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1.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276202

RESUMO

Cell-mediated immune suppression may play an important role in lung carcinogenesis. We investigated the associations for circulating levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine:tryptophan ratio (KTR), quinolinic acid (QA) and neopterin as markers of immune regulation and inflammation with lung cancer risk in 5,364 smoking-matched case-control pairs from 20 prospective cohorts included in the international Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium. All biomarkers were quantified by mass spectrometry-based methods in serum/plasma samples collected on average 6 years before lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lung cancer associated with individual biomarkers were calculated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for circulating cotinine. Compared to the lowest quintile, the highest quintiles of kynurenine, KTR, QA and neopterin were associated with a 20-30% higher risk, and tryptophan with a 15% lower risk of lung cancer (all ptrend < 0.05). The strongest associations were seen for current smokers, where the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of lung cancer for the highest quintile of KTR, QA and neopterin were 1.42 (1.15-1.75), 1.42 (1.14-1.76) and 1.45 (1.13-1.86), respectively. A stronger association was also seen for KTR and QA with risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma followed by adenocarcinoma, and for lung cancer diagnosed within the first 2 years after blood draw. This study demonstrated that components of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway with immunomodulatory effects are associated with risk of lung cancer overall, especially for current smokers. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of these biomarkers in lung carcinogenesis and progression.

2.
Circ Res ; 125(1): 29-40, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219752

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Although there has been a long-standing interest in the human health effects of vitamin E, a comprehensive analysis of the association between circulating vitamin E and long-term mortality has not been conducted. OBJECTIVE: Determine whether serum α-tocopherol (the predominant form of vitamin E) is related to long-term overall and cause-specific mortality and elucidate the dose-response relationships with better quantification of the associations. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a biochemical analysis of 29 092 participants in the ATBC Study (Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention) that originally tested vitamin E and ß-carotene supplementation. Serum α-tocopherol was measured at baseline using high-performance liquid chromatography, and during a 30-year follow-up we identified 23 787 deaths, including deaths from cardiovascular disease (9867), cancer (7687), respiratory disease (2161), diabetes mellitus (119), injuries and accidents (1255), and other causes (2698). After adjusting for major risk factors, we found that men with higher serum α-tocopherol had significantly lower all-cause mortality (hazard ratios=0.83, 0.79, 0.75, and 0.78 for quintile 2 (Q2)-Q5 versus Q1, respectively; Ptrend<0.0001), and significantly decreased mortality from cardiovascular disease, heart disease, stroke, cancer, respiratory disease, and other causes, with risk reductions from 17% to 47% for the highest versus lowest quintile. The α-tocopherol association with overall mortality was similar across subgroups of smoking intensity, years of smoking, alcohol consumption, trial supplementation, and duration of follow-up. The association was, however, significantly modified by baseline age and body mass index, with stronger inverse associations for younger men and men with a lower body mass index ( Pinteraction≤0.006). CONCLUSIONS: In this long-term prospective cohort study, higher baseline serum α-tocopherol biochemical status was associated with lower risk of overall mortality and mortality from all major causes. Our data support the long-term health benefits of higher serum α-tocopherol for overall and chronic disease mortality and should be replicated in other more diverse populations.

3.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coffee has been consistently associated with lower risk of liver cancer and chronic liver disease, suggesting that coffee affects mechanisms underlying disease development. METHODS: We measured serum metabolites using untargeted metabolomics in 1:1 matched nested case-control studies of liver cancer (n = 221 cases) and fatal liver disease (n = 242 cases) in the ATBC cohort (N = 29,133). Associations between baseline coffee drinking and metabolites were identified using linear regression; conditional logistic regression models were used to identify associations with subsequent outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, 21 metabolites were associated with coffee drinking and also each subsequent endpoint; nine metabolites and trigonelline, a known coffee biomarker, were identified. Tyrosine and two bile acids, glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA) and glycocholic acid (GCA), were inversely associated with coffee but positively associated with both outcomes; odds ratios (ORs) comparing the 90th to 10th percentile (modeled on a continuous basis) ranged from 3.93 (95% CI = 2.00-7.74) for tyrosine to 4.95 (95% CI = 2.64-9.29) for GCA and from 4.00 (95% CI = 2.42-6.62) for GCA to 6.77 (95% CI = 3.62-12.65) for GCDCA for liver cancer and fatal liver disease, respectively. The remaining six metabolites and trigonelline were positively associated with coffee drinking but inversely associated with both outcomes; ORs ranged from 0.16 to 0.37. Associations persisted following diet-adjustment and for outcomes occurring >10 years after blood collection. CONCLUSIONS: A broad range of compounds were associated with coffee drinking, incident liver cancer and liver disease death over 27 years of follow-up. These associations provide novel insight into chronic liver disease and liver cancer etiology and support a possible hepatoprotective effect of coffee.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037736

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, while studies have consistently reported elevated risk of CRC among heavy drinkers, associations at moderate levels of alcohol consumption are less clear. We conducted a combined analysis of 16 studies of CRC to examine the shape of the alcohol-CRC association, investigate potential effect modifiers of the association, and examine differential effects of alcohol consumption by cancer anatomic site and stage. We collected information on alcohol consumption for 14,276 CRC cases and 15,802 controls from 5 case-control and 11 nested case-control studies of CRC. We compared adjusted logistic regression models with linear and restricted cubic splines to select a model that best fit the association between alcohol consumption and CRC. Study-specific results were pooled using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Compared to non-/occasional drinking (≤1 g/day), light/moderate drinking (up to 2 drinks/day) was associated with a decreased risk of CRC (odds ratio [OR]: 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-0.98, p = 0.005), heavy drinking (2-3 drinks/day) was not significantly associated with CRC risk (OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.99-1.24, p = 0.08) and very heavy drinking (more than 3 drinks/day) was associated with a significant increased risk (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.11-1.40, p < 0.001). We observed no evidence of interactions with lifestyle risk factors or of differences by cancer site or stage. These results provide further evidence that there is a J-shaped association between alcohol consumption and CRC risk. This overall pattern was not significantly modified by other CRC risk factors and there was no effect heterogeneity by tumor site or stage.

5.
Cancer Res ; 79(15): 3973-3982, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113819

RESUMO

Biliary tract cancers are rare but highly fatal with poorly understood etiology. Identifying potentially modifiable risk factors for these cancers is essential for prevention. Here we estimated the relationship between adiposity and cancer across the biliary tract, including cancers of the gallbladder (GBC), intrahepatic bile ducts (IHBDC), extrahepatic bile ducts (EHBDC), and the ampulla of Vater (AVC). We pooled data from 27 prospective cohorts with over 2.7 million adults. Adiposity was measured using baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip, and waist-to-height ratios. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for sex, education, race, smoking, and alcohol consumption with age as the time metric and the baseline hazard stratified by study. During 37,883,648 person-years of follow-up, 1,343 GBC cases, 1,194 EHBDC cases, 784 IHBDC cases, and 623 AVC cases occurred. For each 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI, there were risk increases for GBC (HR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.19-1.36), IHBDC (HR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.21-1.45), and EHBDC (HR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.23), but not AVC (HR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.88-1.11). Increasing waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio were associated with GBC and IHBDC but not EHBDC or AVC. These results indicate that adult adiposity is associated with an increased risk of biliary tract cancer, particularly GBC and IHBDC. Moreover, they provide evidence for recommending weight maintenance programs to reduce the risk of developing these cancers. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings identify a correlation between adiposity and biliary tract cancers, indicating that weight management programs may help minimize the risk of these diseases.

6.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic data are inconsistent regarding the vitamin E-lung cancer association, and no study has examined serologic changes in vitamin E status in relation to subsequent risk. METHODS: In a cohort of 22,781 male smokers in the ATBC Study, we ascertained 3,184 lung cancer cases during up to 28 years of observation. Cox proportional hazards models examined whether higher serum alpha-tocopherol concentrations at baseline, 3 years, or the interval change were associated with lower lung cancer risk. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking intensity and duration, serum total cholesterol, and trial intervention group, we found lower lung cancer risk in men with high baseline alpha-tocopherol (5th quintile (Q5) vs Q1, hazard ratio (HR)=0.76, 95%CI =0.66 to 0.87; Ptrend<0.001). A similar reduction in risk was seen for serum alpha-tocopherol at 3 years (Q5 vs Q1, HR = 0.78, 95%CI =0.67 to 0.91; Ptrend=0.004). The inverse risk association appeared stronger for younger men and those having smoked fewer years, but was similar across trial intervention groups. We also found reduced risk among un-supplemented men with a lower serum alpha-tocopherol at baseline who had greater increases in concentrations at 3 years (3rd tertile vs 1st tertile of serum alpha-tocopherol change, HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.59 to 0.91, P=0.005). CONCLUSION: Higher vitamin E status, as measured by serum alpha-tocopherol concentration, as well as repletion of a low vitamin E state, was related to decreased lung cancer risk during a 28-year period. Our findings provide evidence supporting the importance of adequate physiological vitamin E status for lung cancer risk reduction.

7.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco and alcohol are well-established risk factors for numerous cancers, yet their relationship to biliary tract cancers remains unclear. METHODS: We pooled data from 26 prospective studies to evaluate associations of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with biliary tract cancer risk. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations with smoking and alcohol consumption were calculated. Random effects meta-analysis produced summary estimates. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Over a period of 38,369,156 person-years of follow-up, 1,391 gallbladder, 758 intrahepatic bile duct, 1,208 extrahepatic bile duct, and 623 ampulla of Vater cancer cases were identified. Ever, former, and current smoking were associated with increased extrahepatic bile duct and ampulla of Vater cancers risk (e.g., current versus never smokers hazard ratio [HR] = 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.34 to 2.13 and 2.22, 95%CI = 1.69 to 2.92, respectively), with dose-response effects for smoking pack-years, duration, and intensity (all P-trend<0.01). Current smoking and smoking intensity were also associated with intrahepatic bile duct cancer (e.g., >40 cigarettes/day versus never smokers HR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.15 to 4.00; P-trend=0.001). No convincing association was observed between smoking and gallbladder cancer. Alcohol consumption was only associated with intrahepatic bile duct cancer, with increased risk for individuals consuming ≥5 versus 0 drinks/day (HR = 2.35, 95%CI = 1.46 to 3.78; P-trend=0.04). There was evidence of statistical heterogeneity between several cancer sites, particularly between gallbladder cancer and the other biliary tract cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking appears to increase the risk of developing all biliary tract cancers except gallbladder cancer. Alcohol may increase the risk of intrahepatic bile duct cancer. Findings highlight etiologic heterogeneity across the biliary tract.

8.
Ann Epidemiol ; 34: 33-39, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023511

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated the association of coffee and tea drinking with risk of the urinary tract cancer in Finnish men, with high coffee consumption, using data from the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. METHODS: The ATBC trial conducted from 1985 to 1993 enrolled 29,133 male smokers. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs), using men who drank more than 0 but less than 1 cup coffee/d and tea nondrinkers as our referent group for coffee and tea analyses, respectively. RESULTS: During 472,402 person-years of follow-up, 835 incident cases of bladder cancer and 366 cases of renal cell carcinoma were ascertained. For bladder cancer, we observed no association for coffee consumption (HR ≥4 vs. >0 to <1 cups/d = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.86-1.56) and a borderline statistically significant inverse association for tea consumption (HR ≥1 vs. 0 cup/d = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.58-1.00). For renal cell carcinoma, we observed no association for coffee (HR ≥4 vs. >0 to <1 cups/d = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.55-1.32) or tea consumption (HR ≥1 vs. 0 cup/d = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.68-1.46). We found no impact of coffee preparation on coffee-cancer associations. CONCLUSIONS: Coffee drinking was not associated with urinary tract cancers risk. Further research on tea and bladder cancer is warranted.

9.
Carcinogenesis ; 40(8): 975-978, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859204

RESUMO

Disruption of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) has been linked to a variety of diseases in humans, including carcinogenesis. To evaluate the associations between rDNA copy number (CN) and risk of lung cancer, we measured 5.8S and 18S rDNA CN in the peripheral blood of 229 incident lung cancer cases and 1:1 matched controls from a nested case-control study within a prospective cohort of male smokers. There was a dose-response relationship between quartiles of both 18S and 5.8S rDNA CN and risk of lung cancer (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI]: 18S: 1.0 [ref]; 1.2 [0.6-2.1]; 1.8 [1.0-3.4]; 2.3 [1.3-4.1; Ptrend = 0.0002; 5.8S: 1.0 [ref]; 1.6 [0.8-2.9]; 2.2 [1.1-4.2]; 2.6 [1.3-5.1]; Ptrend = 0.0001). The associations between rDNA CN and lung cancer risk were similar when excluding cases diagnosed within 5 years of follow-up, and when stratifying by heavy (>20 cigarettes per day) and light smokers (≤20 cigarettes per day). We are the first to report that rDNA CN may be associated with future risk of lung cancer. To further elucidate the relationship between rDNA and lung cancer, replication studies are needed in additional populations, particularly those that include non-smokers.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779128

RESUMO

Impaired metabolism may play an important role in the pathogenesis of lethal prostate cancer, yet there is a paucity of evidence regarding the association. We conducted a large prospective serum metabolomic analysis of lethal prostate cancer in 523 cases and 523 matched controls nested within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. Median time from baseline fasting serum collection to prostate cancer death was 18 years (maximum 30 years). We identified 860 known biochemicals through an ultrahigh-performance LC-MS/MS platform. Conditional logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals of risk associated with 1-standard deviation (s.d.) increases in log-metabolite signals. We identified 34 metabolites associated with lethal prostate cancer with a false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.15. Notably, higher serum thioproline, and thioproline combined with two other cysteine-related amino acids and redox metabolites, cystine and cysteine, were associated with reduced risk (1-s.d. OR = 0.75 and 0.71, respectively; p ≤ 8.2 × 10-5 ). By contrast, the dipeptide leucylglycine (OR = 1.36, p = 8.2 × 10-5 ), and three gamma-glutamyl amino acids (OR = 1.28-1.30, p ≤ 4.6 × 10-4 ) were associated with increased risk of lethal prostate cancer. Cases with metastatic disease at diagnosis (n = 179) showed elevated risk for several lipids, including especially the ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), acyl carnitines, and dicarboxylic fatty acids (1.37 ≤ OR ≤ 1.49, FDR < 0.15). These findings provide a prospective metabolomic profile of lethal prostate cancer characterized by altered biochemicals in the redox, dipeptide, pyrimidine, and gamma-glutamyl amino acid pathways, whereas ketone bodies and fatty acids were associated specifically with metastatic disease.

11.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624689

RESUMO

Background: Vitamins are among the most frequently used supplements (48% of US adults). However, little is known about contributions of genetic variation to their efficacy and safety. Multiple pathways link catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) to the vitamin E supplement, alpha-tocopherol, and cancer. Methods: Here we determined if COMT exerted pharmacogenetic effects on cancer prevention in two randomized trials of alpha-tocopherol supplementation. Pharmacogenetic effects of common COMT rs4680 (val158met), which encodes a nonsynonymous valine-to-methionine substitution, were examined in the trial plus a 10-year post-trial follow-up (overall) period of The Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS, N = 23 294), a 10-year alpha-tocopherol and aspirin trial with 10 years post-trial follow-up. Results were validated in a case/control (N = 2396/2235) subset of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC, N = 29 133). The primary outcome was total cancers. Rates of cancer types prevalent in women (colorectal, breast, lung, uterine, and lymphoma/leukemia) were also examined. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Random-effects meta-analysis of rs4680 genotype strata, in WGHS and ATBC overall periods, revealed differential alpha-tocopherol effects compared with placebo: met/met (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.80 to 0.97; P = .01), val/met (HR = 0.99; 95% CI = 0.92 to 1.06; P = .74), and val/val (HR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.31; P = .002) with a statistically significant COMT by alpha-tocopherol interaction (Pinteraction <.001). Timing of effects differed, with stronger effects in WGHS trial and ATBC post-trial. Conclusion: Pharmacogenetic analysis of COMT and cancer prevention in two large randomized trials revealed statistically significant COMT by alpha-tocopherol interaction, such that alpha-tocopherol was beneficial among rs4680 met-allele (28.0%), but not val-allele (22.8%) homozygotes. These effects indicate the need for additional studies of genetic variation as a determinant of the benefits and possible harms of over-the-counter supplements, like alpha-tocopherol, used for health promotion.

12.
BMJ ; 364: k4981, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606716

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To conduct a comprehensive analysis of prospectively measured circulating high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) concentration and risk of lung cancer overall, by smoking status (never, former, and current smokers), and histological sub-type. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. SETTING: 20 population based cohort studies in Asia, Europe, Australia, and the United States. PARTICIPANTS: 5299 patients with incident lung cancer, with individually incidence density matched controls. EXPOSURE: Circulating hsCRP concentrations in prediagnostic serum or plasma samples. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident lung cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: A positive association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer for current (odds ratio associated with a doubling in hsCRP concentration 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.13) and former smokers (1.09, 1.04 to 1.14) was observed, but not for never smokers (P<0.01 for interaction). This association was strong and consistent across all histological subtypes, except for adenocarcinoma, which was not strongly associated with hsCRP concentration regardless of smoking status (odds ratio for adenocarcinoma overall 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 1.01). The association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer was strongest in the first two years of follow-up for former and current smokers. Including hsCRP concentration in a risk model, in addition to smoking based variables, did not improve risk discrimination overall, but slightly improved discrimination for cancers diagnosed in the first two years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Former and current smokers with higher circulating hsCRP concentrations had a higher risk of lung cancer overall. Circulating hsCRP concentration was not associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma. Circulating hsCRP concentration could be a prediagnostic marker of lung cancer rather than a causal risk factor.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Fumar/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ex-Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(4): 807-813, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30602499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated systemic exposure to gut-derived bacterial products has been associated with hepatic inflammation and chronic liver diseases, potentially increasing the risk of liver cancer. However, only one prior study prospectively examined exposure to bacterial products in the circulation and risk of liver cancer, with a relatively limited coverage of biomarkers. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study (224 liver cancer cases and 224 matched controls) in a large cohort of Finnish male smokers followed from baseline (1985-1988) to 2014. The associations between a panel of biomarkers for bacterial translocation and the risk of liver cancer were assessed using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression. The biomarkers included immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgG, and IgM against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and flagellin, soluble CD14 (an LPS coreceptor), and the LPS-binding protein. RESULTS: Anti-flagellin IgA [odds ratios (OR), 2.79; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.34-5.78; P trend = 0.01] and anti-LPS IgA (2.44; 95% CI, 1.33-4.48; P trend < 0.01) were significantly associated with risk of liver cancer. When restricting the analysis to histologically classified hepatocellular carcinoma, the ORs were 4.18 (95% CI, 1.60-10.92; P trend < 0.01) and 2.48 (95% CI, 1.16-5.29; P trend < 0.01), respectively. The results were not substantially changed after excluding cases diagnosed within the first 5 years of follow-up and those with hepatitis C virus infection. CONCLUSIONS: Antibodies to flagellin and LPS were associated with increased risk of liver cancer. IMPACT: Gut-derived bacterial translocation into the circulation may play a role in the development of primary liver cancer. Our findings could contribute to the understanding of primary liver cancer etiology and further prevention efforts.

14.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499135

RESUMO

Vitamin B supplementation can have side effects for human health, including cancer risk. We aimed to elucidate the role of vitamin B12 in lung cancer aetiology via direct measurements of pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin B12 concentrations in a nested case-control study, complemented with a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach in an independent case-control sample. We used pre-diagnostic biomarker data from 5,183 case-control pairs nested within 20 prospective cohorts, and genetic data from 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls. Exposures included directly measured circulating vitamin B12 in pre-diagnostic blood samples from the nested case-control study, and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with vitamin B12 concentrations in the MR study. Our main outcome of interest was increased risk for lung cancer, overall and by histological subtype, per increase in circulating vitamin B12 concentrations. We found circulating vitamin B12 to be positively associated with overall lung cancer risk in a dose response fashion (odds ratio for a doubling in B12 [ORlog2B12 ] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.06-1.25). The MR analysis based on 8 genetic variants also indicated that genetically determined higher vitamin B12 concentrations were positively associated with overall lung cancer risk (OR per 150 pmol/L standard deviation increase in B12 [ORSD ]= 1.08, 95%CI= 1.00-1.16). Considering the consistency of these two independent and complementary analyses, these findings support the hypothesis that high vitamin B12 status increases the risk of lung cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

15.
Circ Res ; 123(12): 1339-1349, 2018 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566060

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Although the health effects of beta carotene have been studied extensively, a systematic examination of serum concentrations and long-term mortality, including cardiovascular disease mortality, has not been reported. OBJECTIVE: Explore whether serum beta carotene is associated with overall and cause-specific mortality and to elucidate the strength and dose-response of the association. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a prospective serological analysis of 29 103 men in the ATBC study (Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention). During 31 years of follow-up, 23 796 deaths occurred, including deaths because of cardiovascular disease (9869), cancer (7692), respiratory disease (2161), diabetes mellitus (119), injuries and accidents (1255), and other causes (2700). Serum beta carotene was assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Adjusting for major risk factors measured, men with higher serum beta carotene had significantly lower all-cause mortality (hazard ratios=0.81, 0.71, 0.69, and 0.64 for quintile 2 (Q2)-Q5 versus Q1, respectively; Ptrend<0.0001). Serum beta carotene was significantly associated with risk of death from cardiovascular disease, heart disease, stroke, cancer, respiratory disease, diabetes mellitus, injuries and accidents, and other causes (Q5 versus Q1, hazard ratio=0.21-0.73, all Ptrend<0.0001). The all-cause mortality association was not materially impacted by adjustment for fruit and vegetable consumption (albeit, estimated with some measurement error) and was generally similar across subgroups of smoking intensity, alcohol consumption, trial supplementation, and duration of follow-up, but was significantly modified by age, years of smoking, and body mass index, with stronger inverse associations among men who were younger, smoked fewer years, and had a lower body mass index (all Pinteraction≤0.0025). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that higher beta carotene biochemical status is associated with lower overall, cardiovascular disease, heart disease, stroke, cancer, and other causes of mortality. The dose-response associations over a 30-year period were not attenuated by adjustment for other important risk factors and support greater fruit and vegetable consumption as a means to increase beta carotene status and promote longevity.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Mortalidade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , beta Caroteno/sangue , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/sangue , Doenças Respiratórias/sangue , Ferimentos e Lesões/sangue
16.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476131

RESUMO

Background: Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) is also moderately associated with CRC risk. However, observational studies are susceptible to unmeasured confounding or reverse causality. Using genetic risk variants as instrumental variables, we investigated the causal relationship between genetically elevated CRP concentration and CRC risk, using a Mendelian randomization approach. Methods: Individual-level data from 30 480 CRC cases and 22 844 controls from 33 participating studies in three international consortia were used: the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), the Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study (CORECT) and the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR). As instrumental variables, we included 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with CRP concentration. The SNP-CRC associations were estimated using a logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, principal components and genotyping phases. An inverse-variance weighted method was applied to estimate the causal effect of CRP on CRC risk. Results: Among the 19 CRP-associated SNPs, rs1260326 and rs6734238 were significantly associated with CRC risk (P = 7.5 × 10-4, and P = 0.003, respectively). A genetically predicted one-unit increase in the log-transformed CRP concentrations (mg/l) was not associated with increased risk of CRC [odds ratio (OR) = 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97, 1.12; P = 0.256). No evidence of association was observed in subgroup analyses stratified by other risk factors. Conclusions: In spite of adequate statistical power to detect moderate association, we found genetically elevated CRP concentration was not associated with increased risk of CRC among individuals of European ancestry. Our findings suggested that circulating CRP is unlikely to be a causal factor in CRC development.

17.
Cancer Res ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30425058

RESUMO

Previous prospective studies assessing the relationship between circulating concentrations of vitamin D and prostate cancer risk have shown inconclusive results, particularly for risk of aggressive disease. In this study, we examine the association between pre-diagnostic concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 1,25(OH)2D and the risk of prostate cancer overall and by tumor characteristics. Principal investigators of 19 prospective studies provided individual participant data on circulating 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D for up to 13,462 men with incident prostate cancer and 20,261 control participants. Odds ratios (OR) for prostate cancer by study-specific fifths of season-standardized vitamin D concentration were estimated using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression. 25(OH)D concentration was positively associated with risk for total prostate cancer (multivariable-adjusted OR comparing highest versus lowest study-specific fifth was 1.22, 95% CI 1.13-1.31; P trend<0.001). However, this association varied by disease aggressiveness (Pheterogeneity=0.014); higher circulating 25(OH)D was associated with a higher risk of non-aggressive disease (OR per 80 percentile increase=1.24, 1.13-1.36) but not with aggressive disease (defined as stage 4, metastases, or prostate cancer death, 0.95, 0.78-1.15). 1,25(OH)2D concentration was not associated with risk for prostate cancer overall or by tumor characteristics. The absence of an association of vitamin D with aggressive disease does not support the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency increases prostate cancer risk. Rather, the association of high circulating 25(OH)D concentration with a higher risk of non-aggressive prostate cancer may be influenced by detection bias.

18.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 33(11): 1087-1099, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30073448

RESUMO

While vitamin D has been associated with improved overall cancer survival in some investigations, few have prospectively evaluated organ-specific survival. We examined the accepted biomarker of vitamin D status, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], and cancer survival in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Of 4616 cancer cases with measured serum 25(OH)D, 2884 died of their cancer during 28 years of follow-up and 1732 survived or died of other causes. Proportional hazards regression estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between pre-diagnostic 25(OH)D and overall and site-specific survival. Serum 25(OH)D was significantly lower among cases who subsequently died from their malignancy compared with those who did not (medians 34.7 vs. 36.5 nmol/L, respectively; p = 0.01). Higher 25(OH)D was associated with lower overall cancer mortality (HR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.67-0.85 for highest vs. lowest quintile, p-trend < 0.0001). Higher 25(OH)D was related to lower mortality from the following site-specific malignancies: prostate (HR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.55-1.01, p-trend = 0.005), kidney (HR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.35-0.98, p-trend = 0.28), and melanoma (HR = 0.39, 95% CI 0.20-0.78, p-trend = 0.01), but increased mortality from lung cancer (HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.02-1.61, p-trend = 0.19). Improved survival was also suggested for head and neck, gastric, pancreatic, and liver cancers, though not statistically significantly, and case numbers for the latter two organ sites were small. Higher 25(OH)D status years prior to diagnosis was related to improved survival for overall and some site-specific cancers, associations that should be examined in other prospective populations that include women and other racial-ethnic groups.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/sangue , Sistema de Registros , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Análise de Sobrevida , Vitamina D/sangue , alfa-Tocoferol/sangue
19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(10): 1203-1207, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30030213

RESUMO

Background: Kidney cancer has several well-established risk factors, including smoking, obesity, and hypertension. These factors do not, however, completely account for its etiology. One previous study of vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) and risk of renal cell carcinoma found a striking inverse association that warranted replication.Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort to prospectively examine circulating DBP concentration and renal cell carcinoma risk. Cases (n = 87) were matched 1:1 to controls on gender, race, age (±5 years), and date of blood collection (±30 days). ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for quartiles of DBP using conditional logistic regression.Results: There was a statistically significant inverse trend across quartiles of DBP such that participants with higher DBP had a markedly decreased risk of renal cell carcinoma (vs. Q1: Q2 OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.41-2.11; Q3 OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.15-1.15; Q4 OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.10-1.06; P trend = 0.03).Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate a strong inverse association between circulating DBP and risk of renal cell carcinoma, supporting the findings from previous research.Impact: This is only the second study to examine DBP and risk of kidney cancer, and one of only a handful of studies to examine circulating DBP and risk of cancer at any site. Our findings support emerging evidence for an etiologic role of DBP in cancer and may provide insights into the etiology of kidney and other cancers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(10); 1203-7. ©2018 AACR.

20.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2018 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29889248

RESUMO

Introduction: The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study demonstrated that ß-carotene supplementation increases lung cancer incidence in smokers. Further, cigarettes with higher tar and nicotine content are associated with a higher risk of lung cancer. However, no studies have examined whether the increased risk associated with ß-carotene supplementation in smokers varies by the tar or nicotine content of cigarettes. Methods: The ATBC Study was a randomized, double-blind intervention trial conducted in southwest Finland. 29,133 male smokers, aged 50-69 years were enrolled and randomly assigned to one of four groups (α-tocopherol, ß-carotene, both, or placebo). Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of lung cancer risk by ß-carotene trial assignment stratified by a priori categories of cigarette tar and nicotine content. Results: The ß-carotene supplementation group had significantly higher risk of developing lung cancer in all categories of tar content [yes versus no ß-carotene supplementation - ultra-light cigarettes (≤7 mg tar): HR=1.31 95% CI=0.91-1.89; non-filtered cigarettes (≥21 mg tar): HR=1.22 95% CI=0.91-1.64; p for interaction=0.91]. Similarly, there was no interaction with nicotine content [yes versus no ß-carotene supplementation - ventilated cigarettes (≤0.8 µg nicotine) HR=1.23, 95% CI=0.98-1.54; non-filtered cigarettes (≥1.3 µg nicotine): HR=1.22, 95% CI=0.91-1.64; p for interaction=0.83]. Conclusion: These findings support the conclusion that supplementation with ß-carotene increases the risk of lung cancer in smokers regardless of the tar or nicotine content of cigarettes smoked. Our data suggest that all smokers should continue to avoid ß-carotene supplementation. Implications: Previous studies demonstrated that ß-carotene supplementation increases risk of lung cancer in smokers. This study moves the field forward by examining the potential for modification of risk of lung cancer with different levels of tar and nicotine in cigarettes smoked, as interaction with carcinogens in these components of cigarette smoke are hypothesized to be the mechanism by which ß-carotene increases risk.  Our study provides evidence that the increased risk of lung cancer in smokers who take ß-carotene supplements is not dependent upon the tar or nicotine level of cigarettes smoked and suggests that all smokers should continue to avoid ß-carotene supplementation.

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