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1.
Clin Trials ; 17(5): 562-566, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666813

RESUMO

There is currently a lack of consensus and uncertainty about whether one should adjust for multiple testing in multi-arm trials of distinct treatments. A detailed rationale is presented to justify non-adjustment in this situation. We argue that non-adjustment should be the default starting position in simple multi-arm trials of distinct treatments.

2.
Trials ; 21(1): 528, 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546273

RESUMO

Adaptive designs (ADs) allow pre-planned changes to an ongoing trial without compromising the validity of conclusions and it is essential to distinguish pre-planned from unplanned changes that may also occur. The reporting of ADs in randomised trials is inconsistent and needs improving. Incompletely reported AD randomised trials are difficult to reproduce and are hard to interpret and synthesise. This consequently hampers their ability to inform practice as well as future research and contributes to research waste. Better transparency and adequate reporting will enable the potential benefits of ADs to be realised.This extension to the Consolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) 2010 statement was developed to enhance the reporting of randomised AD clinical trials. We developed an Adaptive designs CONSORT Extension (ACE) guideline through a two-stage Delphi process with input from multidisciplinary key stakeholders in clinical trials research in the public and private sectors from 21 countries, followed by a consensus meeting. Members of the CONSORT Group were involved during the development process.The paper presents the ACE checklists for AD randomised trial reports and abstracts, as well as an explanation with examples to aid the application of the guideline. The ACE checklist comprises seven new items, nine modified items, six unchanged items for which additional explanatory text clarifies further considerations for ADs, and 20 unchanged items not requiring further explanatory text. The ACE abstract checklist has one new item, one modified item, one unchanged item with additional explanatory text for ADs, and 15 unchanged items not requiring further explanatory text.The intention is to enhance transparency and improve reporting of AD randomised trials to improve the interpretability of their results and reproducibility of their methods, results and inference. We also hope indirectly to facilitate the much-needed knowledge transfer of innovative trial designs to maximise their potential benefits. In order to encourage its wide dissemination this article is freely accessible on the BMJ and Trials journal websites."To maximise the benefit to society, you need to not just do research but do it well" Douglas G Altman.

3.
BMJ ; 369: m115, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554564

RESUMO

Adaptive designs (ADs) allow pre-planned changes to an ongoing trial without compromising the validity of conclusions and it is essential to distinguish pre-planned from unplanned changes that may also occur. The reporting of ADs in randomised trials is inconsistent and needs improving. Incompletely reported AD randomised trials are difficult to reproduce and are hard to interpret and synthesise. This consequently hampers their ability to inform practice as well as future research and contributes to research waste. Better transparency and adequate reporting will enable the potential benefits of ADs to be realised.This extension to the Consolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) 2010 statement was developed to enhance the reporting of randomised AD clinical trials. We developed an Adaptive designs CONSORT Extension (ACE) guideline through a two-stage Delphi process with input from multidisciplinary key stakeholders in clinical trials research in the public and private sectors from 21 countries, followed by a consensus meeting. Members of the CONSORT Group were involved during the development process.The paper presents the ACE checklists for AD randomised trial reports and abstracts, as well as an explanation with examples to aid the application of the guideline. The ACE checklist comprises seven new items, nine modified items, six unchanged items for which additional explanatory text clarifies further considerations for ADs, and 20 unchanged items not requiring further explanatory text. The ACE abstract checklist has one new item, one modified item, one unchanged item with additional explanatory text for ADs, and 15 unchanged items not requiring further explanatory text.The intention is to enhance transparency and improve reporting of AD randomised trials to improve the interpretability of their results and reproducibility of their methods, results and inference. We also hope indirectly to facilitate the much-needed knowledge transfer of innovative trial designs to maximise their potential benefits.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Consenso , Editoração/normas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Lista de Checagem/normas , Técnica Delfos , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Controle de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 102, 2020 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk prediction after myocardial infarction is often complex in older patients. The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) model includes clinical parameters and age, but not frailty. We hypothesised that frailty would enhance the prognostic properties of GRACE. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational cohort study in two independent cardiology units: the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, UK (primary cohort) and the South Yorkshire Cardiothoracic Centre, Sheffield, UK (external validation). The study sample included 198 patients ≥65 years old hospitalised with type 1 myocardial infarction (primary cohort) and 96 patients ≥65 years old undergoing cardiac catheterisation for myocardial infarction (external validation). Frailty was assessed using the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). The GRACE 2.0 estimated risk of 12-month mortality, Charlson comorbidity index and Karnofsky disability scale were also determined for each patient. RESULTS: Forty (20%) patients were frail (CFS ≥5). These individuals had greater comorbidity, functional impairment and a higher risk of death at 12 months (49% vs. 9% in non-frail patients, p < 0.001). The hazard of 12-month all-cause mortality nearly doubled per point increase in CFS after adjustment for age, sex and comorbidity (Hazard Ratio [HR] 1.90, 95% CI 1.47-2.44, p < 0.001). The CFS had good discrimination for mortality by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis (Area Under the Curve [AUC] 0.81, 95% CI 0.72-0.89) and enhanced the GRACE estimate (AUC 0.86 vs. 0.80 without CFS, p = 0.04). At existing GRACE thresholds, the CFS resulted in a Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI) of 0.44 (95% CI 0.28-0.60, p < 0.001), largely through reductions in risk estimates amongst non-frail patients. Similar findings were observed in the external validation cohort (NRI 0.46, 95% CI 0.23-0.69, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The GRACE score overestimated mortality risk after myocardial infarction in these cohorts of older patients. The CFS is a simple guided frailty tool that may enhance prediction in this setting. These findings merit evaluation in larger cohorts of unselected patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT02302014 (November 26th 2014, retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
7.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227471, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delirium is a common and serious acute neuropsychiatric syndrome which is often missed in routine clinical care. Inattention is the core cognitive feature. Diagnostic test accuracy (including cut-points) of a smartphone Delirium App (DelApp) for assessing attention deficits was assessed in older hospital inpatients. METHODS: This was a case-control study of hospitalised patients aged ≥65 years with delirium (with or without pre-existing cognitive impairment), who were compared to patients with dementia without delirium, and patients without cognitive impairment. Reference standard delirium assessment, which included a neuropsychological test battery, was based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 criteria. A separate blinded assessor administered the DelApp arousal assessment (score 0-4) and attention task (0-6) yielding an overall score of 0 to 10 (lower scores indicate poorer performance). Analyses included receiver operating characteristic curves and sensitivity and specificity. Optimal cut-points for delirium detection were determined using Youden's index. RESULTS: A total of 187 patients were recruited, mean age 83.8 (range 67-98) years, 152 (81%) women; n = 61 with delirium; n = 61 with dementia without delirium; and n = 65 without cognitive impairment. Patients with delirium performed poorly on the DelApp (median score = 4/10; inter-quartile range 3.0, 5.5) compared to patients with dementia (9.0; 5.5, 10.0) and those without cognitive impairment (10.0; 10.0, 10.0). Area under the curve for detecting delirium was 0.89 (95% Confidence Interval 0.84, 0.94). At an optimal cut-point of ≤8, sensitivity was 91.7% (84.7%, 98.7%) and specificity 74.2% (66.5%, 81.9%) for discriminating delirium from the other groups. Specificity was 68.3% (56.6%, 80.1%) for discriminating delirium from dementia (cut-point ≤6). CONCLUSION: Patients with delirium (with or without pre-existing cognitive impairment) perform poorly on the DelApp compared to patients with dementia and those without cognitive impairment. A cut-point of ≤8/10 is suggested as having optimal sensitivity and specificity. The DelApp is a promising tool for assessment of attention deficits associated with delirium in older hospitalised adults, many of whom have prior cognitive impairment, and should be further validated in representative patient cohorts.


Assuntos
Delírio/diagnóstico , Aplicativos Móveis , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Delírio/complicações , Demência/complicações , Demência/patologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Smartphone
8.
Lancet Neurol ; 19(3): 214-225, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurodegeneration is the pathological substrate that causes major disability in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. A synthesis of preclinical and clinical research identified three neuroprotective drugs acting on different axonal pathobiologies. We aimed to test the efficacy of these drugs in an efficient manner with respect to time, cost, and patient resource. METHODS: We did a phase 2b, multiarm, parallel group, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial at 13 clinical neuroscience centres in the UK. We recruited patients (aged 25-65 years) with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis who were not on disease-modifying treatment and who had an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score of 4·0-6·5. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) at baseline, by a research nurse using a centralised web-based service, to receive twice-daily oral treatment of either amiloride 5 mg, fluoxetine 20 mg, riluzole 50 mg, or placebo for 96 weeks. The randomisation procedure included minimisation based on sex, age, EDSS score at randomisation, and trial site. Capsules were identical in appearance to achieve masking. Patients, investigators, and MRI readers were unaware of treatment allocation. The primary outcome measure was volumetric MRI percentage brain volume change (PBVC) from baseline to 96 weeks, analysed using multiple regression, adjusting for baseline normalised brain volume and minimisation criteria. The primary analysis was a complete-case analysis based on the intention-to-treat population (all patients with data at week 96). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01910259. FINDINGS: Between Jan 29, 2015, and June 22, 2016, 445 patients were randomly allocated amiloride (n=111), fluoxetine (n=111), riluzole (n=111), or placebo (n=112). The primary analysis included 393 patients who were allocated amiloride (n=99), fluoxetine (n=96), riluzole (n=99), and placebo (n=99). No difference was noted between any active treatment and placebo in PBVC (amiloride vs placebo, 0·0% [95% CI -0·4 to 0·5; p=0·99]; fluoxetine vs placebo -0·1% [-0·5 to 0·3; p=0·86]; riluzole vs placebo -0·1% [-0·6 to 0·3; p=0·77]). No emergent safety issues were reported. The incidence of serious adverse events was low and similar across study groups (ten [9%] patients in the amiloride group, seven [6%] in the fluoxetine group, 12 [11%] in the riluzole group, and 13 [12%] in the placebo group). The most common serious adverse events were infections and infestations. Three patients died during the study, from causes judged unrelated to active treatment; one patient assigned amiloride died from metastatic lung cancer, one patient assigned riluzole died from ischaemic heart disease and coronary artery thrombosis, and one patient assigned fluoxetine had a sudden death (primary cause) with multiple sclerosis and obesity listed as secondary causes. INTERPRETATION: The absence of evidence for neuroprotection in this adequately powered trial indicates that exclusively targeting these aspects of axonal pathobiology in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis is insufficient to mitigate neuroaxonal loss. These findings argue for investigation of different mechanistic targets and future consideration of combination treatment trials. This trial provides a template for future simultaneous testing of multiple disease-modifying medicines in neurological medicine. FUNDING: Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation (EME) Programme, an MRC and NIHR partnership, UK Multiple Sclerosis Society, and US National Multiple Sclerosis Society.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Amilorida/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fluoxetina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Riluzol/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Arch Dis Child ; 105(6): 569-574, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937568

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine temporal trends in incidence of Rolandic epilepsy (RE), prevalence of comorbidities and antiepileptic drug (AED) prescribing patterns. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: The UK. PATIENTS: Children aged 0-16 years born 1994-2012 were followed from birth until September 2017, transfer to another general practitioner practice or death or practice withdrawal from The Health Improvement Network (THIN), whichever occurred first. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of RE, prevalence of comorbidity and AED prescribing patterns. Read codes for comorbidities and AEDs were adapted from other UK population-based epilepsy studies. RESULTS: There were 379 children with first RE event recorded between 2000 and 2014 from active THIN practices with available mid-year population counts. Crude annual incidence across all years was 5.31/100 000 (95% CI 4.81 to 5.88). There was no significant time trend in adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRR) (0.99/year, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.02). Males had higher aIRR (1.48, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.82) as did children aged 6-8 and 9-11 years compared with 4-5 years (aIRR 2.43, 95% CI 1.73 to 3.40; aIRR 2.77, 95% CI 1.97 to 3.90, respectively). There was recorded comorbidity in 12% with 6% with a recorded diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder. Half of children with RE had a record of being prescribed AEDs. CONCLUSIONS: UK incidence of RE has remained stable with crude incidence of 5/100 000/year. Carers and clinicians need to be aware that comorbidities may exist, particularly pervasive developmental disorders. Carbamazepine is consistently the most commonly prescribed AED for RE in the UK.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Epilepsia Rolândica/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia Rolândica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
10.
Circulation ; 141(3): 161-171, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The introduction of more sensitive cardiac troponin assays has led to increased recognition of myocardial injury in acute illnesses other than acute coronary syndrome. The Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction recommends high-sensitivity cardiac troponin testing and classification of patients with myocardial injury based on pathogenesis, but the clinical implications of implementing this guideline are not well understood. METHODS: In a stepped-wedge cluster randomized, controlled trial, we implemented a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assay and the recommendations of the Universal Definition in 48 282 consecutive patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. In a prespecified secondary analysis, we compared the primary outcome of myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death and secondary outcome of noncardiovascular death at 1 year across diagnostic categories. RESULTS: Implementation increased the diagnosis of type 1 myocardial infarction by 11% (510/4471), type 2 myocardial infarction by 22% (205/916), and acute and chronic myocardial injury by 36% (443/1233) and 43% (389/898), respectively. Compared with those without myocardial injury, the rate of the primary outcome was highest in those with type 1 myocardial infarction (cause-specific hazard ratio [HR] 5.64 [95% CI, 5.12-6.22]), but was similar across diagnostic categories, whereas noncardiovascular deaths were highest in those with acute myocardial injury (cause specific HR 2.65 [95% CI, 2.33-3.01]). Despite modest increases in antiplatelet therapy and coronary revascularization after implementation in patients with type 1 myocardial infarction, the primary outcome was unchanged (cause specific HR 1.00 [95% CI, 0.82-1.21]). Increased recognition of type 2 myocardial infarction and myocardial injury did not lead to changes in investigation, treatment or outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays and the recommendations of the Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction identified patients at high-risk of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular events but was not associated with consistent increases in treatment or improved outcomes. Trials of secondary prevention are urgently required to determine whether this risk is modifiable in patients without type 1 myocardial infarction. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01852123.

11.
Int J Stroke ; 15(3): 318-323, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with stroke-associated pneumonia experience poorer outcomes (increased hospital stays, costs, discharge dependency, and risk of death). High-quality, organized oral healthcare may reduce the incidence of stroke-associated pneumonia and improve oral health and quality of life. AIMS: We piloted a pragmatic, stepped-wedge, cluster randomized controlled trial of clinical and cost effectiveness of enhanced versus usual oral healthcare for people in stroke rehabilitation settings. METHODS: Scottish stroke rehabilitation wards were randomly allocated to stepped time-points for conversion from usual to enhanced oral healthcare. All admissions and nursing staff were eligible for inclusion. We piloted the viability of randomization, intervention, data collection, record linkage procedures, our sample size, screening, and recruitment estimates. The stepped-wedge trial design prevented full blinding of outcome assessors and staff. Predetermined criteria for progression included the validity of enhanced oral healthcare intervention (training, oral healthcare protocol, assessment, equipment), data collection, and stroke-associated pneumonia event rate and relationship between stroke-associated pneumonia and plaque. RESULTS: We screened 1548/2613 (59%) admissions to four wards, recruiting n = 325 patients and n = 112 nurses. We observed marked between-site diversity in admissions, recruitment populations, stroke-associated pneumonia events (0% to 21%), training, and resource use. No adverse events were reported. Oral healthcare documentation was poor. We found no evidence of a difference in stroke-associated pneumonia between enhanced versus usual oral healthcare (P = 0.62, odds ratio = 0.61, confidence interval: 0.08 to 4.42). CONCLUSIONS: Our stepped-wedge cluster randomized control trial accommodated between-site diversity. The stroke-associated pneumonia event rate did not meet our predetermined progression criteria. We did not meet our predefined progression criteria including the SAP event rate and consequently were unable to establish whether there is a relationship between SAP and plaque. A wide confidence interval did not exclude the possibility that enhanced oral healthcare may result in a benefit or detrimental effect. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01954212.

12.
J Biopharm Stat ; 30(2): 364-376, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887069

RESUMO

In clinical trials, surrogate outcomes are early measures of treatment effect that are used to predict treatment effect on a later primary outcome of interest: the primary outcome therefore does not need to be observed and trials can be shortened. Evaluating surrogates is a complex area as a given treatment can act through multiple pathways, some of which may circumvent the surrogate. One of the best established and practically sound approaches to surrogacy evaluation is based on information theory. We have extended this approach to the case of ordinal outcomes, which are used as primary outcomes in many medical areas. This extension provides researchers with the means of evaluating surrogates in this setting, which expands the usefulness of the information theory approach while also demonstrating its versatility.

13.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(16): 2032-2043, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major disparities between women and men in the diagnosis, management, and outcomes of acute coronary syndrome are well recognized. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of implementing a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I assay with sex-specific diagnostic thresholds for myocardial infarction in women and men with suspected acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: Consecutive patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome were enrolled in a stepped-wedge, cluster-randomized controlled trial across 10 hospitals. Myocardial injury was defined as high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I concentration >99th centile of 16 ng/l in women and 34 ng/l in men. The primary outcome was recurrent myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death at 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 48,282 patients (47% women) were included. Use of the high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I assay with sex-specific thresholds increased myocardial injury in women by 42% and in men by 6%. Following implementation, women with myocardial injury remained less likely than men to undergo coronary revascularization (15% vs. 34%) and to receive dual antiplatelet (26% vs. 43%), statin (16% vs. 26%), or other preventive therapies (p < 0.001 for all). The primary outcome occurred in 18% (369 of 2,072) and 17% (488 of 2,919) of women with myocardial injury before and after implementation, respectively (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.11; 95% confidence interval: 0.92 to 1.33), compared with 18% (370 of 2,044) and 15% (513 of 3,325) of men (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.85; 95% confidence interval: 0.71 to 1.01). CONCLUSIONS: Use of sex-specific thresholds identified 5 times more additional women than men with myocardial injury. Despite this increase, women received approximately one-half the number of treatments for coronary artery disease as men, and outcomes were not improved. (High-Sensitivity Troponin in the Evaluation of Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome [High-STEACS]; NCT01852123).

14.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 138, 2019 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delirium affects > 15% of hospitalised patients but is grossly underdetected, contributing to poor care. The 4 'A's Test (4AT, www.the4AT.com ) is a short delirium assessment tool designed for routine use without special training. The primary objective was to assess the accuracy of the 4AT for delirium detection. The secondary objective was to compare the 4AT with another commonly used delirium assessment tool, the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM). METHODS: This was a prospective diagnostic test accuracy study set in emergency departments or acute medical wards involving acute medical patients aged ≥ 70. All those without acutely life-threatening illness or coma were eligible. Patients underwent (1) reference standard delirium assessment based on DSM-IV criteria and (2) were randomised to either the index test (4AT, scores 0-12; prespecified score of > 3 considered positive) or the comparator (CAM; scored positive or negative), in a random order, using computer-generated pseudo-random numbers, stratified by study site, with block allocation. Reference standard and 4AT or CAM assessments were performed by pairs of independent raters blinded to the results of the other assessment. RESULTS: Eight hundred forty-three individuals were randomised: 21 withdrew, 3 lost contact, 32 indeterminate diagnosis, 2 missing outcome, and 785 were included in the analysis. Mean age was 81.4 (SD 6.4) years. 12.1% (95/785) had delirium by reference standard assessment, 14.3% (56/392) by 4AT, and 4.7% (18/384) by CAM. The 4AT had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.90 (95% CI 0.84-0.96). The 4AT had a sensitivity of 76% (95% CI 61-87%) and a specificity of 94% (95% CI 92-97%). The CAM had a sensitivity of 40% (95% CI 26-57%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI 98-100%). CONCLUSIONS: The 4AT is a short, pragmatic tool which can help improving detection rates of delirium in routine clinical care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International standard randomised controlled trial number (ISRCTN) 53388093 . Date applied 30/05/2014; date assigned 02/06/2014.


Assuntos
Confusão/diagnóstico , Delírio/diagnóstico , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Lista de Checagem/métodos , Lista de Checagem/normas , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/normas , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
EBioMedicine ; 46: 423-430, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The POP Trial was a phase 1, open-label, rising-dose, randomised study that explored the safety and tolerability of calmangafodipir (superoxide dismutase mimetic) co-treatment with n-acetylcysteine (NAC) for paracetamol overdose. METHODS: Patients were recruited at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh (8th June 2017-10th May 2018). Inclusion criterion: adults within 24 h of a paracetamol overdose that required NAC. Within each of 3 sequential cohorts, participants were randomly assigned, with concealed allocation, to NAC and a single intravenous calmangafodipir dose (n = 6) or NAC alone (n = 2). Calmangafodipir doses were 2, 5, or 10 µmol/kg. Participants, study and clinical teams were not blinded. The primary outcome was safety and tolerability. Secondary outcomes were alanine transaminase (ALT), international normalised ratio (INR), keratin-18, caspase-cleaved keratin-18 (ccK18), microRNA-122, and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH). (Clinicaltrials.gov:NCT03177395). FINDINGS: All 24 participants received their allocated drug doses and were analysed. Primary endpoints: all participants experienced ≥1 adverse event (AE), most commonly gastrointestinal. Patients experiencing ≥1 serious adverse event (SAE): NAC alone, 2/6; NAC + calmangafodipir (2 µmol/kg), 4/6; NAC + calmangafodipir (5 µmol/kg), 2/6; NAC + calmangafodipir (10 µmol/kg), 3/6. No AEs or SAEs were probably or definitely calmangafodipir-related. Secondary safety outcomes demonstrated no differences between groups. With NAC alone, 2/6 had ALT > 100 U/L; with NAC + calmangafodipir, 0/18. No INR difference. Keratin-18 and ccK18 increased in the NAC alone group more than with calmangafodipir (baseline to 20 h fold change, NAC + calmangafodipir (5 µmol/kg) compared to NAC alone: 0.48 (95%CI 0.28-0.83)). microRNA-122 changes were similar to K18, GLDH was frequently undetected. INTERPRETATION: Calmangafodipir was tolerated when combined with NAC and may reduce biomarkers of paracetamol toxicity.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Acetaminofen/efeitos adversos , Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Ácido Edético/análogos & derivados , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Fosfato de Piridoxal/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Interações Medicamentosas , Overdose de Drogas , Ácido Edético/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fosfato de Piridoxal/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 19(1): 18, 2019 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658575

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The continual reassessment method (CRM) is a model-based design for phase I trials, which aims to find the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of a new therapy. The CRM has been shown to be more accurate in targeting the MTD than traditional rule-based approaches such as the 3 + 3 design, which is used in most phase I trials. Furthermore, the CRM has been shown to assign more trial participants at or close to the MTD than the 3 + 3 design. However, the CRM's uptake in clinical research has been incredibly slow, putting trial participants, drug development and patients at risk. Barriers to increasing the use of the CRM have been identified, most notably a lack of knowledge amongst clinicians and statisticians on how to apply new designs in practice. No recent tutorial, guidelines, or recommendations for clinicians on conducting dose-finding studies using the CRM are available. Furthermore, practical resources to support clinicians considering the CRM for their trials are scarce. METHODS: To help overcome these barriers, we present a structured framework for designing a dose-finding study using the CRM. We give recommendations for key design parameters and advise on conducting pre-trial simulation work to tailor the design to a specific trial. We provide practical tools to support clinicians and statisticians, including software recommendations, and template text and tables that can be edited and inserted into a trial protocol. We also give guidance on how to conduct and report dose-finding studies using the CRM. RESULTS: An initial set of design recommendations are provided to kick-start the design process. To complement these and the additional resources, we describe two published dose-finding trials that used the CRM. We discuss their designs, how they were conducted and analysed, and compare them to what would have happened under a 3 + 3 design. CONCLUSIONS: The framework and resources we provide are aimed at clinicians and statisticians new to the CRM design. Provision of key resources in this contemporary guidance paper will hopefully improve the uptake of the CRM in phase I dose-finding trials.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto/métodos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Projetos de Pesquisa , Simulação por Computador , Humanos
20.
BMC Med ; 16(1): 210, 2018 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adequate reporting of adaptive designs (ADs) maximises their potential benefits in the conduct of clinical trials. Transparent reporting can help address some obstacles and concerns relating to the use of ADs. Currently, there are deficiencies in the reporting of AD trials. To overcome this, we have developed a consensus-driven extension to the CONSORT statement for randomised trials using an AD. This paper describes the processes and methods used to develop this extension rather than detailed explanation of the guideline. METHODS: We developed the guideline in seven overlapping stages: 1) Building on prior research to inform the need for a guideline; 2) A scoping literature review to inform future stages; 3) Drafting the first checklist version involving an External Expert Panel; 4) A two-round Delphi process involving international, multidisciplinary, and cross-sector key stakeholders; 5) A consensus meeting to advise which reporting items to retain through voting, and to discuss the structure of what to include in the supporting explanation and elaboration (E&E) document; 6) Refining and finalising the checklist; and 7) Writing-up and dissemination of the E&E document. The CONSORT Executive Group oversaw the entire development process. RESULTS: Delphi survey response rates were 94/143 (66%), 114/156 (73%), and 79/143 (55%) in rounds 1, 2, and across both rounds, respectively. Twenty-seven delegates from Europe, the USA, and Asia attended the consensus meeting. The main checklist has seven new and nine modified items and six unchanged items with expanded E&E text to clarify further considerations for ADs. The abstract checklist has one new and one modified item together with an unchanged item with expanded E&E text. The E&E document will describe the scope of the guideline, the definition of an AD, and some types of ADs and trial adaptations and explain each reporting item in detail including case studies. CONCLUSIONS: We hope that making the development processes, methods, and all supporting information that aided decision-making transparent will enhance the acceptability and quick uptake of the guideline. This will also help other groups when developing similar CONSORT extensions. The guideline is applicable to all randomised trials with an AD and contains minimum reporting requirements.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Ásia , Lista de Checagem , Consenso , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
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