GLIS3 fusion gene are, at least in part, due to an increased activation of the SHH pathway.

3.
Mod Pathol ; 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317704

RESUMO

High-grade histologic transformation of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LGESS) is rare. Here, we describe the clinicopathologic features and gene fusion status of 12 cases (11 primary uterine corpus and 1 primary vaginal), 11 diagnosed prospectively from 2016, and 1 retrospectively collected. Targeted RNA sequencing and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization was employed in all cases. High-grade transformation was seen at the time of initial diagnosis in eight patients and at the time of recurrence in four patients, 4-11 years after initial diagnosis of LGESS. High-grade morphology consisted of generally uniform population of round to epithelioid cells with enlarged nuclei one to two times larger than a lymphocyte, visible nucleoli, and increased mitotic index (range, 6-30; median, 16 per 10 high-power fields); there was often an associated sclerotic and/or myxoid stroma. Estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and CD10 expression was absent or significantly decreased (compared with the low-grade component) in the high-grade foci of five tumors. One tumor demonstrated positive (diffuse and strong) cyclin D1 and BCOR staining. p53 staining was wild type in both components of all eight tumors tested. JAZF1-SUZ12 (n = 6), JAZF1-PHF1 (n = 3), EPC1-PHF1, (n = 1), or BRD8-PHF1 (n = 1) fusions were detected in 11 tumors; no fusions were found in one by targeted RNA sequencing. Patients presented with FIGO stages I (n = 4), II (n = 4), III (n = 1), and IV disease (n = 2). Median overall survival calculated from the time of histologic transformation was 22 months (range, 8 months to 8 years) with five patients who died of disease 8-18 months after transformation. High-grade transformation may occur in LGESS with JAZF1 and PHF1 rearrangements at the time of or years after initial diagnosis. Such high-grade transformation is characterized by nuclear enlargement, prominent nucleoli, and increased mitotic index compared with typical LGESS. Histologic high-grade transformation may herald aggressive behavior.

4.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 44(5): 641-648, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205482

RESUMO

Endometrial carcinoma (EC), as described by Bokhman, has historically been classified as Type I (low-grade, hormone-dependant, young patients, good prognosis) or Type II (high-grade, hormone-independent, older patients, poor prognosis). This classification is no longer pragmatic, however, as EC is a much more heterogeneous disease. Four molecular subtypes of EC were identified by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and subsequent studies have demonstrated its utility in predicting prognosis. While endometrial serous carcinoma (ESC), the prototypical Type II EC, largely occurs in older women, younger women with ESC were not accounted for in the Bokhman model and were underrepresented in the TCGA study. We hypothesized that a subset of ESCs in young patients do not represent bona fide serous carcinomas but rather high-grade endometrioid carcinomas mimicking a serous phenotype. We identified ESCs and mixed endometrioid/serous carcinomas in women <60 years (n=37), and analyzed their clinical, morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular characteristics. Sixteen percent showed mismatch repair deficiency (MMR-D) and 11% were diagnosed with Lynch syndrome. Additionally, 16% of cases tested harbored a hotspot POLE exonuclease domain mutation (POLE-EDM). Morphologically, 47% of tumors showed confirmatory endometrioid features, including atypical hyperplasia, a low-grade endometrioid carcinoma component, or squamous differentiation. Clinically, the overall survival in patients with MMR-D and POLE-EDM was significantly better than that of patients without these features (P=0.0329). In conclusion, ESCs in young patients comprise a heterogeneous group of tumors, demonstrating diverse clinical, immunohistochemical, morphologic, and molecular features which have implications for prognosis and adjuvant therapy.

5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220886

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a nonobligate precursor of invasive breast cancer. Here, we sought to investigate the level of intralesion genetic heterogeneity in DCIS and the patterns of clonal architecture changes in the progression from DCIS to invasive disease. DESIGN: Synchronous DCIS (n = 27) and invasive ductal carcinomas of no special type (IDC-NSTs; n = 26) from 25 patients, and pure DCIS (n = 7) from 7 patients were microdissected separately and subjected to high-depth whole-exome (n = 56) or massively parallel sequencing targeting ≥410 key cancer-related genes (n = 4). Somatic genetic alterations, mutational signatures, clonal composition, and phylogenetic analyses were defined using validated computational methods. RESULTS: DCIS revealed genetic alterations similar to those of synchronously diagnosed IDC-NSTs and of non-related IDC-NSTs from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), whereas pure DCIS lacked PIK3CA mutations. Clonal decomposition and phylogenetic analyses based on somatic mutations and copy number alterations revealed that the mechanisms of progression of DCIS to invasive carcinoma are diverse, and that clonal selection might have constituted the mechanism of progression from DCIS to invasive disease in 28% (7/25) of patients. DCIS displaying a pattern of clonal selection in the progression to invasive cancer harbored higher levels of intralesion genetic heterogeneity than DCIS where no clonal selection was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Intralesion genetic heterogeneity is a common feature in DCIS synchronously diagnosed with IDC-NST. DCIS is a nonobligate precursor of IDC-NST, whose mechanisms of progression to invasive breast cancer are diverse and vary from case to case.

6.
Mod Pathol ; 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203090

RESUMO

Adult-type granulosa cell tumor (aGCT) is a rare malignant ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor, harboring recurrent FOXL2 c.C402G/p.C134W hotspot mutations in 97% of cases. These tumors are considered to have a favorable prognosis, however aGCTs have a tendency for local spread and late recurrences, which are associated with poor survival rates. We sought to determine the genetic alterations associated with aGCT disease progression. We subjected primary non-recurrent aGCTs (n = 7), primary aGCTs that subsequently recurred (n = 9) and their matched recurrences (n = 9), and aGCT recurrences without matched primary tumors (n = 10) to targeted massively parallel sequencing of ≥410 cancer-related genes. In addition, three primary non-recurrent aGCTs and nine aGCT recurrences were subjected to FOXL2 and TERT promoter Sanger sequencing analysis. All aGCTs harbored the FOXL2 C134W hotspot mutation. TERT promoter mutations were found to be significantly more frequent in recurrent (18/28, 64%) than primary aGCTs (5/19, 26%, p = 0.017). In addition, mutations affecting TP53, MED12, and TET2 were restricted to aGCT recurrences. Pathway annotation of altered genes demonstrated that aGCT recurrences displayed an enrichment for genetic alterations affecting cell cycle pathway-related genes. Analysis of paired primary and recurrent aGCTs revealed that TERT promoter mutations were either present in both primary tumors and matched recurrences or were restricted to the recurrence and absent in the respective primary aGCT. Clonal composition analysis of these paired samples further revealed that aGCTs display intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity and harbor multiple clones at diagnosis and relapse. We observed that in a subset of cases, recurrences acquired additional genetic alterations not present in primary aGCTs, including TERT, MED12, and TP53 mutations and CDKN2A/B homozygous deletions. Albeit harboring relatively simple genomes, our data provide evidence to suggest that aGCTs are genetically heterogeneous tumors and that TERT promoter mutations and/or genetic alterations affecting other cell cycle-related genes may be associated with disease progression and recurrences.

7.
Histopathology ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043609

RESUMO

AIMS: Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) is a rare type of triple-negative breast cancer that displays vast histologic and genetic heterogeneity. Osseous differentiation can be found in different subtypes of MBC. Whether MBCs with osseous differentiation are underpinned by specific genetic alterations has yet to be defined. Here we investigate the repertoire of somatic mutations and copy number alterations (CNAs) in three MBCs with extensive osseous differentiation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Tumor and normal DNA samples from three MBCs with extensive osseous differentiation were subjected to whole-exome sequencing. Somatic mutations, CNAs and mutational signatures were determined using a validated bioinformatics pipeline. Our analyses revealed clonal TP53 hotspot mutations associated with loss of heterozygosity of the wild-type allele coupled with mutations affecting genes related to the WNT and/or the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways in all cases analyzed. All cases displayed a dominant mutational signature 1 with two cases showing a secondary signature 3 in addition to other features of homologous recombination DNA repair defects (HRD). The Oncostatin M Receptor gene (OSMR), which plays a role in mesenchymal differentiation and bone formation, was found to be mutated in two MBCs with extensive osseous differentiation and in none of 35 previously published 35 MBCs. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that MBCs with osseous differentiation have somatic mutations similar to those of other forms of MBC.

8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 44, 2020 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896750

RESUMO

Sclerosing stromal tumor (SST) of the ovary is a rare type of sex cord-stromal tumor (SCST), whose genetic underpinning is currently unknown. Here, using whole-exome, targeted capture and RNA-sequencing, we report recurrent FHL2-GLI2 fusion genes in 65% (17/26) of SSTs and other GLI2 rearrangements in additional 15% (4/26) SSTs, none of which are detected in other types of SCSTs (n = 48) or common cancer types (n = 9,950). The FHL2-GLI2 fusions result in transcriptomic activation of the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) pathway in SSTs. Expression of the FHL2-GLI2 fusion in vitro leads to the acquisition of phenotypic characteristics of SSTs, increased proliferation, migration and colony formation, and SHH pathway activation. Targeted inhibition of the SHH pathway results in reversal of these oncogenic properties, indicating its role in the pathogenesis of SSTs. Our results demonstrate that the FHL2-GLI2 fusion is likely the oncogenic driver of SSTs, defining a genotypic-phenotypic correlation in ovarian neoplasms.


Assuntos
Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM/genética , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Tumores do Estroma Gonadal e dos Cordões Sexuais/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteína Gli2 com Dedos de Zinco/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Dosagem de Genes , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Esclerose , Tumores do Estroma Gonadal e dos Cordões Sexuais/patologia , Células Estromais/patologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
9.
Mod Pathol ; 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896809

RESUMO

Tall cell carcinoma with reverse polarity is a rare subtype of breast carcinoma with solid and papillary growth and nuclear features reminiscent of those of the tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. These tumors harbor recurrent IDH2 R172 hotspot mutations or TET2 mutations, co-occurring with mutations in PI3K pathway genes. Diagnosis of tall cell carcinomas with reverse polarity is challenging in view of their rarity and the range of differential diagnosis. We sought to determine the sensitivity and specificity of IDH2 R172 immunohistochemistry for the detection of IDH2 R172 hotspot mutations in this entity. We evaluated 14 tall cell carcinomas with reverse polarity (ten excision and five core needle biopsy specimens), 13 intraductal papillomas, 16 solid papillary carcinomas, and 5 encapsulated papillary carcinomas by Sanger sequencing of the IDH2 R172 hotspot locus and of exons 9 and 20 of PIK3CA, and by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies (11C8B1) to the IDH2 R172S mutation. The 14 tall cell carcinomas with reverse polarity studied harbored IDH2 R172 hotspot mutations, which co-occurred with PIK3CA hotspot mutations in 50% of cases. None of the other papillary neoplasms analyzed displayed IDH2 R172 mutations, however PIK3CA hotspot mutations were detected in 54% of intraductal papillomas, 6% of solid papillary carcinomas, and 20% of encapsulated papillary carcinomas tested. Immunohistochemical analysis with anti-IDH2 R172S antibodies (11C8B1) detected IDH2 R172 mutated protein in 93% (14/15) of tall cell carcinomas with reverse polarity samples including excision (n = 9/10) and core needle biopsy specimens (n = 5), whereas the remaining papillary neoplasms (n = 34) were negative. Our findings demonstrate that immunohistochemical analysis of IDH2 R172 is highly sensitive and specific for the detection of IDH2 R172 hotspot mutations, and likely suitable as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of excision and core needle biopsy material of tall cell carcinomas with reverse polarity.

10.
Mod Pathol ; 33(1): 65-73, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492931

RESUMO

Polymorphous adenocarcinoma (PAC) and cribriform adenocarcinoma of (minor) salivary gland (CASG) are salivary gland tumors with overlapping spectrum of morphology. Whether these represent distinct entities or a histologic spectrum of the same tumor remains contentious. PACs harbor recurrent PRKD1 E710D hotspot mutations in >70% of cases, whereas 80% of CASGs display rearrangements involving PRKD1, PRKD2, or PRKD3 (PRKD1/2/3). We studied the molecular and morphologic features of 37 PACs/CASGs, seeking to identify the associations among genotype, histologic phenotype, and classification. DNA was subjected to Sanger sequencing analysis of the PRKD1 hotspot locus. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for PRKD1/2/3 was performed using dual-color break-apart probes. Tumors were classified into four categories as described previously: PAC, CASG, tumor with indeterminate features (TIF), and tumor with a predominant papillary pattern (TPPP). PRKD1 E710D hotspot mutations were identified in 56%, 20%, 43% and 0% of PACs, CASGs, TIFs, and TPPPs, respectively. FISH demonstrated PRKD1/2/3 rearrangements in 13%, 78%, 36%, and 75% of PACs, CASGs, TIFs, and TPPPs, respectively. Histologically, fusion-positive tumors were associated with a high percentage of papillary growth, low percentage of single filing arrangement, a propensity of base of tongue location, and frequent (50%) lymph node metastasis, compared with the mutation-related tumors which had negligible nodal metastasis risk. Our results demonstrated that (1) PACs/CASGs are underpinned by genetic alterations affecting PRKD genes; (2) despite the associations between PAC and PRKD1 hotspot mutations and CASG and PRKD1/2/3 fusion, such distinction is not absolute; and (3) there is of a novel genotypic-phenotypic association whereby fusion-positive tumors are usually located in the base of the tongue, show papillary architecture and have a high risk of nodal metastasis. Genetic analysis of PRKD genes appears to be useful characterizing this spectrum of tumors, not only histologically but also clinically identifying those tumors with high risk of nodal metastasis.

11.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(1): 107-110, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504684

RESUMO

Chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the foundations of adjuvant therapy for early-stage breast cancer. As a complication of cytotoxic regimens, breast cancer patients are at risk for therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MNs). These t-MNs are commonly refractory to antileukemic therapies and result in poor patient outcomes. We previously demonstrated that somatic mutations in leukemia-related genes are present in the tumor-infiltrating leukocytes (TILeuks) of a subset of early breast cancers. Here, we performed genomic analysis of microdissected breast cancer tumor cells and TILeuks from seven breast cancer patients who subsequently developed leukemia. In four patients, mutations present in the leukemia were detected in breast cancer TILeuks. This finding suggests that TILeuks in the primary breast cancer may harbor the ancestor of the future leukemogenic clone. Additional research is warranted to ascertain whether infiltrating mutant TILeuks could constitute a biomarker for the development of t-MN and to determine the functional consequences of mutant TILeuks.

12.
Gynecol Oncol ; 156(1): 194-202, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Assess outcomes of a clinical cohort of patients with endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC) harboring somatic POLE exonuclease domain mutations (EDMs). METHODS: Patients were consented to a protocol of tumor-normal massively parallel sequencing of 410-468 cancer related genes. EECs subjected to sequencing from 2014 to 2018 were reviewed. Tumors with somatic POLE EDMs were identified. EECs were assessed for microsatellite instability (MSI) using MSIsensor and immunohistochemical analysis for mismatch repair (MMR) proteins. RESULTS: Of the 451 EECs sequenced, 23 had a POLE EDM (5%): 20 primary and 3 recurrent tumors sequenced. Nineteen cases (83%) were stage I/II and 4 (17%) were stages III/IV. Thirteen EECs (57%) were of FIGO grades 1/2, 10 (43%) grade 3. All patients were treated with surgery and 17 (89%) received adjuvant therapy. Five (22%) demonstrated loss of DNA MMR protein expression, none were due to Lynch syndrome. MSIsensor scores were conclusive for 21 samples: 19 were microsatellite stable and 2 MSI-high. After median follow-up of 30 months, 4/23 (17%) developed recurrences: 3 with initial grade 3 stage I and 1 with grade 1 stage III disease. One patient with grade 2 stage IV EEC had progressive disease after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with POLE EDM EEC have been shown to have a favorable prognosis. In this real-world cohort of patients, de novo metastatic disease and recurrences in initially uterine-confined cases were observed. Further research is warranted before incorporating the presence of POLE EDM into decision-making regarding adjuvant therapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Endometrioide/genética , DNA Polimerase II/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Endometrioide/enzimologia , Carcinoma Endometrioide/patologia , Carcinoma Endometrioide/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , DNA Polimerase II/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Endométrio/enzimologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Gradação de Tumores , Metástase Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(3): 738-745, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653641

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) are associated with benefit to trastuzumab and chemotherapy in patients with early-stage HER2+ breast cancer. The predictive value of TILs, TIL subsets, and other immune cells in patients receiving chemotherapy-sparing lapatinib plus trastuzumab treatment is unclear.Experimental Design: Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides (n = 59) were used to score stromal (s-)TILs from pretreatment biopsies of patients enrolled in the neoadjuvant TBCRC006 trial of 12-week lapatinib plus trastuzumab therapy (plus endocrine therapy for ER+ tumors). A 60% threshold was used to define lymphocyte-predominant breast cancer (LPBC). Multiplexed immunofluorescence (m-IF) staining (CD4, CD8, CD20, CD68, and FoxP3) and multispectral imaging were performed to characterize immune infiltrates in single formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded slides (n = 33). RESULTS: The pathologic complete response (pCR) rate was numerically higher in patients with LPBC compared with patients with non-LPBC (50% vs. 19%, P = 0.057). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the five immune markers identified two patient clusters with different responses to lapatinib plus trastuzumab treatment (pCR = 7% vs. 50%, for cluster 1 vs. 2 respectively; P = 0.01). In multivariable analysis, cluster 2, characterized by high CD4+, CD8+, CD20+ s-TILs, and high CD20+ intratumoral TILs, was independently associated with a higher pCR rate (P = 0.03). Analysis of single immune subpopulations revealed a significant association of pCR with higher baseline infiltration by s-CD4, intratumoral (i-) CD4, and i-CD20+ TILs. CONCLUSIONS: LPBC was marginally associated with higher pCR rate than non-LPBC in patients with lapatinib plus trastuzumab treated HER2+ breast cancer. Quantitative assessment of the immune infiltrate by m-IF is feasible and may help correlate individual immune cell subpopulations and immune cell profiles with treatment response.

14.
Histopathology ; 76(6): 865-874, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887226

RESUMO

AIMS: Breast adenomyoepitheliomas (AMEs) are uncommon tumours. Most oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive AMEs have mutations in phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway genes, whereas ER-negative AMEs usually harbour concurrent mutations affecting the HRAS Q61 hotspot and PI3K pathway genes. Here, we sought to determine the sensitivity and specificity of RAS Q61R immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis for detection of HRAS Q61R mutations in AMEs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six AMEs (14 ER-positive; 12 ER-negative) previously subjected to massively parallel sequencing (n = 21) or Sanger sequencing (n = 5) of the HRAS Q61 hotspot locus were included in this study. All AMEs were subjected to IHC analysis with a monoclonal (SP174) RAS Q61R-specific antibody, in addition to detailed histopathological analysis. Nine ER-negative AMEs harboured HRAS mutations, including Q61R (n = 7) and Q61K (n = 2) mutations. Five of seven (71%) AMEs with HRAS Q61R mutations were immunohistochemically positive, whereas none of the AMEs lacking HRAS Q61R mutations (n = 17) were immunoreactive. RAS Q61R immunoreactivity was restricted to the myoepithelium in 80% (4/5) of cases, whereas one case showed immunoreactivity in both the epithelial component and the myoepithelial component. RAS Q61R immunohistochemically positive AMEs were associated with infiltrative borders (P < 0.001), necrosis (P < 0.01) and mitotic index in the epithelial (P < 0.05) and myoepithelial (P < 0.01) components. RAS Q61R IHC assessment did not reveal Q61K mutations (0/2). CONCLUSIONS: IHC analysis of RAS Q61R shows high specificity (100%) and moderate sensitivity (71%) for detection of HRAS Q61R mutations in breast AMEs, and appears not to detect HRAS Q61K mutations. IHC analysis of RAS Q61R may constitute a useful technique in the diagnostic workup of ER-negative AMEs.

15.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 128(2): 133-145, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) immunohistochemistry (IHC) guide the clinical management of breast cancer metastases. Decalcification of bone core needle biopsies (CNBs) can affect IHC. In the current study, the authors sought to define whether fine-needle aspiration (FNA) would be a better alternative to CNB for reliable IHC. METHODS: Patients with breast cancer metastases to bone that were sampled by both CNB and FNA were selected. ER, PR, and HER2 were performed in FNA cell blocks (FNA-CBs) and concurrent decalcified CNBs. Discrepancies were classified as minor when there was a difference of up to 30% nuclear staining in IHC for ER and PR between paired samples and as major when a clinically relevant change was observed (ie, positive vs negative). Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction of ESR1 messenger RNA levels was performed on FNA/CNB pairs with discrepancies for ER IHC. IHC status of the primary breast carcinoma was recorded. RESULTS: Concordance rates for ER, PR, and HER2 were 89%, 67%, and 93%, respectively, between FNA-CB and CNB pairs from 27 patients. Major discrepancies were noted in approximately 11% of FNA/CNB pairs for ER IHC and in 33% of FNA/CNB pairs for PR. ESR1 messenger RNA levels of FNA/CNB matched samples were similar and did not explain the differences in ER IHC expression in the majority of cases. Two of 27 FNA/CNB pairs had different results for HER2 IHC that changed from negative on CNB to equivocal (2+) on FNA-CB. Both cases had prior HER2 amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization. CONCLUSIONS: FNA-CB and CNB appear to constitute acceptable methods for the assessment of ER, PR, and HER2 for clinical decision making.

16.
Int J Surg Pathol ; : 1066896919890401, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801397

RESUMO

Aims. The aim of this study was to identify potential driver genetic alterations in a dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation. Methods and Results. A 24-year-old female underwent resection of an abdominal mass, which on a previous biopsy demonstrated rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation concerning for embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. Histologically the resected tumor displayed a high-grade sarcoma with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation in the background of well-differentiated liposarcoma consistent with DDLPS. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed MDM2 amplification, as did array-based copy number profiling. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a somatic FGFR1 hotspot mutation and RNA sequencing an LMNB2-MAP2K6 fusion only within the dedifferentiated component. Conclusions. This study represents an in-depth examination of a rare DDLPS with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation in a young individual. Additionally, it is also instructive of a potential pitfall when assessing for MDM2 amplification in small biopsies. Despite exhaustive analysis, mutation and gene copy number analysis did not identify any molecular events that would underlie the rhabdomyoblastic differentiation. Our understanding of what causes some tumors to dedifferentiate as well as undergo divergent differentiation is limited, and larger studies are needed.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826955

RESUMO

Forkhead box A1 (FOXA1) is a pioneer factor that facilitates chromatin binding and function of lineage-specific and oncogenic transcription factors. Hyperactive FOXA1 signaling due to gene amplification or overexpression has been reported in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) endocrine-resistant metastatic breast cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms by which FOXA1 up-regulation promotes these processes and the key downstream targets of the FOXA1 oncogenic network remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that FOXA1 overexpression in ER+ breast cancer cells drives genome-wide enhancer reprogramming to activate prometastatic transcriptional programs. Up-regulated FOXA1 employs superenhancers (SEs) to synchronize transcriptional reprogramming in endocrine-resistant breast cancer cells, reflecting an early embryonic development process. We identify the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α) as the top high FOXA1-induced SE target, mediating the impact of high FOXA1 in activating prometastatic gene sets and pathways associated with poor clinical outcome. Using clinical ER+/HER2- metastatic breast cancer datasets, we show that the aberrant FOXA1/HIF-2α transcriptional axis is largely nonconcurrent with the ESR1 mutations, suggesting different mechanisms of endocrine resistance and treatment strategies. We further demonstrate the selective efficacy of an HIF-2α antagonist, currently in clinical trials for advanced kidney cancer and recurrent glioblastoma, in reducing the clonogenicity, migration, and invasion of endocrine-resistant breast cancer cells expressing high FOXA1. Our study has uncovered high FOXA1-induced enhancer reprogramming and HIF-2α-dependent transcriptional programs as vulnerable targets for treating endocrine-resistant and metastatic breast cancer.

18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16830, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727977

RESUMO

IDH1/2 mutations are early drivers present in diverse human cancer types arising in various tissue sites. IDH1/2 mutation is known to induce a global hypermethylator phenotype. However, the effects on DNA methylation across IDH mutant cancers and functionally different genome regions, remain unknown. We analyzed DNA methylation data from IDH1/2 mutant acute myeloid leukemia, oligodendroglioma, astrocytoma, solid papillary breast carcinoma with reverse polarity, sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma, which clustered by their embryonal origin. Hypermethylated common probes affect predominantly gene bodies while promoters in IDH1/2 mutant cancers remain unmethylated. Enhancers showed global hypermethylation, however commonly hypomethylated enhancers were associated with tissue differentiation and cell fate determination. We demonstrate that some chromosomes, chromosomal arms and chromosomal regions are more affected by IDH1/2 mutations while others remain resistant to IDH1/2 mutation induced methylation changes. Therefore IDH1/2 mutations have different methylation effect on different parts of the genome, which may be regulated by different mechanisms.

20.
J Clin Invest ; 129(10): 4276-4289, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483290

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDAdenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy arising in salivary glands and other sites, characterized by high rates of relapse and distant spread. Recurrent/metastatic (R/M) ACCs are generally incurable, due to a lack of active systemic therapies. To improve outcomes, deeper understanding of genetic alterations and vulnerabilities in R/M tumors is needed.METHODSAn integrated genomic analysis of 1,045 ACCs (177 primary, 868 R/M) was performed to identify alterations associated with advanced and metastatic tumors. Intratumoral genetic heterogeneity, germline mutations, and therapeutic actionability were assessed.RESULTSCompared with primary tumors, R/M tumors were enriched for alterations in key Notch (NOTCH1, 26.3% vs. 8.5%; NOTCH2, 4.6% vs. 2.3%; NOTCH3, 5.7% vs. 2.3%; NOTCH4, 3.6% vs. 0.6%) and chromatin-remodeling (KDM6A, 15.2% vs. 3.4%; KMT2C/MLL3, 14.3% vs. 4.0%; ARID1B, 14.1% vs. 4.0%) genes. TERT promoter mutations (13.1% of R/M cases) were mutually exclusive with both NOTCH1 mutations (q = 3.3 × 10-4) and MYB/MYBL1 fusions (q = 5.6 × 10-3), suggesting discrete, alternative mechanisms of tumorigenesis. This network of alterations defined 4 distinct ACC subgroups: MYB+NOTCH1+, MYB+/other, MYBWTNOTCH1+, and MYBWTTERT+. Despite low mutational load, we identified numerous samples with marked intratumoral genetic heterogeneity, including branching evolution across multiregion sequencing.CONCLUSIONThese observations collectively redefine the molecular underpinnings of ACC progression and identify further targets for precision therapies.FUNDINGAdenoid Cystic Carcinoma Research Foundation, Pershing Square Sohn Cancer Research grant, the PaineWebber Chair, Stand Up 2 Cancer, NIH R01 CA205426, the STARR Cancer Consortium, NCI R35 CA232097, the Frederick Adler Chair, Cycle for Survival, the Jayme Flowers Fund, The Sebastian Nativo Fund, NIH K08 DE024774 and R01 DE027738, and MSKCC through NIH/NCI Cancer Center Support Grant (P30 CA008748).

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