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1.
Nature ; 607(7920): 687-691, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35896650

RESUMO

Device-independent quantum key distribution (DIQKD) enables the generation of secret keys over an untrusted channel using uncharacterized and potentially untrusted devices1-9. The proper and secure functioning of the devices can be certified by a statistical test using a Bell inequality10-12. This test originates from the foundations of quantum physics and also ensures robustness against implementation loopholes13, thereby leaving only the integrity of the users' locations to be guaranteed by other means. The realization of DIQKD, however, is extremely challenging-mainly because it is difficult to establish high-quality entangled states between two remote locations with high detection efficiency. Here we present an experimental system that enables for DIQKD between two distant users. The experiment is based on the generation and analysis of event-ready entanglement between two independently trapped single rubidium atoms located in buildings 400 metre apart14. By achieving an entanglement fidelity of [Formula: see text] and implementing a DIQKD protocol with random key basis15, we observe a significant violation of a Bell inequality of S = 2.578(75)-above the classical limit of 2-and a quantum bit error rate of only 0.078(9). For the protocol, this results in a secret key rate of 0.07 bits per entanglement generation event in the asymptotic limit, and thus demonstrates the system's capability to generate secret keys. Our results of secure key exchange with potentially untrusted devices pave the way to the ultimate form of quantum secure communications in future quantum networks.


Assuntos
Teoria Quântica
2.
Nature ; 607(7917): 69-73, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794269

RESUMO

Quantum networks promise to provide the infrastructure for many disruptive applications, such as efficient long-distance quantum communication and distributed quantum computing1,2. Central to these networks is the ability to distribute entanglement between distant nodes using photonic channels. Initially developed for quantum teleportation3,4 and loophole-free tests of Bell's inequality5,6, recently, entanglement distribution has also been achieved over telecom fibres and analysed retrospectively7,8. Yet, to fully use entanglement over long-distance quantum network links it is mandatory to know it is available at the nodes before the entangled state decays. Here we demonstrate heralded entanglement between two independently trapped single rubidium atoms generated over fibre links with a length up to 33 km. For this, we generate atom-photon entanglement in two nodes located in buildings 400 m line-of-sight apart and to overcome high-attenuation losses in the fibres convert the photons to telecom wavelength using polarization-preserving quantum frequency conversion9. The long fibres guide the photons to a Bell-state measurement setup in which a successful photonic projection measurement heralds the entanglement of the atoms10. Our results show the feasibility of entanglement distribution over telecom fibre links useful, for example, for device-independent quantum key distribution11-13 and quantum repeater protocols. The presented work represents an important step towards the realization of large-scale quantum network links.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(1): 010510, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31976687

RESUMO

Entanglement between stationary quantum memories and photonic channels is the essential resource for future quantum networks. Together with entanglement distillation, it will enable efficient distribution of quantum states. We report on the generation and observation of entanglement between a ^{87}Rb atom and a photon at telecom wavelength transmitted through up to 20 km of optical fiber. For this purpose, we use polarization-preserving quantum frequency conversion to transform the wavelength of a photon entangled with the atomic spin state from 780 nm to the telecom S band at 1522 nm. We achieve an unprecedented external device conversion efficiency of 57% and observe an entanglement fidelity between the atom and telecom photon of ≥78.5±0.9% after transmission through 20 km of optical fiber, mainly limited by decoherence of the atomic state. This result is an important milestone on the road to distribute quantum information on a large scale.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(8): 2881-2890, 2019 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723153

RESUMO

The modification of the effect of interactions of a particle as a function of its preselected and postselected states is analyzed theoretically and experimentally. The universality property of this modification in the case of local interactions of a spatially preselected and postselected particle has been found. It allowed us to define an operational approach for the characterization of the presence of a quantum particle in a particular place: the way it modifies the effect of local interactions. The experiment demonstrating this universality property provides an efficient interferometric alignment method, in which the position of the beam on a single detector throughout one phase scan yields all misalignment parameters.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 119(1): 010402, 2017 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28731745

RESUMO

An experimental test of Bell's inequality allows ruling out any local-realistic description of nature by measuring correlations between distant systems. While such tests are conceptually simple, there are strict requirements concerning the detection efficiency of the involved measurements, as well as the enforcement of spacelike separation between the measurement events. Only very recently could both loopholes be closed simultaneously. Here we present a statistically significant, event-ready Bell test based on combining heralded entanglement of atoms separated by 398 m with fast and efficient measurements of the atomic spin states closing essential loopholes. We obtain a violation with S=2.221±0.033 (compared to the maximal value of 2 achievable with models based on local hidden variables) which allows us to refute the hypothesis of local realism with a significance level P<2.57×10^{-9}.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(12): 129902, 2017 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28388212

RESUMO

This corrects the article DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.210504.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 117(21): 210504, 2016 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27911541

RESUMO

Certifying entanglement of a multipartite state is generally considered a demanding task. Since an N qubit state is parametrized by 4^{N}-1 real numbers, one might naively expect that the measurement effort of generic entanglement detection also scales exponentially with N. Here, we introduce a general scheme to construct efficient witnesses requiring a constant number of measurements independent of the number of qubits for states like, e.g., Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, cluster states, and Dicke states. For four qubits, we apply this novel method to experimental realizations of the aforementioned states and prove genuine four-partite entanglement with two measurement settings only.

8.
Opt Express ; 23(25): 32171-8, 2015 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26699007

RESUMO

Wire-grid polarisers are versatile and scalable components which can be engineered to achieve small sizes and extremely high extinction ratios. Yet the measured performances are always significantly below the predicted values obtained from numerical simulations. Here we report on a detailed comparison between theoretical and experimental performances. We show that the discrepancy can be explained by the true shape of the plasmonic structures. Taking into account the fabrication details, a new optimisation model enables us to achieve excellent agreement with the observed response and to re-optimise the grating parameters to ensure experimental extinction ratios well above 1,000 at 850 nm.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 114(18): 180501, 2015 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26000990

RESUMO

Nonclassical correlations between measurement results make entanglement the essence of quantum physics and the main resource for quantum information applications. Surprisingly, there are n-particle states which do not exhibit n-partite correlations at all but still are genuinely n-partite entangled. We introduce a general construction principle for such states, implement them in a multiphoton experiment and analyze their properties in detail. Remarkably, even without multipartite correlations, these states do violate Bell inequalities showing that there is no classical, i.e., local realistic model describing their properties.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 114(8): 080403, 2015 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25768740

RESUMO

Common tools for obtaining physical density matrices in experimental quantum state tomography are shown here to cause systematic errors. For example, using maximum likelihood or least squares optimization to obtain physical estimates for the quantum state, we observe a systematic underestimation of the fidelity and an overestimation of entanglement. Such strongly biased estimates can be avoided using linear evaluation of the data or by linearizing measurement operators yielding reliable and computational simple error bounds.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 113(4): 040503, 2014 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25105604

RESUMO

Quantum state tomography suffers from the measurement effort increasing exponentially with the number of qubits. Here, we demonstrate permutationally invariant tomography for which, contrary to conventional tomography, all resources scale polynomially with the number of qubits both in terms of the measurement effort as well as the computational power needed to process and store the recorded data. We demonstrate the benefits of combining permutationally invariant tomography with compressed sensing by studying the influence of the pump power on the noise present in a six-qubit symmetric Dicke state, a case where full tomography is possible only for very high pump powers.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 108(24): 240501, 2012 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23004245

RESUMO

We introduce an experimental procedure for the detection of quantum entanglement of an unknown quantum state with a small number of measurements. The method requires neither a priori knowledge of the state nor a shared reference frame between the observers and can thus be regarded as a perfectly state-independent entanglement witness. The scheme starts with local measurements, possibly supplemented with suitable filtering, which essentially establishes the Schmidt decomposition for pure states. Alternatively we develop a decision tree that reveals entanglement within few steps. These methods are illustrated and verified experimentally for various entangled states of two and three qubits.

13.
Science ; 337(6090): 72-5, 2012 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22767924

RESUMO

Entanglement is the essential feature of quantum mechanics. Notably, observers of two or more entangled particles will find correlations in their measurement results that cannot be explained by classical statistics. To make it a useful resource, particularly for scalable long-distance quantum communication, the heralded generation of entanglement between distant massive quantum systems is necessary. We report on the creation and analysis of heralded entanglement between spins of two single rubidium-87 atoms trapped independently 20 meters apart. Our results illustrate the viability of an integral resource for quantum information science, as well as for fundamental tests of quantum mechanics.

14.
Opt Express ; 20(9): 9640-9, 2012 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22535055

RESUMO

We present a simple but highly efficient source of polarization-entangled photons based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) in bulk periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate crystals (PPKTP) pumped by a 405 nm laser diode. Utilizing one of the highest available nonlinear coefficients in a non-degenerate, collinear type-0 phase-matching configuration, we generate polarization entanglement via the crossed-crystal scheme and detect 0.64 million photon pair events/s/mW, while maintaining an overlap fidelity with the ideal Bell state of 0.98 at a pump power of 0.025 mW.


Assuntos
Lasers Semicondutores , Iluminação/instrumentação , Refratometria/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Fótons
15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 107(8): 080504, 2011 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21929154

RESUMO

We experimentally demonstrate a general criterion to identify entangled states useful for the estimation of an unknown phase shift with a sensitivity higher than the shot-noise limit. We show how to exploit this entanglement on the examples of a maximum likelihood as well as of a Bayesian phase estimation protocol. Using an entangled four-photon state we achieve a phase sensitivity clearly beyond the shot-noise limit. Our detailed comparison of methods and quantum states for entanglement enhanced metrology reveals the connection between multiparticle entanglement and sub-shot-noise uncertainty, both in a frequentist and in a Bayesian phase estimation setting.

16.
Opt Express ; 18(12): 13029-37, 2010 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20588431

RESUMO

We present a fully integrated, ready-for-use quantum random number generator (QRNG) whose stochastic model is based on the randomness of detecting single photons in attenuated light. We show that often annoying deadtime effects associated with photomultiplier tubes (PMT) can be utilized to avoid postprocessing for bias or correlations. The random numbers directly delivered to a PC, generated at a rate of up to 50 Mbit/s, clearly pass all tests relevant for (physical) random number generators.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 103(2): 020504, 2009 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19659191

RESUMO

We report on the experimental observation and characterization of a six-photon entangled Dicke state. We obtain a fidelity as high as 0.654+/-0.024 and prove genuine six-photon entanglement by, amongst others, a two-setting witness yielding -0.422+/-0.148. This state has remarkable properties; e.g., it allows obtaining inequivalent entangled states of a lower qubit number via projective measurements, and it possesses a high entanglement persistency against qubit loss. We characterize the properties of the six-photon Dicke state experimentally by detecting and analyzing the entanglement of a variety of multipartite entangled states.

18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 101(1): 010503, 2008 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18764097

RESUMO

A single linear-optical setup is used to observe an entire family of four-photon entangled states. This approach breaks with the inflexibility of present linear-optical setups usually designed for the observation of a particular multipartite entangled state only. The family includes several prominent entangled states that are known to be highly relevant for quantum information applications.

19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 100(20): 200407, 2008 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18518515

RESUMO

The variety of multipartite entangled states enables numerous applications in novel quantum information tasks. In order to compare the suitability of different states from a theoretical point of view, classifications have been introduced. Accordingly, here we derive criteria and demonstrate how to experimentally discriminate an observed state against the ones of certain other classes of multipartite entangled states. Our method, originating in Bell inequalities, adds an important tool for the characterization of multiparty entanglement.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 100(7): 070504, 2008 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18352533

RESUMO

We introduce a new quantum protocol for solving detectable Byzantine agreement (also called detectable broadcast) between three parties, and also for solving the detectable liar detection problem. The protocol is suggested by the properties of a four-qubit entangled state, and the classical part of the protocol is simpler than that of previous proposals. In addition, we present an experimental implementation of the protocol using four-photon entanglement.

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