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1.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensively treating hypertension may benefit cardiovascular disease and cognitive function, but at the short-term expense of reduced kidney function. METHODS: We investigated markers of kidney function and the effect of intensive hypertension treatment on incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in 9361 participants in the randomized Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial, which compared intensive versus standard systolic BP lowering (targeting <120 mm Hg versus <140 mm Hg, respectively). We categorized participants according to baseline and longitudinal changes in eGFR and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Primary outcomes were occurrence of adjudicated probable dementia and MCI. RESULTS: Among 8563 participants who completed at least one cognitive assessment during follow-up (median 5.1 years), probable dementia occurred in 325 (3.8%) and MCI in 640 (7.6%) participants. In multivariable adjusted analyses, there was no significant association between baseline eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and risk for dementia or MCI. In time-varying analyses, eGFR decline ≥30% was associated with a higher risk for probable dementia. Incident eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 was associated with a higher risk for MCI and a composite of dementia or MCI. Although these kidney events occurred more frequently in the intensive treatment group, there was no evidence that they modified or attenuated the effect of intensive treatment on dementia and MCI incidence. Baseline and incident urinary ACR ≥30 mg/g were not associated with probable dementia or MCI, nor did the urinary ACR modify the effect of intensive treatment on cognitive outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Among hypertensive adults, declining kidney function measured by eGFR is associated with increased risk for probable dementia and MCI, independent of the intensity of hypertension treatment.

2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(6): 1170-1177, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin K-dependent proteins in vascular tissue affect vascular stiffness and calcification, which is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of circulating vitamin K concentrations with CVD and all-cause mortality by conducting a participant-level meta-analysis. METHODS: We obtained individual participant-level data from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study, the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, and the Framingham Offspring Study, known cohorts with available measures of fasting circulating phylloquinone (vitamin K-1) and confirmed CVD events and mortality. Circulating phylloquinone was measured in a central laboratory from fasting blood samples and categorized as ≤0.5 nmol/L, >0.5-1.0 nmol/L, and >1.0 nmol/L. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression with multiple imputations was used to evaluate the association of circulating phylloquinone with incident CVD and all-cause mortality risk. RESULTS: Among 3891 participants (mean age 65 ± 11 y; 55% women; 35% nonwhite), there were 858 incident CVD events and 1209 deaths over a median of 13.0 y. The risk of CVD did not significantly differ according to circulating phylloquinone [fully adjusted HR (95% CI) relative to >1.0 nmol/L: ≤0.5 nmol/L, 1.12 (0.94, 1.33); >0.5-1.0 nmol/L, 1.02 (0.86, 1.20)]. Participants with ≤0.5 nmol/L circulating phylloquinone had an adjusted 19% higher risk of all-cause mortality compared with those with >1.0 nmol/L [fully adjusted HR (95% CI): 1.19 (1.03, 1.38)]. Mortality risk was similar in participants with >0.5-1.0 nmol/L compared with >1.0 nmol/L [fully adjusted HR (95% CI): 1.04 (0.92, 1.17)]. CONCLUSIONS: Low circulating phylloquinone concentrations were associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality, but not of CVD. Additional studies are needed to clarify the mechanism underlying this association and evaluate the impact of increased phylloquinone intake on cardiovascular and other health outcomes in individuals with low vitamin K status.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Vitamina K 1/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
4.
Kidney Int ; 97(6): 1117-1129, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409237

RESUMO

The worldwide burden of kidney disease is rising, but public awareness remains limited, underscoring the need for more effective communication by stakeholders in the kidney health community. Despite this need for clarity, the nomenclature for describing kidney function and disease lacks uniformity. In June 2019, Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) convened a Consensus Conference with the goal of standardizing and refining the nomenclature used in the English language to describe kidney function and disease, and of developing a glossary that could be used in scientific publications. Guiding principles of the conference were that the revised nomenclature should be patient-centered, precise, and consistent with nomenclature used in the KDIGO guidelines. Conference attendees reached general consensus on the following recommendations: (i) to use "kidney" rather than "renal" or "nephro-" when referring to kidney disease and kidney function; (ii) to use "kidney failure" with appropriate descriptions of presence or absence of symptoms, signs, and treatment, rather than "end-stage kidney disease"; (iii) to use the KDIGO definition and classification of acute kidney diseases and disorders (AKD) and acute kidney injury (AKI), rather than alternative descriptions, to define and classify severity of AKD and AKI; (iv) to use the KDIGO definition and classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) rather than alternative descriptions to define and classify severity of CKD; and (v) to use specific kidney measures, such as albuminuria or decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), rather than "abnormal" or "reduced" kidney function to describe alterations in kidney structure and function. A proposed 5-part glossary contains specific items for which there was general agreement. Conference attendees acknowledged limitations of the recommendations and glossary, but they considered standardization of scientific nomenclature to be essential for improving communication.

5.
Semin Dial ; 33(3): 198-208, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282987

RESUMO

Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) impacts approximately 20% of dialysis patients and is associated with high mortality rates. Key issues discussed in this review of HFrEF management in dialysis include dialysis modality choice, vascular access, dialysate composition, pharmacological therapies, and strategies to reduce sudden cardiac death, including the use of cardiac devices. Peritoneal dialysis and more frequent or longer duration of hemodialysis may be better tolerated due to slower ultrafiltration rates, leading to less intradialytic hypotension and better volume control; dialysate cooling and higher dialysate calcium may also have benefits. While high-quality evidence exists for many drug classes in the non-dialysis population, dialysis patients were excluded from major trials, and only limited data exist for many medications in kidney failure patients. Despite limited evidence, beta blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker use is common in dialysis. Similarly, devices such as implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) and cardiac resynchronization therapy that have proven benefits in non-dialysis HFrEF patients have not consistently been beneficial in the limited dialysis studies. The use of leadless pacemakers and subcutaneous ICDs can mitigate future hemodialysis access limitations. Additional research is critical to address knowledge gaps in treating maintenance dialysis patients with HFrEF.

6.
Kidney Int ; 97(5): 861-876, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278617

RESUMO

Blood pressure (BP) and volume control are critical components of dialysis care and have substantial impacts on patient symptoms, quality of life, and cardiovascular complications. Yet, developing consensus best practices for BP and volume control have been challenging, given the absence of objective measures of extracellular volume status and the lack of high-quality evidence for many therapeutic interventions. In February of 2019, Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) held a Controversies Conference titled Blood Pressure and Volume Management in Dialysis to assess the current state of knowledge related to BP and volume management and identify opportunities to improve clinical and patient-reported outcomes among individuals receiving maintenance dialysis. Four major topics were addressed: BP measurement, BP targets, and pharmacologic management of suboptimal BP; dialysis prescriptions as they relate to BP and volume; extracellular volume assessment and management with a focus on technology-based solutions; and volume-related patient symptoms and experiences. The overarching theme resulting from presentations and discussions was that managing BP and volume in dialysis involves weighing multiple clinical factors and risk considerations as well as patient lifestyle and preferences, all within a narrow therapeutic window for avoiding acute or chronic volume-related complications. Striking this challenging balance requires individualizing the dialysis prescription by incorporating comorbid health conditions, treatment hemodynamic patterns, clinical judgment, and patient preferences into decision-making, all within local resource constraints.

7.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 76(1): 13-21, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173107

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVES: Dialysis patients frequently experience medication-related problems. We studied the association of a multidisciplinary medication therapy management (MTM) with 30-day readmission rates. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Maintenance dialysis patients discharged home from acute-care hospitals between May 2016 and April 2017 who returned to End-Stage Renal Disease Seamless Care Organization dialysis clinics after discharge were eligible. Patients who were readmitted within 3 days, died, or entered hospice within 30 days were excluded. EXPOSURE: MTM consisting of nurse medication reconciliation, pharmacist medication review, and nephrologist oversight was categorized into 3 levels of intensity: no MTM, partial MTM (defined as an incomplete MTM process), or full MTM (defined as a complete MTM process). OUTCOME: The primary outcome was 30-day readmission. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Time-varying Prentice, Williams, and Peterson total time hazards models explored associations between MTM and time to readmission after adjusting for age, race, sex, diabetes comorbidity, albumin level, vascular access type, kidney failure cause, dialysis vintage and modality, marital status, home medications, frequent prior hospitalizations, length of stay, discharge diagnoses, hierarchical condition category, and facility standardized hospitalization rates. Propensity score matching was performed to examine the robustness of the associations in a comparison between the full- and no-MTM exposure groups on time to readmission. RESULTS: Among 1,452 discharges, 586 received no MTM, 704 received partial MTM, and 162 received full MTM; 30-day readmission rates were 29%, 19%, and 11%, respectively (P < 0.001). Compared with no MTM, discharges with full MTM had the lowest time-varying risk for readmission within 30 days (HR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.15-0.45); discharges with partial MTM also had lower readmission risk (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.37-0.68). In propensity score-matched sensitivity analysis, full MTM was associated with lower 30-day readmission risk (HR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.06-0.69). LIMITATIONS: Reliance on observational data. Residual bias and confounding. CONCLUSIONS: MTM services following hospital discharge were associated with fewer 30-day readmissions in dialysis patients. Randomized controlled studies evaluating different MTM delivery models and cost-effectiveness in dialysis populations are warranted.

8.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(4): 855-864, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive testing shows that cognitive impairment is common among patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis. Identification of a well performing screening test for cognitive impairment might allow for broader assessment in dialysis facilities and thus optimal delivery of education and medical management. METHODS: From 2015 to 2018, in a cohort of 150 patients on hemodialysis, we performed a set of comprehensive neurocognitive tests that included the cognitive domains of memory, attention, and executive function to classify whether participants had normal cognitive function versus mild, moderate, or severe cognitive impairment. Using area-under-the-curve (AUC) analysis, we then examined the predictive ability of the Mini Mental State Examination, the Modified Mini Mental State Examination, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, the Trail Making Test Part B, the Mini-Cog test, and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test, determining each test's performance for identifying severe cognitive impairment. RESULTS: Mean age was 64 years; 61% were men, 39% were black, and 94% had at least a high-school education. Of the 150 participants, 21% had normal cognitive function, 17% had mild cognitive impairment, 33% had moderate impairment, and 29% had severe impairment. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment had the highest overall predictive ability for severe cognitive impairment (AUC, 0.81); a score of ≤21 had a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 55% for severe impairment, with a negative predictive value of 91%. The Trails B and Digit Symbol tests also performed reasonably well (AUCs, 0.73 and 0.78, respectively). The other tests had lower predictive performances. CONCLUSIONS: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, a widely available and brief cognitive screening tool, showed high sensitivity and moderate specificity in detecting severe cognitive impairment in patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

9.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(3): 602-614, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leveraging quality metrics can be a powerful approach to identify substantial performance gaps in kidney disease care that affect patient outcomes. However, metrics must be meaningful, evidence-based, attributable, and feasible to improve care delivery. As members of the American Society of Nephrology Quality Committee, we evaluated existing kidney quality metrics and provide a framework for quality measurement to guide clinicians and policy makers. METHODS: We compiled a comprehensive list of national kidney quality metrics from multiple established kidney and quality organizations. To assess the measures' validity, we conducted two rounds of structured metric evaluation, on the basis of the American College of Physicians criteria: importance, appropriate care, clinical evidence base, clarity of measure specifications, and feasibility and applicability. RESULTS: We included 60 quality metrics, including seven for CKD prevention, two for slowing CKD progression, two for CKD management, one for advanced CKD and kidney replacement planning, 28 for dialysis management, 18 for broad measures, and two patient-reported outcome measures. We determined that on the basis of defined criteria, 29 (49%) of the metrics have high validity, 23 (38%) have medium validity, and eight (13%) have low validity. CONCLUSIONS: We rated less than half of kidney disease quality metrics as highly valid; the others fell short because of unclear attribution, inadequate definitions and risk adjustment, or discordance with recent evidence. Nearly half of the metrics were related to dialysis management, compared with only one metric related to kidney replacement planning and two related to patient-reported outcomes. We advocate refining existing measures and developing new metrics that better reflect the spectrum of kidney care delivery.

10.
Semin Dial ; 33(1): 10-17, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913543

RESUMO

Assessing quality is essential for optimizing clinical care but remains challenging. Too many measures can result in dilution of quality improvement efforts, distracting providers from delivering the most meaningful care, whereas too few measures can devalue important domains of care. Similarly, performance standards that are too high can result in unintended consequences, including diminishment of patient input into their individualized care and cherry picking. Valid quality metrics assess measureable aspects of care that are both clinically meaningful and modifiable, and, in the absence of quality metrics and performance standards, optimal care is at risk. Quality measures are an indelible part of the health care system, composing a pillar of value-based purchasing, and balancing these aspects of quality assessment is essential for patient care. This review summarizes the quality systems in nephrology, focuses on current dialysis quality metrics and the strengths and limitations of current measures, and emphasizes the value of a parsimonious set of meaningful metrics with performance standards that both incentivize optimal practices while allowing sufficient latitude to individualize care for kidney patients.

14.
JAMA ; 322(6): 524-534, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408137

RESUMO

Importance: The effect of intensive blood pressure lowering on brain health remains uncertain. Objective: To evaluate the association of intensive blood pressure treatment with cerebral white matter lesion and brain volumes. Design, Setting, and Participants: A substudy of a multicenter randomized clinical trial of hypertensive adults 50 years or older without a history of diabetes or stroke at 27 sites in the United States. Randomization began on November 8, 2010. The overall trial was stopped early because of benefit for its primary outcome (a composite of cardiovascular events) and all-cause mortality on August 20, 2015. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on a subset of participants at baseline (n = 670) and at 4 years of follow-up (n = 449); final follow-up date was July 1, 2016. Interventions: Participants were randomized to a systolic blood pressure (SBP) goal of either less than 120 mm Hg (intensive treatment, n = 355) or less than 140 mm Hg (standard treatment, n = 315). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was change in total white matter lesion volume from baseline. Change in total brain volume was a secondary outcome. Results: Among 670 recruited patients who had baseline MRI (mean age, 67.3 [SD, 8.2] years; 40.4% women), 449 (67.0%) completed the follow-up MRI at a median of 3.97 years after randomization, after a median intervention period of 3.40 years. In the intensive treatment group, based on a robust linear mixed model, mean white matter lesion volume increased from 4.57 to 5.49 cm3 (difference, 0.92 cm3 [95% CI, 0.69 to 1.14]) vs an increase from 4.40 to 5.85 cm3 (difference, 1.45 cm3 [95% CI, 1.21 to 1.70]) in the standard treatment group (between-group difference in change, -0.54 cm3 [95% CI, -0.87 to -0.20]). Mean total brain volume decreased from 1134.5 to 1104.0 cm3 (difference, -30.6 cm3 [95% CI, -32.3 to -28.8]) in the intensive treatment group vs a decrease from 1134.0 to 1107.1 cm3 (difference, -26.9 cm3 [95% CI, 24.8 to 28.8]) in the standard treatment group (between-group difference in change, -3.7 cm3 [95% CI, -6.3 to -1.1]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among hypertensive adults, targeting an SBP of less than 120 mm Hg, compared with less than 140 mm Hg, was significantly associated with a smaller increase in cerebral white matter lesion volume and a greater decrease in total brain volume, although the differences were small. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01206062.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Substância Branca/patologia , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Fatores de Risco
15.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 74(6): 782-790, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378643

RESUMO

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at substantially higher risk for developing cognitive impairment compared with the general population, and both lower glomerular filtration rate and the presence of albuminuria are associated with the development of cognitive impairment and poorer cognitive function. Given the excess of vascular disease seen in individuals with CKD, cerebrovascular disease is likely the predominant pathology underlying these associations, though impaired clearance of uremic metabolites, depression, sleep disturbance, anemia, and polypharmacy may also contribute. Modification of vascular disease risk factors may be helpful in limiting decline, though definite data are lacking. Specific to CKD, targeting a low blood pressure and reduction in albuminuria with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers may slow cognitive decline, albeit modestly. Initiation of dialysis can improve severe impairment associated with uremia but does not appear to affect more subtle chronic cognitive impairment. In contrast, kidney transplantation appears to lead to improved cognitive function in many transplant recipients, suggesting that dialysis methods do not provide the same cognitive benefits as having a functioning kidney. Management of patients with both CKD and cognitive impairment should include a comprehensive plan including more frequent follow-up visits; involvement of family in shared decision making; measures to improve compliance, such as written instruction and pill counts; and a focus on advance directives in conjunction with an emphasis on understanding an individual patient's life goals. Further research is needed on novel therapies, including innovative dialysis methods, that aim to limit the development of cognitive impairment, slow decline in those with prevalent impairment, and improve cognitive function.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Terapia Combinada , Gerenciamento Clínico , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Prognóstico , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Diálise Renal/métodos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais
16.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 74(5): 620-628, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301926

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Identifying patients who are likely to transfer from peritoneal dialysis (PD) to hemodialysis (HD) before transition could improve their subsequent care. This study developed a prediction tool for transition from PD to HD. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Adults initiating PD between January 2008 and December 2011, followed up through June 2015, for whom data were available in the US Renal Data System (USRDS). PREDICTORS: Clinical characteristics at PD initiation and peritonitis claims. OUTCOMES: Transfer to HD, with the competing outcomes of death and kidney transplantation. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Outcomes were ascertained from USRDS treatment history files. Subdistribution hazards (competing-risk) models were fit using clinical characteristics at PD initiation. A nomogram was developed to classify patient risk at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years. These data were used to generate quartiles of HD transfer risk; this quartile score was incorporated into a cause-specific hazards model that additionally included a time-dependent variable for peritonitis. RESULTS: 29,573 incident PD patients were followed up for a median of 21.6 (interquartile range, 9.0-42.3) months, during which 41.2% transferred to HD, 25.9% died, 17.1% underwent kidney transplantation, and the rest were followed up to the study end in June 2015. Claims for peritonitis were present in 11,733 (40.2%) patients. The proportion of patients still receiving PD decreased to <50% at 22.6 months and 14.2% at 5 years. Peritonitis was associated with a higher rate of HD transfer (HR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.76-1.89; P < 0.001), as were higher quartile scores of HD transfer risk (HRs of 1.31 [95% CI, 1.25-1.37), 1.51 [95% CI, 1.45-1.58], and 1.78 [95% CI, 1.71-1.86] for quartiles 2, 3, and 4 compared to quartile 1 [P < 0.001 for all]). LIMITATIONS: Observational data, reliant on the Medical Evidence Report and Medicare claims. CONCLUSIONS: A large majority of the patients who initiated renal replacement therapy with PD discontinued this modality within 5 years. Transfer to HD was the most common outcome. Patient characteristics and comorbid diseases influenced the probability of HD transfer, death, and transplantation, as did episodes of peritonitis.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Diálise Peritoneal/métodos , Terapia de Substituição Renal/métodos , Cuidado Transicional/organização & administração , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Am J Hypertens ; 32(9): 816-823, 2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In chronic kidney disease, intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) control reduces mortality at a cost of greater acute kidney injury risk. Kidney transplantation involves implantation of denervated kidneys and immunosuppressive medications that increase acute kidney injury risk. The optimal blood pressure (BP) target in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) is uncertain. Prior observational studies from the Folic Acid for Vascular Outcome Reduction in Transplantation (FAVORIT) trial demonstrate associations of lower SBP levels and reduced mortality risk, but the relationship of BP with kidney allograft function remains unknown. Thus, in FAVORIT, we investigated the relationship of SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with risk of kidney allograft failure and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) slope among stable KTRs. METHODS: Cox proportional hazards and multivariable linear regression models adjusted for demographics, transplant characteristics, comorbidities, baseline eGFR, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio were used to determine associations of SBP and DBP with time to a composite kidney outcome of ≥50% eGFR decline or dialysis dependence, and with annualized eGFR change, respectively. Multivariable restricted cubic spline plots were developed to evaluate the functional form of the relationships. RESULTS: Among 3,598 KTRs, mean age was 52 ± 9 years, SBP was 136 ± 20 mm Hg, DBP was 79 ± 12 mm Hg, and eGFR was 49 ± 18 ml/minute/1.73 m2. There were 369 events of ≥50% eGFR decline or dialysis dependence during a mean follow-up of 4.0 ± 1.5 years. There was no association of either SBP (compared with SBP 120 to <130 mm Hg, hazard ratio (HR) for the SBP < 110 was 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60 to 1.70) and 130 to <140 was 0.89 (0.64 to 1.24)) or DBP (compared with DBP 70 to <80 mm Hg, HR for the DBP 60 to <70 was 1.00 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.34) and 80 to <90 was 0.90 (0.68 to 1.18)) with the kidney failure outcome or annualized eGFR slope, and, when examined using restricted cubic splines, there was no evidence of "J"- or "U"-shaped relationships. CONCLUSIONS: In a large sample of stable KTRs, we found no evidence of thresholds at which lower BPs were related to higher risk of allograft failure or eGFR decline. In light of prior findings of mortality benefit at low SBP, these observational findings suggest lower BP may be beneficial in KTRs. This important question requires confirmation in future randomized trials in KTRs.

18.
Am J Nephrol ; 49(6): 460-469, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is associated with cognitive decline in the general population. It is unclear what impact blood pressure (BP) has on cognitive decline in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis (HD). METHODS: Using a longitudinal cohort of 314 prevalent HD patients without dementia at baseline, we examined the association of predialysis systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), pulse pressure, and intradialytic SBP change (pre minus post), averaged for a month, with cognitive decline. Cognitive function was determined by a neurocognitive battery, administered yearly. Individual cognitive test results were reduced into 2 domain scores using principal components analysis (by definition mean of 0 and SD of 1), representing memory and executive function. Joint models, allowing for characterization of cognitive score slopes and including adjustment for potential confounders, were utilized to account for competing risks from death, dropout, or kidney transplantation. RESULTS: Mean age was 62 years; 54% were men, 23% were black, and 90% had at least a high school education. During median follow-up of 2.1 years (25th-75th: 1.0-4.5), 191 had at least one follow-up test, 148 died, and 43 received kidney transplants. Low predialysis DBP and high pulse pressure were both associated with steeper executive function decline (each 10 mm Hg lower DBP = -0.03 SD [-0.01 to -0.05] per year steeper decline) in executive function (each 10 mm Hg higher pulse pressure = -0.03 SD [-0.06 to -0.01] steeper decline) but not for memory function. SBP and intradialytic change were not associated with steeper decline for either memory or executive function. CONCLUSIONS: No relationship was seen between SBP or intradialytic change in BP with cognitive decline. In prevalent HD patients, lower predialysis DBP and wider predialysis pulse pressure are associated with steeper cognitive decline in executive function but not memory.

19.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 73(4): 437-458, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905361

RESUMO

Hypertension is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and reduction of elevated blood pressure (BP) remains an important intervention for slowing kidney disease progression. Over the past decade, the most appropriate BP target for initiation and titration of BP-lowering medications has been an area of intense research and debate within the clinical community. In 2017, the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) in conjunction with several other professional societies released new hypertension guidelines based on data from a systematic review of clinical trials and observational data. While many of the recommendations in the ACC/AHA hypertension guideline are relevant to nephrology practice, BP targets and management strategies for patients receiving dialysis are not discussed. This Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) commentary focuses largely on recommendations from the ACC/AHA hypertension guidelines that are pertinent to individuals at risk of chronic kidney disease or with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease. This KDOQI commentary also includes a brief discussion of the consensus statement regarding hypertension diagnosis and management for adults receiving maintenance dialysis published by the European Renal and Cardiovascular Medicine Working Group of the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) and the Hypertension and the Kidney working group of the European Society of Hypertension. Overall, we support the vast majority of the ACC/AHA recommendations and highlight select areas in which best diagnosis and treatment options remain controversial.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Cardiologia , Consenso , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Inquéritos Nutricionais/métodos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , American Heart Association , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Estados Unidos
20.
Hemodial Int ; 23(1): 93-100, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30762294

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hemodialysis (HD) patients are hospitalized nearly twice yearly, and 35% of these patients are rehospitalized within 30-days postdischarge. We hypothesized that monitored oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) during HD treatment may decrease readmissions. METHODS: A cohort of maintenance HD patients, treated at a large dialysis organization, who were hospitalized with a postdischarge albumin of ≤3.5 g/dL, without documented ONS use 90 days prior to the index hospitalization were identified. Individuals who received monitored intradialytic ONS postdischarge were compared to those without receipt of ONS. The outcome of interest was 30-day hospital readmissions. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between ONS receipt and 30-day readmission events, with adjustment for case-mix and laboratory variables. FINDINGS: Of 5479 eligible patients, ONS was prescribed to 1420 individuals. Mean age was 64.6 ± 14.1 (SD) years; median dialysis vintage was 3.9 years. There were 274 (19%) readmissions among ONS recipients vs. 1571 (38.7%) among controls during the 30-day follow-up period. Individuals who did not receive ONS had increased odds of readmission [OR 2.26 (95% CI 1.02, 2.53)] in 30 days, as compared to those who did receive ONS postdischarge. In sensitivity analyses using a propensity score matched cohort, the odds ratio of readmissions within 30 days postdischarge was 1.71 (95% CI: 1.42, 2.07) for individuals who did not receive ONS as compared to those who received ONS. DISCUSSION: Consumption of ONS during HD sessions is associated with reduced hospital readmission rates among in-center maintenance HD with severe hypoalbuminemia at 30 days post-hospital discharge.

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