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1.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248643, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with central nervous system (CNS) tumors undergo frequent imaging for diagnosis and follow-up, but few studies have characterized longitudinal imaging patterns. We described medical imaging in children before and after malignant CNS tumor diagnosis. PROCEDURE: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children aged 0-20 years diagnosed with CNS tumors between 1996-2016 at six U.S. integrated healthcare systems and Ontario, Canada. We collected computed topography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radiography, ultrasound, nuclear medicine examinations from 12 months before through 10 years after CNS diagnosis censoring six months before death or a subsequent cancer diagnosis, disenrollment from the health system, age 21 years, or December 31, 2016. We calculated imaging rates per child per month stratified by modality, country, diagnosis age, calendar year, time since diagnosis, and tumor grade. RESULTS: We observed 1,879 children with median four years follow-up post-diagnosis in the U.S. and seven years in Ontario, Canada. During the diagnosis period (±15 days of diagnosis), children averaged 1.10 CTs (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-1.13) and 2.14 MRIs (95%CI 2.12-2.16) in the U.S., and 1.67 CTs (95%CI 1.65-1.68) and 1.86 MRIs (95%CI 1.85-1.88) in Ontario. Within one year after diagnosis, 19% of children had ≥5 CTs and 45% had ≥5 MRIs. By nine years after diagnosis, children averaged one MRI and one radiograph per year with little use of other imaging modalities. CONCLUSIONS: MRI and CT are commonly used for CNS tumor diagnosis, whereas MRI is the primary modality used during surveillance of children with CNS tumors.

2.
J Pediatr ; 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684394

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess leukemia risks among children with Down syndrome in a large, contemporary cohort. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study including 3 905 399 children born 1996-2016 in 7 US healthcare systems or Ontario, Canada, and followed from birth to cancer diagnosis, death, age 15 years, disenrollment, or December 30, 2016. Down syndrome was identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth and Tenth Revisions, diagnosis codes. Cancer diagnoses were identified through linkages to tumor registries. Incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) of leukemia were estimated for children with Down syndrome and other children adjusting for health system, child's age at diagnosis, birth year, and sex. RESULTS: Leukemia was diagnosed in 124 of 4401 children with Down syndrome and 1941 of 3 900 998 other children. In children with Down syndrome, the cumulative incidence of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was 1405/100 000 (95% CI 1076-1806) at age 4 years and unchanged at age 14 years. The cumulative incidence of acute lymphoid leukemia in children with Down syndrome was 1059/100 000 (95% CI 755-1451) at age 4 and 1714/100 000 (95% CI 1264-2276) at age 14 years. Children with Down syndrome had a greater risk of AML before age 5 years than other children (HR 399, 95% CI 281-566). Largest HRs were for megakaryoblastic leukemia before age 5 years (HR 1500, 95% CI 555-4070). Children with Down syndrome had a greater risk of acute lymphoid leukemia than other children regardless of age (<5 years: HR 28, 95% CI 20-40, ≥5 years HR 21, 95% CI 12-38). CONCLUSIONS: Down syndrome remains a strong risk factor for childhood leukemia, and associations with AML are stronger than previously reported.

3.
Breast Cancer Res ; 23(1): 15, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is well established that tumors are antigenic and can induce an immune response by the host, entailing lymphocytic infiltration of the tumor and surrounding stroma. The extent and composition of the immune response to the tumor, assessed through evaluation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte counts, has been shown in many studies to have prognostic and predictive value for invasive breast cancer, but currently, there is little evidence regarding the association between infiltrating immune cell counts (IICCs) in women with benign breast disease (BBD) and risk of subsequent invasive breast cancer. METHODS: Using a cohort of 15,395 women biopsied for BBD at Kaiser Permanente Northwest, we conducted a nested case-control study in which cases were women who developed a subsequent invasive breast cancer during follow-up and controls were individually matched to cases on age at BBD diagnosis. We assessed IICCs in normal tissue and in the BBD lesions, and we used unconditional logistic regression to estimate the multivariable odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between IICCs and breast cancer risk. RESULTS: There was no association between the IICC in normal tissue (multivariable OR per 5% increase in IICC = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.96-1.16) or in the BBD lesion (OR per 5% increase in IICC = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.96-1.18) and risk of subsequent invasive breast cancer. Also, there were no associations within subgroups defined by menopausal status, BBD histology, BMI, and history of smoking. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that IICCs in BBD tissue are not associated with altered risk of subsequent invasive breast cancer.

4.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6(1): 62, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298921

RESUMO

Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining in breast cancer shows both gain and loss of COX2 expression with disease risk and progression. We investigated four common COX2 antibody clones and found high specificity for purified human COX2 for three clones; however, recognition of COX2 in cell lysates was clone dependent. Biochemical characterization revealed two distinct forms of COX2, with SP21 recognizing an S-nitrosylated form, and CX229 and CX294 recognizing non-nitrosylated COX2 antigen. We found S-nitrosylated and non-nitrosylated COX2 occupy different subcellular locations in normal and breast cancer tissue, implicating distinct synthetic/trafficking pathways and function. Dual stains of ~2000 breast cancer cases show early-onset breast cancer had increased expression of both forms of COX2 compared to postmenopausal cases. Our results highlight the strengths of using multiple, highly characterized antibody clones for COX2 IHC studies and raise the prospect that S-nitrosylation of COX2 may play a role in breast cancer biology.

5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(11): e2026930, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216141

RESUMO

Importance: In response to calls to reduce unnecessary diagnostic testing with computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) for suspected pulmonary embolism (PE), there have been growing efforts to create and implement decision rules for PE testing. It is unclear if the use of advanced imaging tests for PE has diminished over time. Objective: To assess the use of advanced imaging tests, including chest computed tomography (CT) (ie, all chest CT except for CTPA), CTPA, and ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scan, for PE from 2004 to 2016. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cohort study of adults by age group (18-64 years and ≥65 years) enrolled in 7 US integrated and mixed-model health care systems. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to identify years with statistically significant changes in imaging rates and to calculate average annual percentage change (growth) from 2004 to 2007, 2008 to 2011, and 2012 to 2016. Analyses were conducted between June 11, 2019, and March 18, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Rates of chest CT, CTPA, and V/Q scan by year and age, as well as annual change in rates over time. Results: Overall, 3.6 to 4.8 million enrollees were included each year of the study, for a total of 52 343 517 person-years of follow-up data. Adults aged 18 to 64 years accounted for 42 223 712 person-years (80.7%) and those 65 years or older accounted for 10 119 805 person-years (19.3%). Female enrollees accounted for 27 712 571 person-years (52.9%). From 2004 and 2016, chest CT use increased by 66.3% (average annual growth, 4.4% per year), CTPA use increased by 450.0% (average annual growth, 16.3% per year), and V/Q scan use decreased by 47.1% (decreasing by 4.9% per year). The use of CTPA increased most rapidly from 2004 to 2006 (44.6% in those aged 18-64 years and 43.9% in those ≥65 years), with ongoing rapid growth from 2006 to 2010 (annual growth, 19.8% in those aged 18-64 years and 18.3% in those ≥65 years) and persistent but slower growth in the most recent years (annual growth, 4.3% in those aged 18-64 years and 3.0% in those ≥65 years from 2010 to 2016). The use of V/Q scanning decreased steadily since 2004. Conclusions and Relevance: From 2004 to 2016, rates of chest CT and CTPA for suspected PE continued to increase among adults but at a slower pace in more contemporary years. Efforts to combat overuse have not been completely successful as reflected by ongoing growth, rather than decline, of chest CT use. Whether the observed imaging use was appropriate or was associated with improved patient outcomes is unknown.

6.
Cancer ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has heterogeneous recurrence and progression outcomes. Available risk calculators estimate recurrence and progression but do not predict the recurrence stage or grade, which may influence downstream treatment. The objective of this study was to predict risk-stratified NMIBC recurrence and progression based on recurrence tumor classification and grade. METHODS: In total, 2956 patients with NMIBC (

7.
World J Surg ; 44(10): 3501-3509, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks second in cancer deaths worldwide and presents multiple management challenges, one of which is identifying high risk stage II disease that may benefit from adjuvant therapy. Molecular biomarkers, such as ones that identify stem cell activity, could better stratify high-risk cohorts for additional treatment. METHODS: To identify possible biomarkers of high-risk disease in early-stage CRC, a discovery set (n = 66) of advanced-stage tumors were immunostained with antibodies to stemness proteins (CD166, CD44, CD26, and LGR5) and then digitally analyzed. Using a second validation cohort (n = 54) of primary CRC tumors, we analyzed protein and gene expression of CD166 across disease stages, and extended our analyses to CD166-associated genes (LGR5, ASCL2, BMI1, POSTN, and VIM) by qRT-PCR. RESULTS: Stage III and metastatic CRC tumors highly expressed stem cell-associated proteins, CD166, CD44, and LGR5. When evaluated across stages, CD166 protein expression was elevated in advanced-stage compared to early-stage tumors. Notably, a small subset of stage I and II cancers harbored elevated CD166 protein expression, which correlated with development of recurrent cancer or adenomatous polyps. Gene expression analyses of CD166-associated molecules revealed elevated ASCL2 in primary tumors from patients who recurred. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a protein signature prognostic of aggressive disease in early stage CRC. Stem cell-associated protein and gene expression identified a subset of early-stage tumors associated with cancer recurrence and/or subsequent adenoma formation. Signatures for stemness offer promising fingerprints for stratifying early-stage patients at high risk of recurrence.

8.
Vaccine ; 38(37): 5880-5884, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444193

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Children may receive measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and varicella (VAR) vaccines separately or as measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV). We examined whether pediatric herpes zoster (HZ) incidence varied by pattern of varicella vaccine administration. METHODS: In six integrated health systems, we examined HZ incidence among children turning 12 months old during 2003-2008. All received varicella and MMR vaccines on recommended schedules. Cases were identified through 2014 using ICD-9 codes. Incidence was examined by number of varicella vaccine doses and same-day MMR. RESULTS: Among 199,797 children, overall HZ incidence was 18.6/100,000 person-years in the first-dose MMR + VAR group, 17.9/100,000 person-years in the MMRV group, and 7.5/100,000 person-years in the VAR-alone group. HZ incidence was lower following the second dose than before the second dose in all first-dose groups. CONCLUSIONS: HZ incidence was not meaningfully different between the MMRV and MMR + VAR first-dose groups. Overall and within first-dose groups, HZ incidence was lower among children receiving two varicella vaccine doses.

9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(15): 4054-4063, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341032

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A major challenge in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) treatment is selection of the most appropriate therapeutic approach for individual patients. We conducted an external prospective-retrospective clinical validation of a DCIS biologic risk signature, DCISionRT, in a population-based observational cohort of women diagnosed with DCIS and treated with breast-conserving surgery (BCS). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Participants were 455 health plan members of Kaiser Permanente Northwest diagnosed with DCIS and treated with BCS with or without radiotherapy from 1990 to 2007. The biologic signature combined seven protein tumor markers assessed in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue with four clinicopathologic factors to provide a DCISionRT test result, termed decision score (DS). Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to measure the association of the DS, continuous (linear) or categorical (DS ≤ 3 vs. DS > 3), and subsequent total ipsilateral breast events and invasive ipsilateral breast events at least 6 months after initial surgery. RESULTS: In Cox regression, the continuous and categorical DS variables were positively associated with total and invasive breast event risk after adjustment for radiotherapy. In a subset analysis by treatment group, categorical Kaplan-Meier analyses showed at least 2-fold differences in 10-year risk of total breast events between the elevated-risk and low-risk DS categories. CONCLUSIONS: In this first external validation study of the DCISionRT test, the DS was prognostic for the risk of later breast events for women diagnosed with DCIS, following BCS.

10.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis ; 23(4): 646-653, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer exhibits biological and clinical heterogeneity even within established clinico-pathologic risk groups. The Decipher genomic classifier (GC) is a validated method to further risk-stratify disease in patients with prostate cancer, but its performance solely within National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) high-risk disease has not been undertaken to date. METHODS: A multi-institutional retrospective study of 405 men with high-risk prostate cancer who underwent primary treatment with radical prostatectomy (RP) or radiation therapy (RT) with androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) at 11 centers from 1995 to 2005 was performed. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the hazard ratios (HR) for the development of metastatic disease based on clinico-pathologic variables, risk groups, and GC score. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was determined for regression models without and with the GC score. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 82 months, 104 patients (26%) developed metastatic disease. On univariable analysis, increasing GC score was significantly associated with metastatic disease ([HR]: 1.34 per 0.1 unit increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-1.50, p < 0.001), while age, serum PSA, biopsy GG, and clinical T-stage were not (all p > 0.05). On multivariable analysis, GC score (HR: 1.33 per 0.1 unit increase, 95% CI: 1.19-1.48, p < 0.001) and GC high-risk (vs low-risk, HR: 2.95, 95% CI: 1.79-4.87, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with metastasis. The addition of GC score to regression models based on NCCN risk group improved model AUC from 0.46 to 0.67, and CAPRA from 0.59 to 0.71. CONCLUSIONS: Among men with high-risk prostate cancer, conventional clinico-pathologic data had poor discrimination to risk stratify development of metastatic disease. GC score was a significant and independent predictor of metastasis and may help identify men best suited for treatment intensification/de-escalation.

11.
Mol Carcinog ; 59(7): 701-712, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134153

RESUMO

A hallmark of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) progression is a loss of the surrounding ductal myoepithelium. However, whether compromise in myoepithelial differentiation, rather than overt cellular loss, can be used to predict the risk of DCIS progression is unknown. Here we address this question utilizing pure and mixed DCIS cases (N = 30) as surrogates for DCIS at low and high risk for progression, respectively. We used multiplex immunohistochemical staining to evaluate the relationship between myoepithelial cell differentiation and lymphoid immune cell types associated with poor prognostic DCIS. Our results show that myoepithelial calponin-1 discriminates between pure and mixed DCIS lesions better than histological subtype, presence of necrosis, or nuclear grade. Additionally, focal loss of myoepithelial cells associated with increased PD-1+CD8+ T cells, which suggests a link between the myoepithelium and immune surveillance. To identify associations between calponin-1 expression and immune response, we performed unsupervised hierarchical clustering of myoepithelial and immune cell biomarkers on 219 DCIS lesions from 30 cases. Notably, the majority of pure (low-risk) DCIS lesions clustered in a high calponin-1, T cell low group, whereas the majority of mixed (high-risk) DCIS lesions clustered in a low calponin-1, T cell high group, specifically with CD8+ and PD-1+CD8+ T cells. However, a subset of pure DCIS lesions had a similar calponin-1 and immune signature as the majority of mixed DCIS lesions, which have low calponin-1 and T cell enrichment-raising the possibility that these pure DCIS lesions might be at a high risk for progression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo
12.
Urol Oncol ; 38(2): 39.e21-39.e27, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711836

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To externally validate the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) risk calculator and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines in a contemporary population of U.S. non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients treated in a community-based setting and compare our findings to those from another U.S. health system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 1,491 NMIBC patients with a median follow-up of 2.1 years (recurrence) and 4.1 years (progression). We calculated NCCN risk groupings and EORTC prognostic index for recurrence and progression. We followed Royston and Altman's guidelines for the external validation of prognostic calculators. RESULTS: For predicting recurrence using the EORTC framework, Harrell's C (a measure of discrimination) was smaller in our sample (0.66) than in the European Association of Urology sample (0.61), whereas for progression, Harrell's C was larger in our sample (0.78 vs. 0.75). The EORTC calculator overestimated progression risk in the highest stratum for our sample; calibration and discrimination were adequate for all groups except the highest risk group. For NCCN risk groupings, Harrell's C was 0.54 for recurrence and 0.62 for progression, suggesting poor to fair discrimination in our sample. The NCCN framework had slightly better performance for predicting progression vs. recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Existing NMIBC risk-stratification frameworks have acceptable accuracy to predict outcomes. However, further innovation in NMIBC care will require predictive tools with more granularity to reflect the differential risks of subgroups of NMIBC recurrence, prior treatment histories, and other prognostic variables.

13.
Qual Life Res ; 29(4): 879-889, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811594

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Bladder Cancer Quality of Life Study collected detailed and sensitive patient-reported outcomes from bladder cancer survivors in the period after bladder removal surgery, when participation in survey research may present a burden. This paper describes the study recruitment methods and examines the response rates and patterns of missing data. METHODS: Detailed surveys focusing on quality of life, healthcare decision-making, and healthcare expenses were mailed to patients 5-7 months after cystectomy. We conducted up to 10 follow-up recruitment calls. We analyzed survey completion rates following each contact in relation to demographic and clinical characteristics, and patterns of missing data across survey content areas. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 71% (n = 269/379). This was consistent across patient clinical characteristics; response rates were significantly higher among patients over age 70 and significantly lower among racial and ethnic minority patients compared to non-Hispanic white patients. Each follow-up contact resulted in marginal survey completion rates of at least 10%. Rates of missing data were low across most content areas, even for potentially sensitive questions. Rates of missing data differed significantly by sex, age, and race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the effort required to participate in research, this population of cancer survivors showed willingness to share detailed information about quality of life, health care decision-making, and expenses, soon after major cancer surgery. Additional contacts were effective at increasing participation. Response patterns differed by race/ethnicity and other demographic factors. Our data collection methods show that it is feasible to gather detailed patient-reported outcomes during this challenging period.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Cistectomia/economia , Cistectomia/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões , Atenção à Saúde/economia , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/economia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Ann Surg ; 272(6): 1053-1059, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998538

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This retrospective cohort study examined whether bariatric surgery is associated with reduced risk of breast cancer among pre- and postmenopausal women. BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with increased risk of breast cancer, but the impact of weight loss on breast cancer risk has been difficult to quantify. METHODS: The cohort included obese (body mass index ≥35 kg/m) patients enrolled in an integrated health care delivery system between 2005 and 2012 (with follow-up through 2014). Female bariatric surgery patients (N = 17,998) were matched on body mass index, age, study site, and comorbidity index to 53,889 women with no bariatric surgery. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine incident breast cancer up to 10 years after bariatric surgery. Pre- and postmenopausal women were examined separately, and further classified by estrogen receptor (ER) status. RESULTS: The analysis included 301 premenopausal and 399 postmenopausal breast cancer cases. In multivariable adjusted models, bariatric surgery was associated with a reduced risk of both premenopausal (HR = 0.72, 95% CI, 0.54-0.94) and postmenopausal (HR = 0.55, 95% CI, 0.42-0.72) breast cancer. Among premenopausal women, the effect of bariatric surgery was more pronounced among ER-negative cases (HR = 0.36, 95% CI, 0.16-0.79). Among postmenopausal women, the effect was more pronounced in ER-positive cases (HR = 0.52, 95% CI, 0.39-0.70). CONCLUSIONS: Bariatric surgery was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer among severely obese women. These findings have significant public health relevance because the prevalence of obesity continues to rise, and few modifiable breast cancer risk factors have been identified, especially for premenopausal women.

15.
J Infect Dis ; 221(6): 910-918, 2020 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Highly effective human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are used in many national programs in 3- or 2-dose schedules. We examined HPV vaccine effectiveness against HPV prevalence by number of doses. METHODS: We collected residual liquid-based cytology samples from US women aged 20-29 years who were screened for cervical cancer. Women continuously enrolled from 2006 through the specimen collection date were analyzed. Specimens were tested using the Linear Array assay. We analyzed prevalence of quadrivalent HPV vaccine (4vHPV) types (HPV 6,11,16,18) and other HPV-type categories and determined prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 1, 2, and 3 compared with no vaccine doses. RESULTS: Among 4269 women, 1052 (24.6%) were unvaccinated, 2610 (61.1%) received 3 doses, 304 (7.1%) received 2 doses, and 303 (7.1%) received 1 dose. The 4vHPV-type prevalence was 7.4% among unvaccinated women compared with 1.7%, 1.0%, and 1.0% among 1-, 2-, and 3-dose recipients. Among women vaccinated at ≤18 years, adjusted PRs for 1, 2, and 3 doses were 0.06 (95% CI, 0.01-0.42), 0.05 (95% CI, 0.01-0.39), and 0.06 (95% CI, 0.04-0.12). CONCLUSIONS: Among women who received their first dose at age ≤18, estimated HPV vaccine effectiveness was high regardless of number of doses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Papillomaviridae/classificação , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sex Transm Dis ; 47(3): 179-186, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies in countries with high human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage have demonstrated marked reductions in anogenital wart (AGW) incidence. Our goal was to assess the impact of HPV vaccination in a population with suboptimal coverage by comparing AGW incidence trends in the years before and after vaccine introduction. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of AGW incidence trends using an ecologic study design among 11- through 39-year-olds enrolled at Kaiser Permanente Northwest. We defined incidence as the proportion of persons who had a new AGW diagnosis for each calendar year in the prevaccine periods (2000 through 2006 for female individuals, 2000 through 2010 for male individuals) and the postvaccine periods (2007 through 2016 for female individuals, 2011 through 2016 for male individuals). We also described cumulative HPV vaccination coverage. RESULTS: The average annual AGW incidence rates in the prevaccine periods were 27.8 per 10,000 in female individuals and 26.9 per 10,000 in male individuals. In the postvaccine periods, AGW incidence rates decreased by 31% (P < 0.001) in female individuals and 10% (P = 0.006) in male individuals; the largest reductions were observed in 15- to 19-year-old female individuals (67%, P < 0.001) and male individuals (45%, P < 0.001). Three dose HPV coverage rates were less than 50% in all age groups and both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: In a population of young adults with moderate HPV vaccination coverage, we observed declines in AGW incidence among both female and male year after the introduction of HPV vaccination. The largest incidence reductions were observed in 15- to 19-year-olds who were most likely to have been vaccinated.

18.
BMC Med Genomics ; 12(1): 195, 2019 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues for RNA-seq have advantages over fresh frozen tissue including abundance and availability, connection to rich clinical data, and association with patient outcomes. However, FFPE-derived RNA is highly degraded and chemically modified, which impacts its utility as a faithful source for biological inquiry. METHODS: True archival FFPE breast cancer cases (n = 58), stored at room temperature for 2-23 years, were utilized to identify key steps in tissue selection, RNA isolation, and library choice. Gene expression fidelity was evaluated by comparing FFPE data to public data obtained from fresh tissues, and by employing single-gene, gene set and transcription network-based regulon analyses. RESULTS: We report a single 10 µm section of breast tissue yields sufficient RNA for RNA-seq, and a relationship between RNA quality and block age that was not linear. We find single-gene analysis is limiting with FFPE tissues, while targeted gene set approaches effectively distinguish ER+ from ER- breast cancers. Novel utilization of regulon analysis identified the transcription factor KDM4B to associate with ER+ disease, with KDM4B regulon activity and gene expression having prognostic significance in an independent cohort of ER+ cases. CONCLUSION: Our results, which outline a robust FFPE-RNA-seq pipeline for broad use, support utilizing FFPE tissues to address key questions in the breast cancer field, including the delineation between indolent and life-threatening disease, biological stratification and molecular mechanisms of treatment resistance.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Formaldeído , Inclusão em Parafina , RNA-Seq , Fixação de Tecidos , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Humanos , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética
19.
J Clin Med ; 8(11)2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689948

RESUMO

Mammographic breast density (MD) reflects breast fibroglandular content. Its decline following adjuvant tamoxifen treated, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer has been associated with improved outcomes. Breast cancers arise from structures termed lobules, and lower MD is associated with increased age-related lobule involution. We assessed whether pre-treatment involution influenced associations between MD decline and risk of breast cancer-specific death. ER-positive tamoxifen treated patients diagnosed at Kaiser Permanente Northwest (1990-2008) were defined as cases who died of breast cancer (n = 54) and matched controls (remained alive over similar follow-up; n = 180). Lobule involution was assessed by examining terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs) in benign tissues surrounding cancers as TDLU count/mm2, median span and acini count/TDLU. MD (%) was measured in the unaffected breast at baseline (median 6-months before) and follow-up (median 12-months after tamoxifen initiation). TDLU measures and baseline MD were positively associated among controls (p < 0.05). In multivariable regression models, MD decline (≥10%) was associated with reduced risk of breast cancer-specific death before (odds ratio (OR): 0.41, 95% CI: 0.18-0.92) and after (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.18-0.94) adjustment for TDLU count/mm2, TDLU span (OR: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.14-0.84), and acini count/TDLU (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.13-0.81). MD decline following adjuvant tamoxifen is associated with reduced risk of breast cancer-specific death, irrespective of pre-treatment lobule involution.

20.
Perm J ; 232019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among the approximately 53,000 patients newly diagnosed with early-stage (superficial) bladder cancer each year, there is substantial variability in the progression to muscle-invasive disease. Enhancing risk stratification and risk-stratified surveillance could minimize risks and harms to patients, as well as unnecessary costs to health systems. OBJECTIVES: As a preliminary step in developing and validating a risk assessment tool for superficial bladder cancer in a population-based clinical cohort, we interviewed urologists who might use such a tool to assess need, determine potential use cases, and identify key features to include. METHODS: Using an opportunistic and purposeful sampling design, we invited 13 urologists from a variety of practice settings and with a wide range of clinical experience to take part in qualitative interviews; 9 (5 urologic oncologists and 4 general urologists) participated. RESULTS: All urologists reported using some form of risk stratification to determine surveillance schedules for patients with bladder cancer. The following use cases were endorsed by 4 or more interviewees: 1) provide evidence to guide clinical management in specific situations, 2) generate patient-facing communication aids, 3) improve documentation about recurrence/progression risk, and 4) create scheduling and callback supports to improve the quality of follow-up care. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated several potential clinical-use cases for a risk calculator and clinical decision-support tool for patients with superficial bladder cancer. Clinicians stressed the potential utility of such a tool to improve patient communication, scheduling, and tracking in general urology practice.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Padrões de Prática Médica , Medição de Risco/métodos , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/etiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Urologistas
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