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1.
Lancet HIV ; 7(2): e91-e103, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standard-dose, seasonal, trivalent, inactivated influenza vaccine induces moderate-to-low haemagglutination-inhibition antibody responses in people living with HIV. This study assessed the immunogenicity and safety of different dosing schedules of inactivated influenza vaccine in pregnant women living with HIV in South Africa. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomised, controlled trial, we recruited pregnant women with HIV from seven antenatal clinics in Soweto, South Africa. Pregnant women were eligible if they were aged 18-38 years, infected with HIV, and had an estimated gestational age of 12-36 weeks. Women were randomly assigned (1:1:1), using a computer-generated randomisation list, to receive inactivated influenza vaccine containing 15 µg of each of the three seasonal influenza strains for that year, as a single dose, a double dose, or two single doses 1 month apart. Participants and study personnel were masked to group allocation. Haemagglutination-inhibition antibody responses were measured for all groups in the mothers at enrolment and at 1 month after each vaccine dose, and in the single-dose and double-dose groups within 7 days of birth in the neonates. Immunogenicity analyses only included women with visits 28-35 days apart and infants who were born at least 28 days after maternal immunisation. The primary was seroconversion rate to each of the vaccine strains in the mothers 1 month after completion of the dosing schedule, and the primary safety outcomes were frequency of local and systemic reactions. Safety was assessed in mothers and infants until 24 weeks post partum and analysed in all participants who received at least one dose of vaccine. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01527825, and is closed to accrual. FINDINGS: Between Feb 11, and June 6, 2013, 800 pregnant women living with HIV were enrolled and randomly assigned to the single-dose (n=266), double-dose (n=265), or two-single-doses (n=269) group. In the analysable population, seroconversion rates in mothers 1 month after the final vaccine dose were significantly higher in the double-dose group (n=230; ranging from 29% to 65% for the three vaccine strains) than in the single-dose group (n=230; ranging from 18% to 49%; p≤0·019 for the three vaccine strains), but were similar between the two-single-doses group (n=220; ranging from 23% to 52%) and the single-dose group (p≥0·20 for the three vaccine strains). Safety outcomes were similar in the three groups, except for more injection-site reactions in recipients in the double-dose group. INTERPRETATION: A regimen of double-dose inactivated influenza vaccine gave slightly greater immunogenicity than did a single-dose regimen in pregnant women living with HIV. However, immunogenicity in the double-dose group was still lower than historical data from the same setting in pregnant women without HIV. More immunogenic vaccines are needed for pregnant women living with HIV to enhance transplacental transfer of vaccine-induced protective antibodies to their newborn infants. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

2.
J Infect Dis ; 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants experience high rates of infectious morbidity. We hypothesized that early CMV infection was associated with increased hospitalization rates and decreased vaccine responses in HEU compared with HIV-unexposed (HUU) infants. METHODS: Among infants enrolled in the Tshipidi study in Botswana, we determined CMV infection status by 6 months of age and compared hospitalization rates and responses to tetanus and BCG vaccines among HEU and HUU vaccinees. RESULTS: Fifteen of 226 (6.6%) HEU infants and 17 (19.3%) of 88 HUU infants were CMV-infected by 6 months. HEU infants were nearly 3 times as likely to be hospitalized compared with HUU infants (p=0.02). HEU peripheral blood cells produced less IL-2 (p=0.004), but similar amounts of IFNγ, following stimulation with tetanus toxoid. Anti-tetanus IgG titers were similar between groups. Cellular responses to PPD stimulation did not differ between groups. Maternal receipt of 3-drug antiretroviral therapy compared with zidovudine was associated with increased IL-2 expression after tetanus toxoid stimulation. CMV infection status was not associated with clinical or vaccine response outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that increased rates of hospitalization and decreased memory T cell responses to tetanus vaccine were associated with HIV exposure and incomplete treatment of maternal HIV infection, but not early CMV infection.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664185

RESUMO

We compared CMV outcomes of three prophylactic approaches used for CBT and haploidentical cord transplants from December 2009 through 2018: letermovir (n = 32) through day 100 post transplant, "valacyclovir day 100" (valacyclovir 2 g orally three times daily through day 100) (n = 60), and "valacyclovir hospital discharge" (valacyclovir 2 g orally three times daily through hospital discharge then acyclovir 800 mg twice daily) (n = 41). Through day 100, none in the letermovir group, six (10%) in the "valacyclovir day 100," and nine (22%) in the "valacyclovir hospital discharge" group required CMV directed treatment (p = 0.005 and 0.06 comparing letermovir to "valacyclovir hospital discharge" and "valacyclovir day 100"). Fewer patients in the letermovir group (n = 7, 22%) had any CMV reactivation versus the "valacyclovir day 100" group (n = 20, 33%) versus the "valacyclovir hospital discharge" group (n = 23, 57%) (p = 0.003 and 0.21 comparing letermovir to "valacyclovir hospital discharge" and "valacyclovir day 100"). Among patients not reactivating CMV before 100 days, reactivation rates between day 100 and 180 were higher in the letermovir and "valacyclovir day 100" groups than the "valacyclovir hospital discharge" group. Letermovir is safe and effective compared with alternative prophylaxis approaches following CBT through day 100. Reactivation and monitoring after day 100 remain potential concerns.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 381(14): 1333-1346, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety, efficacy, and appropriate timing of isoniazid therapy to prevent tuberculosis in pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who are receiving antiretroviral therapy are unknown. METHODS: In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned pregnant women with HIV infection to receive isoniazid preventive therapy for 28 weeks, initiated either during pregnancy (immediate group) or at week 12 after delivery (deferred group). Mothers and infants were followed through week 48 after delivery. The primary outcome was a composite of treatment-related maternal adverse events of grade 3 or higher or permanent discontinuation of the trial regimen because of toxic effects. The noninferiority margin was an upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval for the between-group difference in the rate of the primary outcome of less than 5 events per 100 person-years. RESULTS: A total of 956 women were enrolled. A primary outcome event occurred in 72 of 477 women (15.1%) in the immediate group and in 73 of 479 (15.2%) in the deferred group (incidence rate, 15.03 and 14.93 events per 100 person-years, respectively; rate difference, 0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], -4.77 to 4.98, which met the criterion for noninferiority). Two women in the immediate group and 4 women in the deferred group died (incidence rate, 0.40 and 0.78 per 100 person-years, respectively; rate difference, -0.39; 95% CI, -1.33 to 0.56); all deaths occurred during the postpartum period, and 4 were from liver failure (2 of the women who died from liver failure had received isoniazid [1 in each group]). Tuberculosis developed in 6 women (3 in each group); the incidence rate was 0.60 per 100 person-years in the immediate group and 0.59 per 100 person-years in the deferred group (rate difference, 0.01; 95% CI, -0.94 to 0.96). There was a higher incidence in the immediate group than in the deferred group of an event included in the composite adverse pregnancy outcome (stillbirth or spontaneous abortion, low birth weight in an infant, preterm delivery, or congenital anomalies in an infant) (23.6% vs. 17.0%; difference, 6.7 percentage points; 95% CI, 0.8 to 11.9). CONCLUSIONS: The risks associated with initiation of isoniazid preventive therapy during pregnancy appeared to be greater than those associated with initiation of therapy during the postpartum period. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; IMPAACT P1078 TB APPRISE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01494038.).


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/prevenção & controle , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado da Gravidez , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Isoniazida/efeitos adversos , Testes de Função Hepática , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618437

RESUMO

The adjuvanted recombinant glycoprotein E herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine is superior to the live attenuated HZ vaccine, with an efficacy >90% against HZ in healthy immunocompetent adults aged ≥50 years after vaccination. In pivotal studies, the efficacy of the new vaccine varied very little with the age of the vaccinee and decreased only by 5-10% in the 3.5 years after immunization. This nonlive vaccine was successfully administered to small cohorts of immunocompromised individuals; initial trials showed efficacy of >60-80% in several such settings. Potential drawbacks include the requirement for 2 vaccine doses separated by 2-6 months, local and systemic reactogenicity that is significantly greater than observed with commonly used vaccines, and the inclusion of a strong adjuvant that has been minimally studied in clinical settings where it might be problematic, such as in people with autoimmune diseases. Postmarketing studies are underway to address some of the drawbacks.

6.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 82(2): 181-187, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women living with HIV (WLHIV) have increased risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (SPTD). We sought to identify plasma predictors of SPTD and their correlations with factors that increase the risk of SPTD, such as vitamin D deficiency and use of protease inhibitors. DESIGN: Plasma was obtained from 103 WLHIV with SPTD (≤35 weeks gestation) and 205 controls with term deliveries (TDs; ≥37 weeds) matched to cases 2:1 by race and gestational age at blood draw. TNFα, IFNγ, IL6, IL8, IL1ß, IL18, IL17, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF), MCP1, IP10, sIL2Rα, sCD14, vascular endothelial factor a, monocyte colony stimulation factor, GROα, MMP9, IL10, TGFß, sCTLA4, and eicosanoids were compared between cases adjusting for known SPTD risk factors. RESULTS: Participants had similar demographic characteristics, but cases had higher plasma HIV RNA, lower CD4 cells, and more advanced HIV disease compared with controls. High sIL2Rα was associated with increased risk of SPTD. High sCD14, GCSF, PGF2α, and 5-HEPE were marginally associated with increased risk of SPTD. Women who initiated protease inhibitors-containing antiretroviral treatment before or during the first trimester had higher levels of GCSF and 5-HEPE compared with women without such exposure before plasma collection. Vitamin D insufficiency was associated with higher inflammatory sCD14 and PGF2α, and lower anti-inflammatory 5-HEPE. CONCLUSIONS: The best plasma predictor of SPTD in WLHIV was sIL2Rα, a marker of T-cell activation. Markers of monocyte activation and eicosanoids were marginally increased in WLHIV and SPTD, suggesting that they may also play a role in the pathogenesis of this disorder.

7.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 35(10): 890-895, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179712

RESUMO

Herpes zoster (HZ) has high morbidity in people living with HIV (PLHIV). We investigated immunological factors that correlated with the development of HZ in PLHIV with controlled HIV replication on antiretroviral therapy (ART). PLHIV who developed HZ on ART (cases), with undetectable plasma HIV RNA, and CD4 counts ≥200 cells/µL were matched 1:1 to controls by CD4 count, age, gender, race, and duration of ART. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-specific T cells and circulating regulatory T cells (Treg) were measured by flow cytometry before and after HZ. Differences between cases and controls were assessed by paired t-tests and longitudinal changes by Wilcoxon signed rank test. HZ cases (N = 31) had higher CD4+FOXP3+CD25+% Treg before HZ compared with 31 controls. After VZV ex vivo restimulation, cases had lower T cell responses, including CD8+perforin+% cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), CD4+IL10+%, and CD4+TGFß+% compared with controls. Overall, Treg negatively correlated with VZV-specific Th1 responses. Moreover, Treg decreased over time on ART in HZ cases, VZV-CTLs were stable and did not increase even after HZ. Increased circulating Treg and decreased VZV-specific T cell immune responses were associated with the risk of HZ in PLHIV. The kinetics of Treg over time, but not of VZV-CTLs, paralleled the natural history of HZ, whose incidence decreases over time on effective ART.

8.
J Virol ; 93(15)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092579

RESUMO

Older age is associated with increased infectious morbidity and decreased immune responses to vaccines, but the mechanisms that mediate this effect are incompletely understood. The efficacy and immunogenicity of the live attenuated zoster vaccine (ZVL) have a very-well-described negative association with the age of the vaccinee. In a study of 600 ZVL recipients 50 to >80 years of age, we investigated immunological factors that might explain the effect of age on the immunogenicity of ZVL. Using FluoroSpot assays and flow cytometry, we determined that varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-specific peak T helper 1 (VZV-Th1) responses to ZVL were independently predicted by prevaccination VZV-Th1 responses, regulatory T cells (Treg), and PD1-expressing immune checkpoint T cells (Tcheck) but not by the age of the vaccinee. Persistence of VZV-Th1 1 year after vaccination was independently predicted by the factors mentioned above, by peak VZV-Th1 responses to ZVL, and by the age of the vaccinee. We further demonstrated by ex vivo blocking experiments the mechanistic role of PD1 and CTLA4 as modulators of decreased VZV-Th1 responses in the study participants. VZV-specific cytotoxic T cell (VZV-CTL) and T follicular helper responses to ZVL did not correlate with age, but similar to other Th1 responses, VZV-CTL peak and baseline responses were independently correlated. These data expand our understanding of the factors affecting the magnitude and kinetics of T cell responses to ZVL in older adults and show the importance of prevaccination Treg and Tcheck in modulating the immunogenicity of ZVL. This presents new potential interventions to increase vaccine responses in older adults.IMPORTANCE Vaccination is the most effective method to protect older adults against viral infections. However, the immunogenicity of viral vaccines in older adults is notoriously poor. The live attenuated zoster vaccine (ZVL) provides the best example of a gradual decrease of vaccine immunogenicity with every 10-year age increase above 50 years. Here we show that the abundance of regulatory T cells before vaccine administration to older adults has a significant inhibitory effect on immune responses to ZVL and, together with baseline immunity to varicella-zoster virus, explains the effect of age on the immunogenicity of ZVL. Moreover, in vitro blockade of regulatory T cell mechanisms of action with biologic modulators restores immune responses to varicella-zoster virus in vaccinees. Collectively, these observations suggest that immune modulators that block regulatory T cell activity may increase responses to viral attenuated vaccines in older adults.

9.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 15(11): 2615-2623, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116679

RESUMO

Transcriptomics studies the set of RNA transcripts produced by the genome using high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics. This growing field has revolutionized our understanding of host-pathogen interactions, revealing new insights into the host response to influenza infection and vaccination. Studies using transcriptomics have identified a unique immunosignature for influenza discernable from other bacterial and viral pathogens, key transcriptional factors that discriminate early from late, mild versus severe, and symptomatic versus asymptomatic infection. Recent studies evaluating the host response to influenza vaccines have revealed key differences in live versus inactivated influenza vaccines, identified early transcriptional signatures that predict hemagglutinin antibody production following vaccination, increased our understanding of how adjuvants enhance the immune response to influenza vaccine antigens, and demonstrate biologic variability in the response to vaccination due to host factors. These studies demonstrate the potential for influenza transcriptomics to be applied to clinical care, understanding the mechanisms of infection, and informing vaccine development.

10.
Front Immunol ; 10: 595, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972079

RESUMO

Background: HIV-exposed uninfected infants (HEU) are at higher risk of severe infections, hospitalizations and death compared with HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (HUU), but the immune deficit underlying it is not known. To address this gap, we investigated T cell functionality and its relationship to phenotypic profiles of T cells and antigen presenting cells (APC) in HEU and HUU. Methods: Blood mononuclear cells from 55 HEU and 16 HUU were stimulated with Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB) or mock for 72 h, and tested by flow cytometry for proliferation and expression of Th1, Th2, and regulatory (Treg) markers. In parallel, cells were phenotypically assessed for differentiation profiles of Treg, conventional T cell (Tconv) and APC in unstimulated cells. Results: HEU had lower CD4+ functional responses to SEB/mock and similar CD8+ responses compared with HUU. In the phenotypic T cell panel, HEU showed higher proportions of CD4+ and CD8+ Treg expressing IL10, FOXP3, and CD25; higher effector Tconv and Treg; and lower naïve and CD4+TGFß+ Treg compared with HUU. In the phenotypic APC panel, HEU showed higher proportions of CD1c+ cDC2, CD123+ pDC, CD16+ inflammatory monocytes and cDC and higher expression of CD103 on CD1c-CD123-CD16-cDC1 compared with HUU. Regression analyses adjusted for HIV exposure and multiple comparisons showed that higher CD8+IL10+ and CD8+FOXP3+ Treg in unstimulated cells were associated with lower CD8+ T cell functional responses to SEB/mock. Functionality was not affected by Tconv differentiation, but higher APC activation in aggregate was associated with higher CD8+IL10+ Treg responses to SEB. Conclusions: T cell functionality was decreased in HEU compared with HUU. High CD8+ Treg proportions were the most important predictors of decreased T cell functionality in HEU and HUU.

11.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 81(1): 118-124, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the association between maternal cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia during pregnancy and adverse birth and infant health outcomes in HIV-infected mothers and their HIV-exposed uninfected infants. METHODS: HIV-positive women and their infants were followed prospectively from pregnancy through 2 years postpartum in the "Tshipidi" study in Botswana. We analyzed the association between detectable CMV DNA in maternal blood at delivery and adverse birth outcomes (stillbirth, preterm delivery, small for gestational age, or birth defect), as well as infant hospitalization and mortality through 24 months. RESULTS: We measured CMV DNA in blood samples from 350 (77.1%) of 454 HIV-positive women from the Tshipidi study. The median maternal CD4 count was 422 cells/mL, and median HIV-1 RNA at entry was 3.2 log10 copies/mL. Fifty-one (14.6%) women had detectable CMV DNA. In unadjusted analyses, detectable CMV DNA was associated with higher maternal HIV-1 RNA [odds ratio (OR) 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1 to 1.9], presence of a birth defect (OR 9.8, 95% CI: 1.6 to 60.3), and occurrence of any adverse birth outcome (OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.04 to 3.95). In multivariable analysis, we observed a trend toward association between detectable maternal CMV DNA and occurrence of any adverse birth outcome (adjusted OR 1.9, 95% CI: 0.96 to 3.8). Maternal CMV viremia was not associated with infant hospitalization and/or death by 24 months. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 1 in 6 HIV-positive women in Botswana had detectable CMV DNA in blood at delivery. The presence of maternal CMV viremia had a borderline association with adverse birth outcomes but not with 24-month morbidity or mortality in HIV-exposed uninfected children.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/complicações , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Infecções por HIV/complicações , HIV-1 , Viremia/complicações , Adulto , Botsuana , Coinfecção/virologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Viremia/virologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 15(10): 2466-2474, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852939

RESUMO

Background: Infections with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) cause significant morbidity and hospitalization in older adults. We studied the humoral, mucosal and B cell responses of an investigational adjuvanted RSV sF vaccine, MEDI7510, in older adults. Methods: In a substudy of a randomized (1:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled study of MEDI7510 in adults ≥60 years of age, we collected blood and nasal secretions at days 0, 8, 29, 91 and 180 post-vaccination to measure F-specific IgG and IgA antibodies by ELISA, and plasmablasts and memory B cells by IgA/IgG dual-color fluorospot. Results: The 27 vaccine- and 18 placebo-recipients had a mean age of 73 years and included 24 women. Among vaccinees, 93% had significant increases in F-specific plasma IgG 85% had increased plasma IgA; 74% had increased nasal IgG and 26% nasal IgA; 93% had IgG and 89% IgA plasmablasts on Day 8 post-immunization; and 82% had IgG and 7.4% IgA memory B cell responses to the vaccine. Vaccinees <70 years of age and women had the highest responses to the vaccine. Conclusions: This adjuvanted vaccine generated robust humoral immune responses in older adults, including RSV F-specific systemic and mucosal antibodies and memory B cells. Nevertheless, age ≥70 years was associated with decreased immunogenicity of the adjuvanted vaccine.

13.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 15(4): 772-777, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676834

RESUMO

There are two licensed herpes zoster vaccines. One is a live vaccine (ZVL) based on an attenuated varicella-zoster virus (VZV). The other is a recombinant vaccine (RZV) based on the VZV glycoprotein E (gE) combined with AS01B, a multicomponent adjuvant system. RZV is superior to ZVL in efficacy, and differs from ZVL in that protection is not diminished by the age of the vaccinee and has not waned significantly during 4 years of follow-up. Immunologic studies demonstrated higher peak memory and persistence of T cell responses in RZV compared with ZVL recipients. RZV recipients also showed development and persistence of polyfunctional T cell responses. Taken together, we conclude that the immunologic data parallel and support the higher efficacy over time of RZV compared with ZVL.

14.
AIDS ; 33(5): 845-853, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU) infants have increased infectious morbidity and mortality; little is known about their levels of inflammation and monocyte activation. METHODS: Plasma samples obtained at birth and 6 months from 86 HEU mother-infant pairs enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development cohorts in Brazil were compared with 88 HIV-unexposed mother-infant pairs. HIV-infected mothers received antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy, their infants received zidovudine prophylaxis and were not breastfed. IL-6, soluble TNFα receptor I (sTNF-RI) and II, soluble CD14, soluble CD163, IFN-γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10), vascular cell adhesion molecule, oxidized LDL, D-dimer and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were assayed by ELISA at birth and at 6 months. sTNF-RI and IL-6 were considered coprimary endpoints. RESULTS: Among HIV-infected mothers, 79% had HIV-RNA less than 400 copies/ml prior to delivery. Compared with HIV-unexposed, HEU infants had a lower mean gestational age (38.7 vs. 39.3 weeks) and weight (3.1 vs. 3.3 kg); and reached lower weight (5.9 vs. 8.5 kg) and height (53.6 vs. 68.8 cm) at 6 months. With the exception of vascular cell adhesion molecule, inflammatory markers were generally higher (P ≤ 0.005) in HEU at birth, but at 6 months only sTNF-RI and IL-6 remained higher. For HEU pairs, only IP-10 was associated with maternal levels at birth (P < 0.001). In HEU, elevated levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and IP-10 at birth were associated with lower weight at birth (P = 0.04) and at 6 months (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: HIV-exposed infants have heightened inflammation and monocyte activation at birth, which for some markers persisted to 6 months of life and was not related to maternal inflammatory status. Inflammation may contribute to the increased HEU infectious morbidity and poor growth.

15.
J Infect Dis ; 219(2): 335-338, 2019 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30165651

RESUMO

Protection against zoster conferred by zoster vaccine live (ZVL; Zostavax) wanes over time. We compared varicella-zoster virus cell-mediated immunity (VZV-CMI) of adults ≥70 years who received a second dose of ZVL ≥10 years after the initial dose with de novo-immunized age-matched controls. Before and during the first year after vaccination, VZV-CMI was significantly higher in reimmunized compared with de novo vaccinees. At 3 years, VZV-CMI differences between groups decreased and only memory responses remained marginally higher in reimmunized participants. In conclusion, the increase in VZV-CMI generated by reimmunization with ZVL is at least equally persistent compared with de novo immunization.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Herpes Zoster/administração & dosagem , Vacina contra Herpes Zoster/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 3/imunologia , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Masculino , Vacinação , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590598

RESUMO

Among 182 children with influenza infection in 2016-2017, 18% had neurologic manifestations of influenza (NMI), including seizures and encephalopathy; 85% of these children were infected with the H3N2 strain. Children with NMI had 3.5-times-higher odds of having a neurologic comorbidity than those without NMI and a 10-fold increased odds of hospitalization.

17.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 79(4): 527-533, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30179984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite historically high rates of herpes zoster among people living with HIV (PLWH), comparative studies of herpes zoster by HIV serostatus are lacking since the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy and availability of zoster vaccine. METHODS: Annual rates (2002-2015) of first-episode herpes zoster and zoster vaccination were calculated for PLWH and uninfected adults in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study and stratified by HIV serostatus and age. Herpes zoster was captured using ICD9 codes and vaccine receipt with procedural codes and pharmacy data. RESULTS: Of 45,177 PLWH and 103,040 uninfected veterans, rates of herpes zoster decreased among PLWH (17.6-8.1/1000) over the study period but remained higher than uninfected adults (4.1/1000) at the end of study period. Rates were higher in PLWH with lower CD4 (<200 vs >500 cells/µL: 18.0 vs 6.8/1000) and unsuppressed vs suppressed HIV-1 RNA (21.8 vs 7.1/1000). Restricted to virologically suppressed participants with CD4 >350 cells per microliter, herpes zoster rates were similar among PLWH aged younger than 60 years and aged 60 years and older in 2015 (6.6 vs 6.7/1000) but higher than all uninfected age groups. At study end, cumulative receipt of zoster vaccine for PLWH aged 60 years and older was less than half that of uninfected veterans: 98.7 vs 215.2/1000. CONCLUSIONS: Herpes zoster rates among PLWH have markedly decreased, but, even in cART-treated individuals, remain 50% higher than uninfected adults. Lower rates of zoster vaccine receipt combined with high rates of herpes zoster support the need for a safe and effective vaccine against herpes zoster for PLWH, formal zoster vaccine guidelines for PLWH, and consideration for expanded use at younger ages.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Vacina contra Herpes Zoster/administração & dosagem , Herpes Zoster/epidemiologia , Herpes Zoster/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Veteranos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasma/virologia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/análise , Carga Viral
18.
J Infect Dis ; 218(suppl_2): S81-S87, 2018 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30247596

RESUMO

Background: Live attenuated (ZV) and recombinant adjuvanted (HZ/su) zoster vaccines differ with respect to efficacy, effect of age, and persistence of protection. We compared cell-mediated immunity (CMI responses to ZV and HZ/su. Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial stratified by age (50-59 and 70-85 years) and by HZ vaccination status (received ZV ≥5 years before entry or not). Varicella zoster virus (VZV)- and glycoprotein E (gE)-specific CMI were analyzed by interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) FluoroSpot and flow cytometry at study days 0, 30, 90, and 365. Results: Responses to ZV peaked on day 30 and to HZ/su (administered in 2 doses separated by 60 days) peaked on day 90. Age and vaccination status did not affect peak responses, but higher baseline CMI correlated with higher peak responses. HZ/su generated significantly higher VZV-specific IL-2+ and gE-specific IL-2+, IFN-γ+, and IL-2+/IFN-γ+ peak and 1-year baseline-adjusted responses compared with ZV. VZV-specific IFN-γ+ and IL-2+/IFN-γ+ did not differ between vaccines. HZ/su generated higher memory and effector-memory CD4+ peak responses and ZV generated higher effector CD4+ responses . Conclusions: The higher IL-2 and other memory responses generated by HZ/su compared with ZV may contribute to its superior efficacy. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT02114333.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Herpes Zoster/imunologia , Herpes Zoster/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linfócitos T/classificação , Linfócitos T/fisiologia
19.
J Clin Invest ; 128(10): 4429-4440, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024861

RESUMO

The adjuvanted varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein E (gE) subunit herpes zoster vaccine (HZ/su) confers higher protection against HZ than the live attenuated zoster vaccine (ZV). To understand the immunologic basis for the different efficacies of the vaccines, we compared immune responses to the vaccines in adults 50 to 85 years old. gE-specific T cells were very low/undetectable before vaccination when analyzed by FluoroSpot and flow cytometry. Both ZV and HZ/su increased gE-specific responses, but at peak memory response (PMR) after vaccination (30 days after ZV or after the second dose of HZ/su), gE-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were 10-fold or more higher in HZ/su compared with ZV recipients. Comparing the vaccines, T cell memory responses, including gE-IL-2+ and VZV-IL-2+ spot-forming cells (SFCs), were higher in HZ/su recipients and cytotoxic and effector responses were lower. At 1 year after vaccination, all gE-Th1 and VZV-IL-2+ SFCs remained higher in HZ/su compared with ZV recipients. Mediation analyses showed that IL-2+ PMR were necessary for the persistence of Th1 responses to either vaccine and VZV-IL-2+ PMR explained 73% of the total effect of HZ/su on persistence. This emphasizes the biological importance of the memory responses, which were clearly superior in HZ/su compared with ZV participants.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Herpes Zoster/administração & dosagem , Herpes Zoster/imunologia , Herpes Zoster/prevenção & controle , Herpesvirus Humano 3/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Células Th1/imunologia , Vacinação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Feminino , Herpes Zoster/patologia , Vacina contra Herpes Zoster/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Th1/patologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
20.
J Infect Dis ; 218(7): 1085-1089, 2018 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29762690

RESUMO

Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (iFABP) levels did not differ between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)- infected infants and uninfected infants exposed to HIV-1, but those who breastfed had substantially lower levels. Zonulin levels increased from 3 to 5.3 months of age with perinatal acquisition of HIV-1 despite early antiretroviral treatment. Biomarkers of intestinal integrity (ie, iFABP and zonulin) were compared in 56 HIV-1-positive African infants who received early antiretroviral treatment and 53 HIV-1-exposed but uninfected (HEU) controls. Despite heightened inflammation and immune activation in HIV-positive infants, iFABP and zonulin levels at 3 months of age were not different from those in HEU infants and largely were not correlated with inflammatory and immune activation biomarkers. However, zonulin levels increased and became significantly higher in HIV-positive infants as compared to HEU infants by 5 months of age, despite viral suppression due to antiretroviral treatment. These findings have implications for intestinal integrity biomarker profiling in perinatal HIV-1 infection.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Toxina da Cólera/análise , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/análise , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/análise , Aleitamento Materno , Demografia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Intestinos/virologia , Gravidez
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