Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 20
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
2.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 8(1): 55, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248455

RESUMO

Learning about the abandonment of moral principles of healthcare professionals and scientists, their societies and academic institutions, to a murderous ideology yields fundamental concerns and global implications for present and future healthcare professionals' education and practice. Medicine's worst-case scenario raises deeply disturbing yet essential questions in the here and now: Could the Holocaust, one of the greatest evils ever perpetrated on humankind, have occurred without the complicity of physicians, their societies, and the scientific profession community? How did healers become killers? Can it happen again?We reflect here on those queries through the lens of the Second International Scholars Workshop on Medicine during the Holocaust and Beyond held in the Galilee, Israel on May 7-11, 2017 and derive contemporary global lessons for the healthcare professions. Following a brief historical background, implications of the history of medicine in the Holocaust are drawn including 1) awareness that the combination of hierarchy, obedience, and power constitutes a risk factor for abuse of power in medicine and 2) learning and teaching about medicine in the Holocaust and beyond is a powerful platform for supporting professional identity formation. As such, this history ideally can help "equip" learners with a moral compass for navigating the future of medical practice and inherent ethical challenges such as prejudice, assisted reproduction, resource allocation, obtaining valid informed consent, end of life care, and challenges of genomics and technology expansion. Curriculum modules are available and studies on impact on students' attitudes and behavior are emerging.The conference culminated with the launch of the Galilee Declaration, composed and signed by an international, inter-professional community of historians, healthcare professions educators, and ethicists. The Declaration included herein ( http://english.wgalil.ac.il/category/Declaration ) calls for curricula on history of healthcare professions in the Holocaust and its implications to be included in all healthcare professions education.

4.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 15(4): 669-673, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29477288

RESUMO

Whereas the scientific community is aware of atrocities committed by medical doctors like Mengele, the specifics of radiology and radiation oncology during National Socialism remain largely unknown. Starting in 2010, the German Radiology Association and the German Association of Radiation Oncology coordinated a national project looking into original archival material. A national committee convened in 2013 to discuss the project's findings, which were also the subject of a symposium at the University of Tuebingen in 2016 on radiology under National Socialism. The project identified approximately 160 radiologists who were victimized because of their Jewish descent, among them Gustav Bucky (known for the Bucky factor in x-ray diagnostics). Radiologists throughout Germany took part in forced sterilizations. The "Schutzstaffel," commonly known as SS, had a special radiology unit that was established for tuberculosis screening. Radiation was also used for sterilization experiments in the Auschwitz concentration camp with subsequent surgical procedures to enable histological analysis of the irradiated tissue. Reflection on medicine during the Holocaust will be strengthened by specific facts related to the respective medical field. Radiologists were involved in atrocious medical experiments as well as in supporting Nazi policies in Germany. These facts provoke ethical considerations about marginalized patient groups and doctor-patient communication. They also raise questions about "evidence-based" medicine as sole justification for medical procedures. In summary, historical studies will be able to help in the professional identity formation of radiologists gaining awareness to ethical issues of today.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/história , Experimentação Humana/história , Socialismo Nacional/história , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/história , Radiologia/história , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Holocausto/história , Humanos , Judeus/história , Sociedades Médicas/história
5.
Endeavour ; 40(1): 1-6, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26749461

RESUMO

There has been no full evaluation of the numbers of victims of Nazi research, who the victims were, and of the frequency and types of experiments and research. This paper gives the first results of a comprehensive evidence-based evaluation of the different categories of victims. Human experiments were more extensive than often assumed with a minimum of 15,754 documented victims. Experiments rapidly increased from 1942, reaching a high point in 1943. The experiments remained at a high level of intensity despite imminent German defeat in 1945. There were more victims who survived than were killed as part of or as a result of the experiments, and the survivors often had severe injuries.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/história , Holocausto/ética , Experimentação Humana/ética , Socialismo Nacional/história , Feminino , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Holocausto/história , Experimentação Humana/história , Humanos , Judeus/história , Masculino
6.
Can Bull Med Hist ; 33(2): 418-446, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28155423

RESUMO

Issues relating to the euthanasia killings of the mentally ill, the medical research conducted on collected body parts, and the clinical investigations on living victims under National Socialism are among the best-known abuses in medical history. But to date, there have been no statistics compiled regarding the extent and number of the victims and perpetrators, or regarding their identities in terms of age, nationality, and gender. "Victims of Unethical Human Experiments and Coerced Research under National Socialism," a research project based at Oxford Brookes University, has established an evidence-based documentation of the overall numbers of victims and perpetrators through specific record linkages of the evidence from the period of National Socialism, as well as from post-WWII trials and other records. This article examines the level and extent of these unethical medical procedures as they relate to the field of neuroscience. It presents statistical information regarding the victims, as well as detailing the involvement of the perpetrators and Nazi physicians with respect to their post-war activities and subsequent court trials.


Assuntos
Holocausto , Experimentação Humana , Neurociências/história , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eutanásia , Feminino , História do Século XX , Holocausto/história , Holocausto/estatística & dados numéricos , Experimentação Humana/ética , Experimentação Humana/história , Experimentação Humana/legislação & jurisprudência , Experimentação Humana/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Socialismo Nacional , Pesquisadores/história , Pesquisadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Camb Q Healthc Ethics ; 23(2): 220-30, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24534743

RESUMO

In 1945-46, representatives of the U.S. government made similar discoveries in both Germany and Japan, unearthing evidence of unethical experiments on human beings that could be viewed as war crimes. The outcomes in the two defeated nations, however, were strikingly different. In Germany, the United States, influenced by the Canadian physician John Thompson, played a key role in bringing Nazi physicians to trial and publicizing their misdeeds. In Japan, the United States played an equally key role in concealing information about the biological warfare experiments and in securing immunity from prosecution for the perpetrators. The greater force of appeals to national security and wartime exigency help to explain these different outcomes.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Cumplicidade , Ética Médica/história , Experimentação Humana/história , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/história , Médicos/história , Crimes de Guerra , Guerra/ética , II Guerra Mundial , China/etnologia , Códigos de Ética , Análise Ética , História do Século XX , Experimentação Humana/ética , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Japão/etnologia , Coreia (Geográfico)/etnologia , Socialismo Nacional , Médicos/ética , Racismo , Medidas de Segurança , U.R.S.S. , Estados Unidos , Crimes de Guerra/ética , Crimes de Guerra/legislação & jurisprudência
9.
Biologist (London) ; 61(6): 24-27, 2014 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26166834
10.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 35(3): 415-30, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24779110

RESUMO

The legacy of German medical research in the era of National Socialism remains contentious, as regards identification of victims, and the appropriate handling of scientific specimens. These questions are acutely posed by the scientific slides, brain sections, and other body parts of victims, who were killed for research. These slides continued to be held by Austrian and German scientific institutes in the second half of the twentieth century. That scientists continued research on these slides between 1945 and the late 1980s suggests a disassociation of guilt and responsibility for the deaths of the victims by the German scientific community.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Socialismo Nacional/história , Academias e Institutos/história , Áustria , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Criança , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Humanos , Crimes de Guerra/história , II Guerra Mundial
12.
Ann Anat ; 194(3): 237-42, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22445542

RESUMO

In 1989-90 an intense debate erupted in the Federal Republic of Germany over the status of anatomical specimens from the period of National Socialism. Pressure was brought on the German universities and research institutes to remove body parts. The solution was deemed rapid burial of all specimens whose provenance was in doubt. A range of options was considered, and the eventual decision to bury cremated remains was deemed the best way to draw a line under an uncomfortable past of Nazi medical atrocities. The aim was to achieve closure on this issue by a rapid "cleansing" of collections. However, identification of victims was left unresolved amidst the heated debates at the time.


Assuntos
Anatomia/história , Socialismo Nacional/história , Sociedades Médicas/história , Academias e Institutos , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Humanos , Judeus , Universidades/história , Violência , Crimes de Guerra/história , Crimes de Guerra/legislação & jurisprudência , II Guerra Mundial
13.
J Mod Eur Hist ; 10(4): 480-499, 2012 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25798079
14.
Soc Hist Med ; 22(3): 451-459, 2009 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26166947
15.
Soc Hist Med ; 22(3): 489-511, 2009 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26166948

RESUMO

This paper reappraises the position of medical refugees in Britain between the 1930s and 1950s. Advocates of reforming British medicine in terms of its knowledge base and social provision emerged as strongly supportive of the medical refugees. By way of contrast, an élite in the British Medical Association attempted to exercise a controlling regime through the Home Office Advisory Committee. The effects of these divisions are gauged by reconstructing the complete spectrum of refugees as a total population. Applying this methodology of population reconstruction provides a corrective to the notion of a cohesive 'medical establishment' exercising rigid and discriminatory controls.

16.
Acta Hist Leopoldina ; (48): 79-87, 2007.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18447189

RESUMO

While the significance of the new concept of genocide, as introduced by the Polish émigré jurist Raphael Lemkin, has been recognised, its importance for the Nuremberg Medical Trial has been overlooked. Lemkin commented extensively on the Trial, and his views are presented here. These comments help illuminate a neglected facet of the Trial, that of eugenics and racial extermination, taken at the time as amounting to genocide. Far from neglecting eugenics as some have suggested, the eugenic component of the Trial was extensive.


Assuntos
Eugenia (Ciência)/história , Socialismo Nacional/história , Crimes de Guerra/história , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Experimentação Humana/história , Humanos , Polônia
17.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 13(3): 555-70, 2006.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17115525

RESUMO

The League of Nations Health Organization collaborated with Latin American specialists in public health and infectious diseases from the early 1920s to the outbreak of the Second World War. The League developed studies of infant health and nutrition, and leprosy. The approach was expert-oriented, and designed to develop public health on a scientific basis. There were conferences, tours and reports in Latin America. This paper demonstrates that the Latin American collaboration with the Health Organization was extensive and multi-faceted.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Agências Internacionais , Cooperação Internacional , História do Século XX , Humanos , Lactente , Bem-Estar do Lactente/história , Recém-Nascido , Agências Internacionais/história , Agências Internacionais/organização & administração , Cooperação Internacional/história , Cooperação Internacional/legislação & jurisprudência , América Latina , Hanseníase/história , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Política Nutricional/história
18.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 13(3): 555-570, jul.-set. 2006. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | HISA - História da Saúde | ID: his-9891

RESUMO

A Organizaçäo de Saúde da Liga das Nações colaborou com especialistas latino-americanos em saúde pública e doenças infecciosas desde o início da década de 1920 e até a eclosäo da Segunda Guerra Mundial. Desenvolveu estudos sobre saúde e nutriçäo infantil e sobre a lepra. A abordagem foi orientada por especialistas, tendo em mira o desenvolvimento da saúde pública em bases científicas. Houve conferências, visitas e relatórios sobre a América Latina. O artigo demonstra que a colaboraçäo da América Latina com aquela organizaçäo internacional de saúde foi ampla e multifacetada.(AU)The League of Nations Health Organization collaborated with Latin American specialists in public health and infectious diseases from the early 1920s to the outbreak of the Second World War. The League developed studies of infant health and nutrition, and leprosy. The approach was expert-oriented, and designed to develop public health on a scientific basis. There were conferences, tours and reports in Latin America. This paper demonstrates that the Latin American collaboration with the Health Organization was extensive and multi-faceted.(AU)


Assuntos
Saúde Pública/história , Saúde Global , América Latina , Nutrição do Lactente , Hanseníase
19.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 13(3): 555-570, jul.-set. 2006. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-437492

RESUMO

A Organização de Saúde da Liga das Nações colaborou com especialistas latino-americanos em saúde pública e doenças infecciosas desde o início da década de 1920 e até a eclosão da Segunda Guerra Mundial. Desenvolveu estudos sobre saúde e nutrição infantil e sobre a lepra. A abordagem foi orientada por especialistas, tendo em mira o desenvolvimento da saúde pública em bases científicas. Houve conferências, visitas e relatórios sobre a América Latina. O artigo demonstra que a colaboração da América Latina com aquela organização internacional de saúde foi ampla e multifacetada.


The League of Nations Health Organization collaborated with Latin American specialists in public health and infectious diseases from the early 1920s to the outbreak of the Second World War. The League developed studies of infant health and nutrition, and leprosy. The approach was expert-oriented, and designed to develop public health on a scientific basis. There were conferences, tours and reports in Latin America. This paper demonstrates that the Latin American collaboration with the Health Organization was extensive and multi-faceted.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Saúde Pública/história , América Latina , Hanseníase , Nutrição do Lactente
20.
Sci Context ; 19(3): 401-18, 2006 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17214437

RESUMO

The liberation of the concentration camp at Bergen-Belsen has remained controversial with opinion divided over whether the British military and subsequently the British zonal administration responded adequately to the plight of survivors. This paper reconsiders the evidence on health conditions at Bergen-Belsen. At first the British underestimated the incidence of typhus and the delay in taking effective measures caused the death rate to remain high. In the longer-term, measures for psychotic, old, and infirm DPs were inadequate as criteria that favored the fit and able-bodied were applied when selecting migrants.


Assuntos
Campos de Concentração/história , Emigração e Imigração/história , Prisioneiros/história , Tifo Epidêmico Transmitido por Piolhos/história , Hidratação/história , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Hospitais/ética , Hospitais/história , Humanos , Judeus/história , Transtornos Psicóticos/história , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Política Pública , Tifo Epidêmico Transmitido por Piolhos/mortalidade , Tifo Epidêmico Transmitido por Piolhos/terapia , Reino Unido
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA