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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence for aspirin's chemopreventative properties on colorectal cancer (CRC) is substantial, but its mechanism of action is not well-understood. We combined a proteomic approach with Mendelian randomization (MR) to identify possible new aspirin targets that decrease CRC risk. METHODS: Human colorectal adenoma cells (RG/C2) were treated with aspirin (24 hours) and a stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) based proteomics approach identified altered protein expression. Protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs) from INTERVAL (N = 3,301) and expression QTLs (eQTLs) from the eQTLGen Consortium (N = 31,684) were used as genetic proxies for protein and mRNA expression levels. Two-sample MR of mRNA/protein expression on CRC risk was performed using eQTL/pQTL data combined with CRC genetic summary data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), Colorectal Transdisciplinary (CORECT), Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (GECCO) consortia and UK Biobank (55,168 cases and 65,160 controls). RESULTS: Altered expression was detected for 125/5886 proteins. Of these, aspirin decreased MCM6, RRM2, and ARFIP2 expression, and MR analysis showed that a standard deviation increase in mRNA/protein expression was associated with increased CRC risk (OR: 1.08, 95% CI, 1.03-1.13; OR: 3.33, 95% CI, 2.46-4.50; and OR: 1.15, 95% CI, 1.02-1.29, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: MCM6 and RRM2 are involved in DNA repair whereby reduced expression may lead to increased DNA aberrations and ultimately cancer cell death, whereas ARFIP2 is involved in actin cytoskeletal regulation, indicating a possible role in aspirin's reduction of metastasis. IMPACT: Our approach has shown how laboratory experiments and population-based approaches can combine to identify aspirin-targeted proteins possibly affecting CRC risk.

2.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the era of widespread prostate-specific antigen testing, it is important to focus etiologic research on the outcome of aggressive prostate cancer, but studies have defined this outcome differently. We aimed to develop an evidence-based consensus definition of aggressive prostate cancer using clinical features at diagnosis for etiologic epidemiologic research. METHODS: Among prostate cancer cases diagnosed in 2007 in the U.S. SEER-18 database with follow-up through 2017, we compared the performance of categorizations of aggressive prostate cancer in discriminating fatal prostate cancer within 10 years of diagnosis, placing the most emphasis on sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV). RESULTS: In our case population (n = 55,900), 3,073 men died of prostate cancer within 10 years. Among 12 definitions that included TNM stage and Gleason score, sensitivities ranged from 0.64 to 0.89 and PPVs ranged from 0.09 to 0.23. We propose defining aggressive prostate cancer as diagnosis of stage T4 or N1 or M1 or Gleason score ≥8 prostate cancer, as this definition had one of the higher PPVs (0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22-0.24) and reasonable sensitivity (0.66, 95% CI 0.64-0.67) for prostate cancer death within 10 years. Results were similar across sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that etiologic epidemiologic studies of prostate cancer report results for this definition of aggressive prostate cancer. We also recommend that studies separately report results for advanced stage (T4 or N1 or M1), high grade (Gleason score ≥8), and fatal prostate cancer. Use of this comprehensive set of endpoints will facilitate comparison of results from different studies and help elucidate prostate cancer etiology.

3.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to identify factors specifically associated with aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) risk. We investigated whether rare pathogenic, likely pathogenic, or deleterious (P/LP/D) germline variants in DNA repair genes are associated with aggressive PCa risk in a case-case study of aggressive versus non-aggressive disease. METHODS: Participants were 5,545 European-ancestry men, including 2,775 non-aggressive and 2,770 aggressive PCa cases, which included 467 metastatic cases (16.9%). Samples were assembled from 12 international studies and germline sequenced together. Rare (minor allele frequency<0.01) P/LP/D variants were analyzed for 155 DNA repair genes. We compared single variant, gene-based, and DNA repair pathway-based burdens by disease aggressiveness. All statistical tests are two-sided. RESULTS: BRCA2 and PALB2 had the most statistically significant gene-based associations, with 2.5% of aggressive and 0.8% of non-aggressive cases carrying P/LP/D BRCA2 alleles (OR = 3.19, 95% CI = 1.94 to 5.25, P = 8.58x10-7) and 0.65% of aggressive and 0.11% of non-aggressive cases carrying P/LP/D PALB2 alleles (OR = 6.31, 95% CI = 1.83 to 21.68, P = 4.79x10-4). ATM had a nominal association, with 1.6% of aggressive and 0.8% of non-aggressive cases carrying P/LP/D ATM alleles (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.10 to 3.22, P=.02). In aggregate, P/LP/D alleles within 24 literature-curated candidate PCa DNA repair genes were more common in aggressive than non-aggressive cases (carrier frequencies=14.2% versus 10.6%, respectively; P = 5.56x10-5). However, this difference was statistically non-significant (P=.18) upon excluding BRCA2, PALB2, and ATM. Among these 24 genes, P/LP/D carriers had a 1.06-year younger diagnosis age (95% CI=-1,65 to 0.48, P = 3.71x10-4). CONCLUSIONS: Risk conveyed by DNA repair genes is largely driven by rare P/LP/D alleles within BRCA2, PALB2, and ATM. These findings support the importance of these genes in both screening and disease management considerations.

4.
JAMA Intern Med ; 180(9): 1173-1184, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658243

RESUMO

Importance: Although emphasis has recently been placed on the importance of high-protein diets to overall health, a comprehensive analysis of long-term cause-specific mortality in association with the intake of plant protein and animal protein has not been reported. Objective: To examine the associations between overall mortality and cause-specific mortality and plant protein intake. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study analyzed data from 416 104 men and women in the US National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study from 1995 to 2011. Data were analyzed from October 2018 through April 2020. Exposures: Validated baseline food frequency questionnaire dietary information, including intake of plant protein and animal protein. Main Outcomes and Measures: Hazard ratios and 16-year absolute risk differences for overall mortality and cause-specific mortality. Results: The final analytic cohort included 237 036 men (57%) and 179 068 women. Their overall median (SD) ages were 62.2 (5.4) years for men and 62.0 (5.4) years for women. Based on 6 009 748 person-years of observation, 77 614 deaths (18.7%; 49 297 men and 28 317 women) were analyzed. Adjusting for several important clinical and other risk factors, greater dietary plant protein intake was associated with reduced overall mortality in both sexes (hazard ratio per 1 SD was 0.95 [95% CI, 0.94-0.97] for men and 0.95 [95% CI, 0.93-0.96] for women; adjusted absolute risk difference per 1 SD was -0.36% [95% CI, -0.48% to -0.25%] for men and -0.33% [95% CI, -0.48% to -0.21%] for women; hazard ratio per 10 g/1000 kcal was 0.88 [95% CI, 0.84-0.91] for men and 0.86 [95% CI, 0.82-0.90] for women; adjusted absolute risk difference per 10 g/1000 kcal was -0.95% [95% CI, -1.3% to -0.68%] for men and -0.86% [95% CI, -1.3% to -0.55%] for women; all P < .001). The association between plant protein intake and overall mortality was similar across the subgroups of smoking status, diabetes, fruit consumption, vitamin supplement use, and self-reported health status. Replacement of 3% energy from animal protein with plant protein was inversely associated with overall mortality (risk decreased 10% in both men and women) and cardiovascular disease mortality (11% lower risk in men and 12% lower risk in women). In particular, the lower overall mortality was attributable primarily to substitution of plant protein for egg protein (24% lower risk in men and 21% lower risk in women) and red meat protein (13% lower risk in men and 15% lower risk in women). Conclusions and Relevance: In this large prospective cohort, higher plant protein intake was associated with small reductions in risk of overall and cardiovascular disease mortality. Our findings provide evidence that dietary modification in choice of protein sources may influence health and longevity.

5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1800-1808, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) is associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer. Genome-wide interaction analysis on single variants (G × E) has identified several SNPs that may interact with NSAIDs to confer colorectal cancer risk, but variations in gene expression levels may also modify the effect of NSAID use. Therefore, we tested interactions between NSAID use and predicted gene expression levels in relation to colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: Genetically predicted gene expressions were tested for interaction with NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk among 19,258 colorectal cancer cases and 18,597 controls from 21 observational studies. A Mixed Score Test for Interactions (MiSTi) approach was used to jointly assess G × E effects which are modeled via fixed interaction effects of the weighted burden within each gene set (burden) and residual G × E effects (variance). A false discovery rate (FDR) at 0.2 was applied to correct for multiple testing. RESULTS: Among the 4,840 genes tested, genetically predicted expression levels of four genes modified the effect of any NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk, including DPP10 (PG×E = 1.96 × 10-4), KRT16 (PG×E = 2.3 × 10-4), CD14 (PG×E = 9.38 × 10-4), and CYP27A1 (PG×E = 1.44 × 10-3). There was a significant interaction between expression level of RP11-89N17 and regular use of aspirin only on colorectal cancer risk (PG×E = 3.23 × 10-5). No interactions were observed between predicted gene expression and nonaspirin NSAID use at FDR < 0.2. CONCLUSIONS: By incorporating functional information, we discovered several novel genes that interacted with NSAID use. IMPACT: These findings provide preliminary support that could help understand the chemopreventive mechanisms of NSAIDs on colorectal cancer.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(7): 1329-1334, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin E is an essential micronutrient and critical human antioxidant previously tested for cancer preventative effects with conflicting clinical trial results that have yet to be explained biologically. METHODS: We examined baseline and on-trial serum samples for 154 men randomly assigned to receive 400 IU vitamin E (as alpha-tocopheryl acetate; ATA) or placebo daily in the Vitamin E Atherosclerosis Prevention Study (VEAPS), and for 100 men administered 50 IU ATA or placebo daily in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC). Over 970 metabolites were identified using ultrahigh-performance LC/MS-MS. Linear regression models estimated the change in serum metabolites of men supplemented with vitamin E versus those receiving placebo in VEAPS as compared with ATBC. RESULTS: Serum alpha-carboxyethyl hydrochroman (CEHC) sulfate, alpha-tocopherol, and beta/gamma-tocopherol were significantly altered by ATA supplementation in both trials (all P values ≤5.1 × 10-5, the Bonferroni multiple comparisons corrected statistical threshold). Serum C22 lactone sulfate was significantly decreased in response to the high-dose vitamin E in VEAPS (ß = -0.70, P = 8.1 × 10-6), but not altered by the low dose in ATBC (ß = -0.17, P = 0.4). In addition, changes in androgenic steroid metabolites were strongly correlated with the vitamin E supplement-associated change in C22 lactone sulfate only in the VEAPS trial. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence of a dose-dependent vitamin E supplementation effect on a novel C22 lactone sulfate compound that was correlated with several androgenic steroids. IMPACT: Our data add information on a differential hormonal response based on vitamin E dose that could have direct relevance to opposing prostate cancer incidence results from previous large controlled trials.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(4): 860-870, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from epidemiologic studies examining polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and colorectal cancer risk are inconsistent. Mendelian randomization may strengthen causal inference from observational studies. Given their shared metabolic pathway, examining the combined effects of aspirin/NSAID use with PUFAs could help elucidate an association between PUFAs and colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: Information was leveraged from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) regarding PUFA-associated SNPs to create weighted genetic scores (wGS) representing genetically predicted circulating blood PUFAs for 11,016 non-Hispanic white colorectal cancer cases and 13,732 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Associations per SD increase in the wGS were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Interactions between PUFA wGSs and aspirin/NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk were also examined. RESULTS: Modest colorectal cancer risk reductions were observed per SD increase in circulating linoleic acid [ORLA = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93-0.98; P = 5.2 × 10-4] and α-linolenic acid (ORALA = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.92-0.97; P = 5.4 × 10-5), whereas modest increased risks were observed for arachidonic (ORAA = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.03-1.08; P = 3.3 × 10-5), eicosapentaenoic (OREPA = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.01-1.07; P = 2.5 × 10-3), and docosapentaenoic acids (ORDPA = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.01-1.06; P = 1.2 × 10-2). Each of these effects was stronger among aspirin/NSAID nonusers in the stratified analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that higher circulating shorter-chain PUFAs (i.e., LA and ALA) were associated with reduced colorectal cancer risk, whereas longer-chain PUFAs (i.e., AA, EPA, and DPA) were associated with an increased colorectal cancer risk. IMPACT: The interaction of PUFAs with aspirin/NSAID use indicates a shared colorectal cancer inflammatory pathway. Future research should continue to improve PUFA genetic instruments to elucidate the independent effects of PUFAs on colorectal cancer.

8.
Gut ; 69(11): 2008-2015, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060129

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether prediagnostic metabolites were associated with incident pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in a prospective cohort study. DESIGN: We conducted an untargeted analysis of 554 known metabolites measured in prediagnostic serum (up to 24 years) to determine their association with incident PDAC in a nested case-control study of male smokers (372 matched case-control sets) and an independent nested case-control study that included women and non-smokers (107 matched sets). Metabolites were measured using Orbitrap Elite or Q-Exactive high-resolution/accurate mass spectrometers. Controls were matched to cases by age, sex, race, date of blood draw, and follow-up time. We used conditional logistic regression adjusted for age to calculate ORs and 95% CIs for a 1 SD increase in log-metabolite level separately in each cohort and combined the two ORs using a fixed-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-one metabolites were significantly associated with PDAC at a false discovery rate <0.05 with 12 metabolites below the Bonferroni-corrected threshold (p<9.04×10-5). Similar associations were observed in both cohorts. The dipeptides glycylvaline, aspartylphenylalanine, pyroglutamylglycine, phenylalanylphenylalanine, phenylalanylleucine and tryptophylglutamate and amino acids aspartate and glutamate were positively while the dipeptides tyrosylglutamine and α-glutamyltyrosine, fibrinogen cleavage peptide DSGEGDFXAEGGGVR and glutathione-related amino acid cysteine-glutathione disulfide were inversely associated with PDAC after Bonferroni correction. Five top metabolites demonstrated significant time-varying associations (p<0.023) with the strongest associations observed 10-15 years after participants' blood collection and attenuated thereafter. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that prediagnostic metabolites related to subclinical disease, γ-glutamyl cycle metabolism and adiposity/insulin resistance are associated with PDAC.

9.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(6): 532-542, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612201

RESUMO

Retinol, the most biologically active form of vitamin A, might influence cancer-related biological pathways. However, results from observational studies of serum retinol and cancer risk have been mixed. We prospectively examined serum retinol and risk of overall and site-specific cancer in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (n = 29,104 men), conducted in 1985-1993, with follow-up through 2012. Serum retinol concentration was measured using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Cox proportional hazards models estimated the association between baseline serum retinol quintile and overall and site-specific cancer risk in 10,789 cases. After multivariable adjustment, higher serum retinol was not associated with overall cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintile: hazard ratio (HR) = 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.91, 1.03; P for trend = 0.43). Higher retinol concentrations were, however, associated with increased risk of prostate cancer (highest vs. lowest quintile: HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.45; P for trend < 0.0001) and lower risk of both liver and lung cancers (highest vs. lowest quintile: for liver, HR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.42, 0.91; P for trend = 0.004; and for lung, HR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.72, 0.88; P for trend < 0.0001). No associations with other cancers were observed. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie these associations might provide insight into the role of vitamin A in cancer etiology.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , alfa-Tocoferol/sangue , beta Caroteno/sangue , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dieta , Método Duplo-Cego , Exercício Físico , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Características de Residência , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , alfa-Tocoferol/administração & dosagem , beta Caroteno/administração & dosagem
10.
Int J Cancer ; 147(3): 669-674, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659740

RESUMO

Our group has conducted two previous studies on the association between vitamin D binding protein (DBP) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the most common form of kidney cancer, finding strong inverse associations. We undertook the current analysis to replicate our findings in a different study population that included women and nonsmokers. We conducted a nested case-control study in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO). Cases (n = 323) were matched 1:1 to controls on age (±1 year), race/ethnicity, date of blood collection (±30 days) and sex. We performed conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between quartiles of circulating DBP and risk of RCC. We observed a statistically significant positive association between DBP and RCC that persisted after adjustment for history of diabetes, history of hypertension, family history of renal cancer, body mass index and smoking status (mv-adj Q4 vs. Q1 OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 2.2-7.8; p-trend <0.0001). These findings were similar when we restricted to cases with at least 2 years of follow-up and no major weight loss, suggesting that our findings are not due to reverse causality. In the present study, those with higher serum concentrations of DBP were at increased risk of RCC, in contrast to previously published findings. Further research is necessary to determine the true association between DBP and risk of RCC, and whether different DBP phenotypes may have different associations with risk of RCC.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 861-873, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037736

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, while studies have consistently reported elevated risk of CRC among heavy drinkers, associations at moderate levels of alcohol consumption are less clear. We conducted a combined analysis of 16 studies of CRC to examine the shape of the alcohol-CRC association, investigate potential effect modifiers of the association, and examine differential effects of alcohol consumption by cancer anatomic site and stage. We collected information on alcohol consumption for 14,276 CRC cases and 15,802 controls from 5 case-control and 11 nested case-control studies of CRC. We compared adjusted logistic regression models with linear and restricted cubic splines to select a model that best fit the association between alcohol consumption and CRC. Study-specific results were pooled using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Compared to non-/occasional drinking (≤1 g/day), light/moderate drinking (up to 2 drinks/day) was associated with a decreased risk of CRC (odds ratio [OR]: 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-0.98, p = 0.005), heavy drinking (2-3 drinks/day) was not significantly associated with CRC risk (OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.99-1.24, p = 0.08) and very heavy drinking (more than 3 drinks/day) was associated with a significant increased risk (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.11-1.40, p < 0.001). We observed no evidence of interactions with lifestyle risk factors or of differences by cancer site or stage. These results provide further evidence that there is a J-shaped association between alcohol consumption and CRC risk. This overall pattern was not significantly modified by other CRC risk factors and there was no effect heterogeneity by tumor site or stage.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
12.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(2): 191-199, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic data are inconsistent regarding the vitamin E-lung cancer association, and no study to our knowledge has examined serologic changes in vitamin E status in relation to subsequent risk. METHODS: In a cohort of 22 781 male smokers in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, we ascertained 3184 lung cancer cases during up to 28 years of observation. Cox proportional hazards models examined whether higher serum alpha-tocopherol concentrations at baseline, 3 years, or the interval change were associated with lower lung cancer risk. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking intensity and duration, serum total cholesterol, and trial intervention group, we found lower lung cancer risk in men with high baseline alpha-tocopherol (fifth quintile [Q5] vs Q1, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.66 to 0.87, Ptrend < .001). A similar reduction in risk was seen for serum alpha-tocopherol at 3 years (Q5 vs Q1, HR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.67 to 0.91, Ptrend = .004). The inverse risk association appeared stronger for younger men and those who had smoked fewer years but was similar across trial intervention groups. We also found reduced risk among men not supplemented with vitamin E who had a lower serum alpha-tocopherol at baseline and greater increases in concentrations at 3 years (third tertile vs first tertile of serum alpha-tocopherol change, HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.59 to 0.91, P = .005). CONCLUSIONS: Higher vitamin E status, as measured by serum alpha-tocopherol concentration, as well as repletion of a low vitamin E state, was related to decreased lung cancer risk during a 28-year period. Our findings provide evidence supporting the importance of adequate physiological vitamin E status for lung cancer risk reduction.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Vitamina E/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
13.
Int J Cancer ; 146(9): 2394-2405, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276202

RESUMO

Cell-mediated immune suppression may play an important role in lung carcinogenesis. We investigated the associations for circulating levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine:tryptophan ratio (KTR), quinolinic acid (QA) and neopterin as markers of immune regulation and inflammation with lung cancer risk in 5,364 smoking-matched case-control pairs from 20 prospective cohorts included in the international Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium. All biomarkers were quantified by mass spectrometry-based methods in serum/plasma samples collected on average 6 years before lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lung cancer associated with individual biomarkers were calculated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for circulating cotinine. Compared to the lowest quintile, the highest quintiles of kynurenine, KTR, QA and neopterin were associated with a 20-30% higher risk, and tryptophan with a 15% lower risk of lung cancer (all ptrend < 0.05). The strongest associations were seen for current smokers, where the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of lung cancer for the highest quintile of KTR, QA and neopterin were 1.42 (1.15-1.75), 1.42 (1.14-1.76) and 1.45 (1.13-1.86), respectively. A stronger association was also seen for KTR and QA with risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma followed by adenocarcinoma, and for lung cancer diagnosed within the first 2 years after blood draw. This study demonstrated that components of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway with immunomodulatory effects are associated with risk of lung cancer overall, especially for current smokers. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of these biomarkers in lung carcinogenesis and progression.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Inflamação/complicações , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/sangue , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/imunologia , Cinurenina/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neopterina/sangue , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/sangue , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/etiologia , Triptofano/sangue
14.
Gastroenterology ; 158(5): 1274-1286.e12, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC, in persons younger than 50 years old) is increasing in incidence; yet, in the absence of a family history of CRC, this population lacks harmonized recommendations for prevention. We aimed to determine whether a polygenic risk score (PRS) developed from 95 CRC-associated common genetic risk variants was associated with risk for early-onset CRC. METHODS: We studied risk for CRC associated with a weighted PRS in 12,197 participants younger than 50 years old vs 95,865 participants 50 years or older. PRS was calculated based on single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with CRC in a large-scale genome-wide association study as of January 2019. Participants were pooled from 3 large consortia that provided clinical and genotyping data: the Colon Cancer Family Registry, the Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study, and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and were all of genetically defined European descent. Findings were replicated in an independent cohort of 72,573 participants. RESULTS: Overall associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS were significant for early-onset cancer, and were stronger compared with late-onset cancer (P for interaction = .01); when we compared the highest PRS quartile with the lowest, risk increased 3.7-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.28-4.24) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.80-3.04). This association was strongest for participants without a first-degree family history of CRC (P for interaction = 5.61 × 10-5). When we compared the highest with the lowest quartiles in this group, risk increased 4.3-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.61-5.01) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.70-3.00). Sensitivity analyses were consistent with these findings. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS, we found the cumulative burden of CRC-associated common genetic variants to associate with early-onset cancer, and to be more strongly associated with early-onset than late-onset cancer, particularly in the absence of CRC family history. Analyses of PRS, along with environmental and lifestyle risk factors, might identify younger individuals who would benefit from preventive measures.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Idade de Início , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
15.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(2): 477-486, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk variants identified so far for colorectal cancer explain only a small proportion of familial risk of this cancer, particularly in Asians. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of colorectal cancer in East Asians, including 23,572 colorectal cancer cases and 48,700 controls. To identify novel risk loci, we selected 60 promising risk variants for replication using data from 58,131 colorectal cancer cases and 67,347 controls of European descent. To identify additional risk variants in known colorectal cancer loci, we performed conditional analyses in East Asians. RESULTS: An indel variant, rs67052019 at 1p13.3, was found to be associated with colorectal cancer risk at P = 3.9 × 10-8 in Asians (OR per allele deletion = 1.13, 95% confidence interval = 1.08-1.18). This association was replicated in European descendants using a variant (rs2938616) in complete linkage disequilibrium with rs67052019 (P = 7.7 × 10-3). Of the remaining 59 variants, 12 showed an association at P < 0.05 in the European-ancestry study, including rs11108175 and rs9634162 at P < 5 × 10-8 and two variants with an association near the genome-wide significance level (rs60911071, P = 5.8 × 10-8; rs62558833, P = 7.5 × 10-8) in the combined analyses of Asian- and European-ancestry data. In addition, using data from East Asians, we identified 13 new risk variants at 11 loci reported from previous GWAS. CONCLUSIONS: In this large GWAS, we identified three novel risk loci and two highly suggestive loci for colorectal cancer risk and provided evidence for potential roles of multiple genes and pathways in the etiology of colorectal cancer. In addition, we showed that additional risk variants exist in many colorectal cancer risk loci identified previously. IMPACT: Our study provides novel data to improve the understanding of the genetic basis for colorectal cancer risk.

16.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(3): 286-294, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coffee has been consistently associated with lower risk of liver cancer and chronic liver disease, suggesting that coffee affects mechanisms underlying disease development. METHODS: We measured serum metabolites using untargeted metabolomics in 1:1 matched nested case-control studies of liver cancer (n = 221 cases) and fatal liver disease (n = 242 cases) in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention cohort (n = 29 133). Associations between baseline coffee drinking and metabolites were identified using linear regression; conditional logistic regression models were used to identify associations with subsequent outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, 21 metabolites were associated with coffee drinking and also each subsequent endpoint; nine metabolites and trigonelline, a known coffee biomarker, were identified. Tyrosine and two bile acids, glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA) and glycocholic acid (GCA), were inversely associated with coffee but positively associated with both outcomes; odds ratios (ORs) comparing the 90th to 10th percentile (modeled on a continuous basis) ranged from 3.93 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.00 to 7.74) for tyrosine to 4.95 (95% CI = 2.64 to 9.29) for GCA and from 4.00 (95% CI = 2.42 to 6.62) for GCA to 6.77 (95% CI = 3.62 to 12.65) for GCDCA for liver cancer and fatal liver disease, respectively. The remaining six metabolites and trigonelline were positively associated with coffee drinking but inversely associated with both outcomes; odds ratio ranged from 0.16 to 0.37. Associations persisted following diet adjustment and for outcomes occurring greater than 10 years after blood collection. CONCLUSIONS: A broad range of compounds were associated with coffee drinking, incident liver cancer, and liver disease death over 27 years of follow-up. These associations provide novel insight into chronic liver disease and liver cancer etiology and support a possible hepatoprotective effect of coffee.


Assuntos
Café , Hepatopatias/sangue , Hepatopatias/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Idoso , Alcaloides/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Ácido Glicoquenodesoxicólico/sangue , Ácido Glicocólico/sangue , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Circ Res ; 125(1): 29-40, 2019 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219752

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Although there has been a long-standing interest in the human health effects of vitamin E, a comprehensive analysis of the association between circulating vitamin E and long-term mortality has not been conducted. OBJECTIVE: Determine whether serum α-tocopherol (the predominant form of vitamin E) is related to long-term overall and cause-specific mortality and elucidate the dose-response relationships with better quantification of the associations. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a biochemical analysis of 29 092 participants in the ATBC Study (Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention) that originally tested vitamin E and ß-carotene supplementation. Serum α-tocopherol was measured at baseline using high-performance liquid chromatography, and during a 30-year follow-up we identified 23 787 deaths, including deaths from cardiovascular disease (9867), cancer (7687), respiratory disease (2161), diabetes mellitus (119), injuries and accidents (1255), and other causes (2698). After adjusting for major risk factors, we found that men with higher serum α-tocopherol had significantly lower all-cause mortality (hazard ratios=0.83, 0.79, 0.75, and 0.78 for quintile 2 (Q2)-Q5 versus Q1, respectively; Ptrend<0.0001), and significantly decreased mortality from cardiovascular disease, heart disease, stroke, cancer, respiratory disease, and other causes, with risk reductions from 17% to 47% for the highest versus lowest quintile. The α-tocopherol association with overall mortality was similar across subgroups of smoking intensity, years of smoking, alcohol consumption, trial supplementation, and duration of follow-up. The association was, however, significantly modified by baseline age and body mass index, with stronger inverse associations for younger men and men with a lower body mass index ( Pinteraction≤0.006). CONCLUSIONS: In this long-term prospective cohort study, higher baseline serum α-tocopherol biochemical status was associated with lower risk of overall mortality and mortality from all major causes. Our data support the long-term health benefits of higher serum α-tocopherol for overall and chronic disease mortality and should be replicated in other more diverse populations.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Suplementos Nutricionais , alfa-Tocoferol/administração & dosagem , alfa-Tocoferol/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Cancer Res ; 79(15): 3973-3982, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113819

RESUMO

Biliary tract cancers are rare but highly fatal with poorly understood etiology. Identifying potentially modifiable risk factors for these cancers is essential for prevention. Here we estimated the relationship between adiposity and cancer across the biliary tract, including cancers of the gallbladder (GBC), intrahepatic bile ducts (IHBDC), extrahepatic bile ducts (EHBDC), and the ampulla of Vater (AVC). We pooled data from 27 prospective cohorts with over 2.7 million adults. Adiposity was measured using baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip, and waist-to-height ratios. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for sex, education, race, smoking, and alcohol consumption with age as the time metric and the baseline hazard stratified by study. During 37,883,648 person-years of follow-up, 1,343 GBC cases, 1,194 EHBDC cases, 784 IHBDC cases, and 623 AVC cases occurred. For each 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI, there were risk increases for GBC (HR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.19-1.36), IHBDC (HR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.21-1.45), and EHBDC (HR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.23), but not AVC (HR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.88-1.11). Increasing waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio were associated with GBC and IHBDC but not EHBDC or AVC. These results indicate that adult adiposity is associated with an increased risk of biliary tract cancer, particularly GBC and IHBDC. Moreover, they provide evidence for recommending weight maintenance programs to reduce the risk of developing these cancers. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings identify a correlation between adiposity and biliary tract cancers, indicating that weight management programs may help minimize the risk of these diseases.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(12): 1263-1278, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco and alcohol are well-established risk factors for numerous cancers, yet their relationship to biliary tract cancers remains unclear. METHODS: We pooled data from 26 prospective studies to evaluate associations of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with biliary tract cancer risk. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations with smoking and alcohol consumption were calculated. Random-effects meta-analysis produced summary estimates. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Over a period of 38 369 156 person-years of follow-up, 1391 gallbladder, 758 intrahepatic bile duct, 1208 extrahepatic bile duct, and 623 ampulla of Vater cancer cases were identified. Ever, former, and current smoking were associated with increased extrahepatic bile duct and ampulla of Vater cancers risk (eg, current vs never smokers HR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.34 to 2.13 and 2.22, 95% CI = 1.69 to 2.92, respectively), with dose-response effects for smoking pack-years, duration, and intensity (all Ptrend < .01). Current smoking and smoking intensity were also associated with intrahepatic bile duct cancer (eg, >40 cigarettes per day vs never smokers HR = 2.15, 95 % CI = 1.15 to 4.00; Ptrend = .001). No convincing association was observed between smoking and gallbladder cancer. Alcohol consumption was only associated with intrahepatic bile duct cancer, with increased risk for individuals consuming five or more vs zero drinks per day (HR = 2.35, 95%CI = 1.46 to 3.78; Ptrend = .04). There was evidence of statistical heterogeneity among several cancer sites, particularly between gallbladder cancer and the other biliary tract cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking appears to increase the risk of developing all biliary tract cancers except gallbladder cancer. Alcohol may increase the risk of intrahepatic bile duct cancer. Findings highlight etiologic heterogeneity across the biliary tract.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/etiologia , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/etiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Ampola Hepatopancreática , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/epidemiologia , Ductos Biliares Extra-Hepáticos , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco/etiologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Ex-Fumantes , Feminino , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia
20.
Ann Epidemiol ; 34: 33-39, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023511

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated the association of coffee and tea drinking with risk of the urinary tract cancer in Finnish men, with high coffee consumption, using data from the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. METHODS: The ATBC trial conducted from 1985 to 1993 enrolled 29,133 male smokers. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs), using men who drank more than 0 but less than 1 cup coffee/d and tea nondrinkers as our referent group for coffee and tea analyses, respectively. RESULTS: During 472,402 person-years of follow-up, 835 incident cases of bladder cancer and 366 cases of renal cell carcinoma were ascertained. For bladder cancer, we observed no association for coffee consumption (HR ≥4 vs. >0 to <1 cups/d = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.86-1.56) and a borderline statistically significant inverse association for tea consumption (HR ≥1 vs. 0 cup/d = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.58-1.00). For renal cell carcinoma, we observed no association for coffee (HR ≥4 vs. >0 to <1 cups/d = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.55-1.32) or tea consumption (HR ≥1 vs. 0 cup/d = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.68-1.46). We found no impact of coffee preparation on coffee-cancer associations. CONCLUSIONS: Coffee drinking was not associated with urinary tract cancers risk. Further research on tea and bladder cancer is warranted.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/epidemiologia , Café/efeitos adversos , Chá/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Urológicas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Renais/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/etiologia , Neoplasias Urológicas/etiologia , alfa-Tocoferol , beta Caroteno
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