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1.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642834

RESUMO

In this mixed-methods study, we examine the relationship between provider communication and patient health literacy on HIV continuum of care outcomes among women living with HIV in the United States. We thematically coded qualitative data from focus groups and interviews (N = 92) and conducted mediation analyses with quantitative survey data (N = 1455) collected from Women's Interagency HIV Study participants. Four qualitative themes related to provider communication emerged: importance of respect and non-verbal cues; providers' expressions of condescension and judgement; patient health literacy; and unclear, insufficient provider communication resulting in diminished trust. Quantitative mediation analyses suggest that higher health literacy is associated with higher perceived patient-provider interaction quality, which in turn is associated with higher levels of trust in HIV providers, improved antiretroviral medication adherence, and reduced missed clinical visits. Findings indicate that enhancing provider communication and bolstering patient health literacy could have a positive impact on the HIV continuum of care.

2.
Addict Behav ; 125: 107125, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is common in people who experience homelessness. However, despite biological differences in use by sex and lower quit rates in women, research in homeless and unstably housed (HUH) women is sparse. We identified correlates of use specific to this population, with the goal of informing tobacco cessation programs tailored for HUH women. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study among HUH women recruited from San Francisco homeless shelters, street encampments, free meal programs and low-income hotels. Between June 2016 and January 2019, study participants completed six monthly interviews to examine factors associated with tobacco use, defined as urinary cotinine >10 pg/mL or self-reported prior 30-day use. RESULTS: Among 245 participants, 40% were Black, the median age was 53, 75% currently used tobacco and 89% had ≥one 24-hour quit attempt in the prior year. Tobacco use was more common in women with PTSD (66% vs. 48%) and depression (54% vs. 35%) compared to women without these conditions. Adjusted odds of tobacco use decreased significantly with increasing age (OR/5 yrs: 0.81; 95% CI:0.68, 0.96) and increased with an increasing number of additional substances used (OR: 2.52; 95% CI: 1.88, 3.39). CONCLUSION: Outside of a treatment setting and within a community-recruited sample population composed of HUH women, the number of additional substances used is a primary correlate of ongoing tobacco use. Tailored cessation interventions that prioritize the issue of multiple substance use, and public health policies that allocate funding to address it, may increase tobacco cessation in this population.

3.
Int J Drug Policy ; 98: 103377, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals who are unsheltered or experiencing homelessness are more likely to smoke than those in the general population and have a higher prevalence of tobacco-related illnesses. Those who are unhoused make quit attempts at rates similar to the general population, however rates of successful quitting are much lower. Women bear a higher burden of smoking-related diseases and are less successful in their cessation efforts than men. Despite these increased risks and challenges, cessation programs specifically designed to meet the needs of women experiencing homelessness are extremely rare. METHODS: To examine perceptions of smoking cessation programs among women who are unstably housed, we conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with twenty-nine women experiencing homelessness or unstable housing who had histories of tobacco and substance use. Interviews explored the social context of smoking, as well as interest in, barriers to, and facilitators of quitting. We used a grounded theory approach to analyze the transcripts. RESULTS: Participants reported a number of structural barriers to cessation. They reported obstacles to participating in existing cessation programs, including chronic stress related to experiences of being unsheltered and fear of being exposed to neighborhood violence. These conditions were paired with a strong need to self-isolate in order to maintain personal safety, which runs counter to traditional group-based cessation programs. CONCLUSION: A dissonance exists between current smoking cessation programs and the needs of women who are unsheltered or unstably housed. Alternative cessation treatment delivery models that address extremely high levels of chronic stress violence, and avoidance of group settings are needed, as are programs that provide options for safe participation.

4.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003678, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extreme weather events, including droughts, are expected to increase in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and are associated with a number of poor health outcomes; however, to the best of our knowledge, the link between drought and childhood vaccination remains unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between drought and vaccination coverage. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We investigated the association between drought and vaccination coverage using a retrospective analysis of Demographic and Health Surveys data in 22 sub-Saharan African countries among 137,379 children (50.4% male) born from 2011 to 2019. Drought was defined as an established binary variable of annual rainfall less than or equal to the 15th percentile relative to the 29 previous years, using data from Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) data. We evaluated the association between drought at the date of birth and receipt of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT), and polio vaccinations, and the association between drought at 12 months of age and receipt of measles vaccination. We specified logistic regression models with survey fixed effects and standard errors clustered at the enumeration area level, adjusting for child-, mother-, and household-level covariates and estimated marginal risk differences (RDs). The prevalence of drought at date of birth in the sample was 11.8%. Vaccination rates for each vaccination ranged from 70.6% (for 3 doses of the polio vaccine) to 86.0% (for BCG vaccination); however, only 57.6% of children 12 months and older received all recommended doses of BCG, DPT, polio, and measles vaccinations. In adjusted models, drought at date of birth was negatively associated with BCG vaccination (marginal RD = -1.5; 95% CI -2.2, -0.9), DPT vaccination (marginal RD = -1.4; 95% CI -2.2, -0.5), and polio vaccination (marginal RD = -1.3; 95% CI -2.3, -0.3). Drought at 12 months was negatively associated with measles vaccination (marginal RD = -1.9; 95% CI -2.8, -0.9). We found a dose-response relationship between drought and DPT and polio vaccinations, with the strongest associations closest to the timing of drought. Limitations include some heterogeneity in findings across countries. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that drought was associated with lower odds of completion of childhood BCG, DPT, and polio vaccinations. These findings indicate that drought may hinder vaccination coverage, one of the most important interventions to prevent infections among children. This work adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that health programs should consider impacts of severe weather in their programming.

5.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583332

RESUMO

Visible signs of disease can evoke stigma while stigma contributes to depression and mental illness, sometimes manifesting as somatic symptoms. We assessed these hypotheses among Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors, some of whom experienced clinical sequelae. Ebola virus disease survivors in Liberia were enrolled in an observational cohort study starting in June 2015 with visits every 6 months. At baseline and 18 months later, a seven-item index of EVD-related stigma was administered. Clinical findings (self-reported symptoms and abnormal findings) were obtained at each visit. We applied the generalized estimating equation method to assess the bidirectional concurrent and lagged associations between clinical findings and stigma, adjusting for age, gender, educational level, referral to medical care, and HIV serostatus as confounders. When assessing the contribution of stigma to later clinical findings, we restricted clinical findings to five that were also considered somatic symptoms. Data were obtained from 859 EVD survivors. In concurrent longitudinal analyses, each additional clinical finding increased the adjusted odds of stigma by 18% (95% CI: 1.11, 1.25), particularly palpitations, muscle pain, joint pain, urinary frequency, and memory loss. In lagged associations, memory loss (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 4.6; 95% CI: 1.73, 12.36) and anorexia (AOR: 4.17; 95% CI: 1.82, 9.53) were associated with later stigma, but stigma was not significantly associated with later clinical findings. Stigma was associated with select symptoms, not abnormal objective findings. Lagged associations between symptoms and later stigma substantiate the possibility of a pathway related to visible symptoms identified by community members and leading to fear of contagion.

6.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e054903, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489299

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: People living with HIV (PLHIV) in the USA, particularly women, have a higher prevalence of food insecurity than the general population. Cigarette smoking among PLHIV is common (42%), and PLHIV are 6-13 times more likely to die from lung cancer than AIDS-related causes. This study sought to investigate the associations between food security status and smoking status and severity among a cohort of predominantly low-income women of colour living with and without HIV in the USA. DESIGN: Women enrolled in an ongoing longitudinal cohort study from 2013 to 2015. SETTING: Nine participating sites across the USA. PARTICIPANTS: 2553 participants enrolled in the Food Insecurity Sub-Study of the Women's Interagency HIV Study, a multisite cohort study of US women living with HIV and demographically similar HIV-seronegative women. OUTCOMES: Current cigarette smoking status and intensity were self-reported. We used cross-sectional and longitudinal logistic and Tobit regressions to assess associations of food security status and changes in food security status with smoking status and intensity. RESULTS: The median age was 48. Most respondents were African-American/black (72%) and living with HIV (71%). Over half had annual incomes ≤US$12 000 (52%). Food insecurity (44%) and cigarette smoking (42%) were prevalent. In analyses adjusting for common sociodemographic characteristics, all categories of food insecurity were associated with greater odds of current smoking compared with food-secure women. Changes in food insecurity were also associated with increased odds of smoking. Any food insecurity was associated with higher smoking intensity. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity over time was associated with smoking in this cohort of predominantly low-income women of colour living with or at risk of HIV. Integrating alleviation of food insecurity into smoking cessation programmes may be an effective method to reduce the smoking prevalence and disproportionate lung cancer mortality rate particularly among PLHIV.


Assuntos
Insegurança Alimentar , Infecções por HIV , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Am J Addict ; 2021 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The relationship between food insecurity and alcohol use disorder remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the association between food insecurity risk and alcohol use disorder in a nationally representative sample of young adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional nationally representative data of 14,786 US young adults aged 24-32 years old from Wave IV (2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were analyzed to assess a single-item measure of food insecurity risk and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th Edition (DSM-5) alcohol use disorder. RESULTS: Among young adults, 12% were found to be at risk for food insecurity. Young adults with food insecurity risk had greater odds of moderate (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-1.58) and severe (AOR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.34-2.07) threshold alcohol use disorder than food-secure young adults, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, receipt of public assistance, household size, and smoking. Food insecurity risk was also associated with a 23% higher (95% CI: 11%-37%) number of problematic alcohol use behaviors (e.g., risky behaviors, continued alcohol use despite emotional or physical health problems). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity risk is associated with problematic patterns of alcohol use. Health care providers should screen for food insecurity and problematic alcohol use in young adults and provide referrals for further resources and treatment when appropriate. SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: This nationally representative study of US young adults is the first to find an association between food insecurity risk and alcohol use disorder using DSM-5 criteria.

8.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373987

RESUMO

Reliable access to safe and acceptable water in sufficient quantities (i.e., water security) is important for medication adherence and limiting pathogen exposure, yet prior studies have only considered the role of food security as a social determinant of HIV-related health. Therefore, the objective of this analysis was to assess the relationships between household water insecurity and HIV-related outcomes among adults living with HIV in western Kenya (N = 716). We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from Shamba Maisha (NCT02815579), a cluster randomized controlled trial of a multisectoral agricultural and asset loan intervention. Baseline data were collected from June 2016 to December 2017. We assessed associations between water insecurity and HIV-related outcomes, adjusting for clinical and behavioral confounders, including food insecurity. Each five-unit higher household water insecurity score (range: 0-51) was associated with 1.21 higher odds of having a viral load ≥ 1000 copies/mL (95% CI 1.07, 1.36) and 1.26 higher odds of AIDS-defining illness (95% CI 1.11, 1.42). Household water insecurity was not associated with CD4 cell count (B: 0.27; 95% CI -3.59, 13.05). HIV treatment and support programs should consider assessing and addressing water insecurity in addition to food insecurity to optimize HIV outcomes.

10.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-6, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261566

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association between food insufficiency and mental health service utilisation in the USA during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between food insufficiency and mental health service utilisation. SETTING: US Census Household Pulse Survey data collected in October 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Nationally representative sample of 68 611 US adults. RESULTS: After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, experiencing food insufficiency was associated with higher odds of unmet mental health need (adjusted OR (AOR) 2·90; 95 % CI 2·46, 3·43), receiving mental health counselling or therapy (AOR 1·51; 95 % CI 1·24, 1·83) and psychotropic medication use (AOR 1·56; 95 % CI 1·35, 1·80). Anxiety and depression symptoms mediated most of the association between food insufficiency and unmet mental health need but not the associations between food insufficiency and either receiving mental health counselling/therapy or psychotropic medication use. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should regularly screen patients for food insufficiency, especially in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. Expanding access to supplemental food programmes may help to mitigate the need for higher mental health service utilisation during the COVID-19 pandemic.

11.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(6): e25751, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128343

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Frailty is frequently observed among people with HIV, and food insecurity is associated with frailty in the general population. Evidence is scarce on the associations between food insecurity and frailty among women with HIV who may be particularly vulnerable to the impacts of food insecurity. The goal of this study was to assess associations between food insecurity and frailty among women with and without HIV. METHODS: There were 1265 participants from the Women's Interagency HIV Study who participated in frailty assessments in 2017. Frailty was measured using the Fried Frailty Phenotype, and women were subsequently categorized as robust, pre-frail or frail. Food insecurity was assessed using the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module, with women categorized as having high, marginal, low or very low food security. Multinomial logistic regression models were conducted to examine cross-sectional associations between food insecurity and frailty while adjusting for socio-demographic, behavioural and HIV status covariates. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Approximately one-third (31.9%) of the women had marginal, low or very low food security, and the proportions of women who met the criteria for frailty or pre-frailty were 55.6% and 12.4% respectively. In the adjusted model, the relative risk ratio (RRR) of frailty for women with very low food security versus women with high food security was 3.37 (95% CI [1.38 to 8.24], p < 0.01); the corresponding RRR of pre-frailty was 3.63 (95% CI [1.76 to 7.51], p < 0.001). Higher annual household income was associated with lower RRRs of frailty or pre-frailty (p < 0.01). Similarly, older age was associated with more frequent frailty (RRR=1.06, 95% CI [1.03 to 1.09], p < 0.001). HIV serostatus was not significantly associated with either pre-frailty (RRR=0.97, 95% CI [0.71 to 1.31]) or frailty (RRR=0.75, 95% CI [0.48 to 1.16]). CONCLUSIONS: Very low food security was associated with more frequent frailty and pre-frailty among women with and without for HIV. HIV serostatus was not associated with frailty.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Infecções por HIV , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Insegurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Psychiatr Serv ; : appips202100111, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34189929

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of unmet need for mental health counseling among U.S. adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Data from the December 9-21, 2020, cross-sectional Household Pulse Survey (N=69,944) were analyzed. RESULTS: Overall, 12.8% of adults reported an unmet need for mental health counseling in the past month, including 25.2% of adults with a positive screen for depression or anxiety. Among adults with a positive screen, risk factors associated with an unmet need for mental health counseling included female sex, younger age, income below the federal poverty line, higher education, and household job loss during the pandemic, while protective factors included Asian and Black race. CONCLUSIONS: Over one-quarter of U.S. adults with a positive screen for depression or anxiety experienced an unmet need for mental health counseling during the pandemic. Policy makers should consider increasing funding for mental health services as part of pandemic relief legislation.

13.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persistent immune activation due to gut barrier dysfunction is a suspected cause of morbidity in HIV, but the impact of menopause on this pathway is unknown. METHODS: In 350 women with HIV from the Women's Interagency HIV Study, plasma biomarkers of gut barrier dysfunction (intestinal fatty acid binding protein; IFAB), innate immune activation (soluble CD14 and CD163; sCD14, sCD163), and systemic inflammation (interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1; IL-6, TNFR1), were measured at 674 person-visits spanning ≤2 years. RESULTS: Menopause (post- vs. pre-menopausal status) was associated with higher plasma sCD14 and sCD163 in linear mixed-effects regression adjusting for age and other covariates (B [95% CI]=161.89ng/mL [18.37, 305.41] and 65.48 ng/mL [6.64, 124.33], respectively); but not with plasma IFAB, IL-6, or TNFR1. In piece-wise linear mixed-effects regression of biomarkers on years before/after the final menstrual period, sCD14 increased during the menopausal transition by 250.71 ng/mL per year (95% CI: 16.63, 484.79; p=0.04), but not in the pre-menopausal or post-menopausal periods. CONCLUSIONS: In women with HIV, menopause may increase innate immune activation, but data did not support an influence on the gut barrier or inflammation. Clinical implications of immune activation during the menopausal transition warrants further investigation.

14.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0252338, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity and intimate partner violence (IPV) are associated with suboptimal HIV prevention and treatment outcomes, yet limited research has explored how food insecurity and IPV intersect to influence HIV-related behaviors. To fill this gap, we conducted a qualitative study with women living with or at risk for HIV in the United States. METHODS: We conducted 24 in-depth interviews with women enrolled in the San Francisco and Atlanta sites of the Women's Interagency HIV study (WIHS). Participants were purposively sampled so half were living with HIV and all reported food insecurity and IPV in the past year. Semi-structured interviews explored experiences with food insecurity and IPV, how these experiences might be related and influence HIV risk and treatment behaviors. Analysis was guided by an inductive-deductive approach. RESULTS: A predominant theme centered on how food insecurity and IPV co-occur with poor mental health and substance use to influence HIV-related behaviors. Women described how intersecting experiences of food insecurity and IPV negatively affected their mental health, with many indicating using substances to "feel no pain". Substance use, in turn, was described to perpetuate food insecurity, IPV, and poor mental health in a vicious cycle, ultimately facilitating HIV risk behaviors and preventing HIV treatment adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity, IPV, poor mental health and substance use intersect and negatively influence HIV prevention and treatment behaviors. Findings offer preliminary evidence of a syndemic that goes beyond the more widely studied "SAVA" (substance use, AIDS, and violence) syndemic, drawing attention to additional constructs of mental health and food insecurity. Quantitative research must further characterize the extent and size of this syndemic. Policies that address the social and structural drivers of this syndemic, including multi-level and trauma-informed approaches, should be implemented and evaluated to assess their impact on this syndemic and its negative health effects.

15.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33997940

RESUMO

Globally, depressive symptoms among pregnant and postpartum (i.e., perinatal) women living with HIV (WLWH) are alarmingly high and associated with poor outcomes such as suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), and early cessation of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Few qualitative studies have described the experience of perinatal depression among WLWH to identify the underlying social-structural determinants of poor mental health and potential strategies to intervene. We conducted a longitudinal qualitative study applying semi-structured interviews with 30 WLWH at three timepoints (28-38 weeks pregnant, 6-weeks postpartum and 5-7 months postpartum) to understand mental health experiences of perinatal WLWH in western Kenya. Financial insecurity emerged as the central theme impacting the mental health of women across time. Financial insecurity was often attributed to the loss of employment, related to pregnancy and the demands of breastfeeding and caring for an infant, as well as a lack of support from male partners. The loss of income and subsequent financial strain contributed to worsening levels of food insecurity and relationship stress and challenged engagement in HIV care. In this way, increased financial strain during the perinatal period negatively impacted the mental health of perinatal WLWH. Our findings suggest support to meet basic needs and remain engaged in HIV care during pregnancy and postpartum could improve perinatal mental health for WLWH in this setting.

16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(1): 378-389, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diet is a modifiable risk factor that may influence cognition in people with HIV. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between dietary intake and cognition in women with HIV (WWH) and HIV-seronegative women. METHODS: An 18-item dietary National Cancer Institute screener was completed by 729 WWH and 346 HIV-seronegative Women's Interagency HIV Study participants. Daily intake frequencies of processed meats, sweet beverages, fish, whole milk, and vegetables were calculated. Participants completed biennial neuropsychological (NP) testing. NP domains included attention/working memory, executive function, processing speed, memory, learning, fluency, and motor function. NP impairment was defined as demographically adjusted T-scores (mean = 50; SD = 10) ≤40 at ≥1 visit after completing the dietary screener. Multivariable logistic regression, stratified by HIV serostatus, examined associations between intake frequency tertile (referent = lowest intake) and NP performance. RESULTS: Dietary intake frequencies of individual food line items were similar between WWH and HIV-seronegative women, except for sweet beverages, for which HIV-seronegative women reported higher intake frequencies than WWH (P values < 0.05). In WWH, multivariable-adjusted models indicated higher odds of NP impairment with higher intake frequencies of processed meat [P = 0.006; ORupper tertile = 1.91 (95% CI: 1.23-2.95; P = 0.003); ORmiddle tertile = 1.66 (95% CI: 1.14-2.42; P = 0.01)], sweet beverages [P = 0.02; ORupper tertile = 1.75 (95% CI: 1.17-2.64; P = 0.007)], fish [P = 0.01; ORupper tertile = 1.70 (95% CI: 1.10-2.64; P = 0.02)], and whole milk [P = 0.029; ORupper tertile = 1.66 (95% CI: 1.14-2.42; P = 0.008)]. Lower odds of NP impairment [P = 0.005; ORupper tertile = 0.65 (95% CI: 0.45-0.95; P = 0.02); ORmiddle tertile = 0.42 (95% CI: 0.24-0.73; P = 0.002)] were associated with higher vegetable intakes. In HIV-seronegative women, multivariable-adjusted models did not show associations between food line items/diet quality score and NP outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Intakes of processed meat, sweet beverages, whole milk, fish, and vegetables may be associated with NP functions among WWH. Associations among WWH are not directly comparable to those among HIV-seronegative women, because models were conducted on each group separately given controls for HIV-specific covariates in WWH. Further studies are needed using more rigorous dietary assessment methods and lengthier longitudinal follow-ups.


Assuntos
Cognição , Dieta , Infecções por HIV/complicações , HIV-1 , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
J Nutr ; 151(6): 1656-1664, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Household food insecurity (FI) and water insecurity (WI) are prevalent public health issues that can co-occur. Few studies have concurrently assessed their associations with health outcomes, particularly among people living with HIV. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the associations between FI and WI and how they relate to physical and mental health. METHODS: Food-insecure adult smallholder farmers living with HIV in western Kenya were recruited to participate in a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a multisectoral agricultural and asset loan intervention. We used baseline data on experiences of FI (using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, range: 0-27) and WI (using a modified scale developed for this region, range: 0-51) in the prior month (n = 716). Outcomes included probable depression (using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist), fatigue and diarrhea in the prior month, and overall mental and physical health (using the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey, range: 0-100). We first assessed Pearson correlations between FI, WI, and sociodemographic characteristics. We then developed 3 regressions for each health outcome (control variables and FI; control variables and WI; control variables, FI, and WI) and compared model fit indexes. RESULTS: Correlations between household FI, WI, and wealth were low, meaning they measure distinct constructs. FI and WI were associated with numerous physical and mental health outcomes; accounting for both resource insecurities typically provided the best model fit. For instance, when controlling for FI, each 10-point higher WI score was associated with a 6.42-point lower physical health score (P < 0.001) and 2.92 times greater odds of probable depression (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Assessing both FI and WI is important for correctly estimating their relation with health outcomes. Interventions that address food- and water-related issues among persons living with HIV concurrently will likely be more effective at improving health than those addressing a single resource insecurity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02815579.

18.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 121(5): 844-853, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aging populations in the United States exhibit high rates of food insecurity and chronic illness. Few studies have explored the neighborhood-level drivers of food insecurity among such populations, and how they intersect with experiences of aging. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore how aging women experience food insecurity in the United States, and the neighborhood-level factors that influence these experiences. DESIGN: Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted to elicit participants' perceptions of how their neighborhood influenced their experiences with food security and aging. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Thirty-eight food-insecure women aged 50 years and older were purposively sampled from the Northern California, Georgia, and North Carolina sites of the Women's Interagency Human Immunodeficiency Virus Study. Interviews were conducted between November 2017 and July 2018 at the three Women's Interagency Human Immunodeficiency Virus Study sites. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Three researchers thematically analyzed the data using an inductive-deductive approach. RESULTS: Participants described neighborhood-level drivers of food insecurity that centered around three themes: accessibility of food from traditional food stores, the role of food aid institutions, and the intersection of aging with the food environment. Participants explained that food insecurity was related to limited access to food stores largely due to long distances and poor public transportation in Georgia and North Carolina, and high food prices in Northern California. Most participants described being dependent on food aid programs, but found this difficult due to poor quality food and long wait times. Aging-related issues emerged as a cross-cutting theme, with fatigue, poor strength, and chronic illness amplifying barriers to accessing food. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study reveal the structural barriers that aging women face in accessing healthy food within their neighborhoods, and how experiences with aging and chronic illnesses exacerbate these barriers. Although future programs should address common neighborhood-level barriers such as the accessibility and affordability of healthy foods, they should also be tailored to aging women and the local context.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Insegurança Alimentar , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , California , Feminino , Assistência Alimentar/estatística & dados numéricos , Georgia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina , Estudos Prospectivos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Supermercados , Estados Unidos
19.
Am J Prev Med ; 60(4): 453-461, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602534

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the rates of food insecurity and mental illness have been projected to increase in the U.S. owing to significant social and economic disruption. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of food insufficiency (often the most extreme form of food insecurity), the correlates of food insufficiency, and the associations between food insufficiency and symptoms of poor mental health in the U.S. during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 63,674 participants of the U.S. Census Household Pulse Survey were collected and analyzed in 2020. Multiple Poisson regression models were used to estimate associations with food insufficiency. RESULTS: Food insufficiency rose from 8.1% to 10.0% from March to June 2020. Factors associated with food insufficiency included lower age, Black/African American or Latinx race/ethnicity, being unmarried, larger household size, recent employment loss, income below the federal poverty line, and lower education (all p<0.001). Food insufficiency was independently associated with all symptoms of poor mental health, adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic factors (adjusted RRs ranged from 1.16 to 1.42, all p<0.001). The association between food insufficiency and poor mental health was attenuated among people who received free groceries or meals. CONCLUSIONS: Food insufficiency has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic and affects vulnerable populations, placing individuals at higher risk for symptoms of poor mental health. Particularly in the current crisis, clinicians should regularly screen patients for food insufficiency and mental health outcomes as well as provide support in accessing appropriate resources.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Insegurança Alimentar/economia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/economia , Adulto , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 86(4): 406-412, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research on how disclosure concerns affect health outcomes for people living with HIV (PLWH) has yielded inconsistent results. Theoretically, disclosure concerns could predict either poorer antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence (PLWH worried about disclosure may not want to take their medication in front of others) or better ART adherence (stronger concerns may enhance treatment adherence to avoid unintentional disclosure). Furthermore, internalized stigma (which is positively associated with disclosure concerns) predicts worse ART adherence (an effect potentially in the opposite direction of the direct effect of disclosure concerns). SETTING/METHODS: One hundred eighty-six PLWH initiating HIV care at 4 US clinics completed measures of disclosure concerns, internalized stigma, and ART adherence. Viral load data were obtained from medical records. We examined the indirect effect of disclosure concerns on outcomes, adjusting for the suppressor effect of internalized stigma. That is, we examined whether the association between disclosure concerns and ART adherence/viral suppression is stronger and positive when controlling for the effect of internalized stigma. RESULTS: Disclosure concerns were more strongly associated with better viral suppression and ART adherence when internalized stigma was in the model, suggesting that internalized stigma suppressed this association. Similarly, internalized stigma led to higher disclosure concerns, which in turn led to better ART adherence and higher likelihood of viral suppression. However, internalized stigma also had a direct effect in the opposite direction of this indirect effect. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the importance of addressing effects of internalized stigma and disclosure concerns jointly when attempting to understand effects on health outcomes among new-to-care PLWH.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1 , Estigma Social , Adulto , Revelação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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