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1.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal vitamin D3 supplementation has been linked to reduced risk of early life asthma/recurrent wheeze. This protective effect appears to be influenced by variations in the 17q21 functional SNP rs12936231 of the child, which regulates the expression of ORMDL3, and for which the high-risk CC-genotype is associated with early-onset asthma. However, this does not fully explain the differential effects of supplementation. We investigated the influence of maternal rs12936231 genotype variation on the protective effect of prenatal vitamin D3 supplementation against offspring asthma/recurrent wheeze. METHODS: We determined the rs12936231 genotype of mother-child pairs from two randomised-controlled trials: the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART, n=613) and the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood 2010 (COPSAC2010, n=563) to examine the effect of maternal genotype variation on offspring asthma/recurrent wheeze at age 0-3 years between groups who received high-dose prenatal vitamin D3 supplementation versus placebo. RESULTS: Offspring of mothers with low-risk GG-genotype or GC-genotype who received high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation had a significantly reduced risk of asthma/recurrent wheeze when compared to the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.77; p<0.001 for VDAART and HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35-0.92; p=0.021 for COPSAC2010), whereas no difference was observed among the offspring of mothers with high-risk CC-genotype (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.61-1.84; p=0.853 for VDAART and HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.54-2.28; p=0.785 for COPSAC2010). CONCLUSION: Maternal 17q21 genotype has an important influence on the protective effects of prenatal vitamin D3 supplementation against offspring asthma/recurrent wheeze.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4791, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637879

RESUMO

We present a cohort of patients with anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms to investigate morphological characteristics and clinical factors associated with rupture of the aneurysms. 505 patients with ACoA aneurysms were identified at the Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital between 1990 and 2016, with available CT angiography (CTA). Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions were performed to evaluate aneurysmal morphologic features, including location, projection, irregularity, the presence of daughter dome, height, height/width ratio, and relationships between surrounding vessels. Patient risk factors assessed included patient age, sex, tobacco use, alcohol use, and family history of aneurysms and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Logistic regression was used to build a predictive ACoA score for rupture. Morphologic features associated with ruptured ACoA aneurysms were the presence of a daughter dome (OR 21.4, 95% CI 10.6-43.1), smaller neck diameter (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.42-0.71), larger aspect ratio (OR 3.57, 95% CI 2.05-6.24), larger flow angle (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.05), and smaller ipsilateral A2-ACoA angle (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-1.00). Tobacco use was predominantly associated with morphological factors intrinsic to the aneurysm that were associated with rupture while younger age was also associated with morphologic features extrinsic to the aneurysm that were associated with rupture. The ACoA score had good predictive capacity for rupture with AUC = 0.92 using the 0.632 bootstrap cross-validation for correction of overfitting bias. Ruptured ACoA aneurysms were associated with morphological features that are simple to assess using a simple scoring system. Tobacco use and younger age were predominantly associated with intrinsic and extrinsic morphological features characteristic of rupture, respectively.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535020

RESUMO

RATIONALE: A link between sphingolipids, 17q21 genetic variants and childhood asthma has been suggested, but the underlying mechanisms and characteristics of such asthma endotype remain to be elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To study the sphingolipid-associated childhood asthma endotype using multi-omics data. METHODS: We used untargeted LC-MS plasma metabolomics profiles at age 6 months and 6 years from >500 children in the COPSAC2010 birth cohort focusing on sphingolipids, and integrated 17q21 genotype and nasal gene expression of serine palmitoyl-CoA transferase (SPT), i.e. the rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo sphingolipid synthesis, in relation to asthma development and lung function traits from infancy till age 6 years. Replication was sought in the independent VDAART cohort. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Lower levels of ceramides and sphingomyelins at age 6 months were associated with increased risk of developing asthma before age 3, which was also observed in VDAART. At age 6 years, lower levels of key phosphosphingolipids, e.g. sphinganine-1-phosphate were associated with increased airway resistance. This relationship was dependent on 17q21 genotype and nasal SPT gene expression with significant interaction between genotype and phosphosphingolipids levels and between genotype and SPT expression, showing lower phosphosphingolipids and reduced SPT expression with increasing number of at-risk alleles. However, the findings did not pass FDR<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: This exploratory study suggests the existence of a childhood asthma endotype with early onset and increased airway resistance that is characterized by reduced sphingolipid levels that is associated with 17q21 genetic variants and expression of the SPT enzyme.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2526, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510194

RESUMO

Morphological factors of intracranial aneurysms and the surrounding vasculature could affect aneurysm rupture risk in a location specific manner. Our goal was to identify image-based morphological parameters that correlated with ruptured basilar tip aneurysms. Three-dimensional morphological parameters obtained from CT-angiography (CTA) or digital subtraction angiography (DSA) from 200 patients with basilar tip aneurysms diagnosed at the Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital between 1990 and 2016 were evaluated. We examined aneurysm wall irregularity, the presence of daughter domes, hypoplastic, aplastic or fetal PCoAs, vertebral dominance, maximum height, perpendicular height, width, neck diameter, aspect and size ratio, height/width ratio, and diameters and angles of surrounding parent and daughter vessels. Univariable and multivariable statistical analyses were performed to determine statistical significance. In multivariable analysis, presence of a daughter dome, aspect ratio, and larger flow angle were significantly associated with rupture status. We also introduced two new variables, diameter size ratio and parent-daughter angle ratio, which were both significantly inversely associated with ruptured basilar tip aneurysms. Notably, multivariable analyses also showed that larger diameter size ratio was associated with higher Hunt-Hess score while smaller flow angle was associated with higher Fisher grade. These easily measurable parameters, including a new parameter that is unlikely to be affected by the formation of the aneurysm, could aid in screening strategies in high-risk patients with basilar tip aneurysms. One should note, however, that the changes in parameters related to aneurysm morphology may be secondary to aneurysm rupture rather than causal.

5.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemodynamic stress, conditioned by the morphology of the surrounding vasculature, plays an important role in aneurysm formation. Our goal was to identify image-based location-specific parameters that are associated with posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms. METHODS: Three-dimensional morphological parameters obtained from CT angiography or digital subtraction angiography from 187 patients with unilateral PCoA aneurysms, diagnosed at the Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital between 1990 and 2016, were evaluated. In order to control for genetic and clinical risk factors, we chose the contralateral unaffected PCoA as a control group. We examined diameters and angles of the surrounding parent and daughter vessels. Univariable and multivariable statistical analyses were performed to determine statistical significance. Sensitivity analyses with small aneurysms (≤5 mm) only and an unmatched analysis of 432 PCoA aneurysms and 197 control patients without PCoA aneurysms were also performed. RESULTS: In a multivariable conditional logistic regression model we showed that smaller diameter size ratio (OR 1.45×10-5, 95% CI 1.12×10-7 to 1.88×10-3) and larger daughter-daughter angle (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.07) were significantly associated with PCoA aneurysm presence after correcting for other variables. In subgroup analyses of small aneurysms (≤5 mm) and in an unmatched analysis the significance and direction of these results were preserved. CONCLUSIONS: Larger daughter-daughter angles and smaller diameter size ratio are significantly associated with the presence of PCoA aneurysms. These simple parameters can be utilized to guide the risk assessment for the formation of PCoA aneurysms in high risk patients.

6.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415739

RESUMO

Over 10,000 viral genome sequences of the SARS-CoV-2virus have been made readily available during the ongoing coronavirus pandemic since the initial genome sequence of the virus was released on the open access Virological website (http://virological.org/) early on January 11. We utilize the published data on the single stranded RNAs of 11,132 SARS-CoV-2 patients in the GISAID database, which contains fully or partially sequenced SARS-CoV-2 samples from laboratories around the world. Among many important research questions which are currently being investigated, one aspect pertains to the genetic characterization/classification of the virus. We analyze data on the nucleotide sequencing of the virus and geographic information of a subset of 7640 SARS-CoV-2 patients without missing entries that are available in the GISAID database. Instead of modeling the mutation rate, applying phylogenetic tree approaches, and so forth, we here utilize a model-free clustering approach that compares the viruses at a genome-wide level. We apply principal component analysis to a similarity matrix that compares all pairs of these SARS-CoV-2 nucleotide sequences at all loci simultaneously, using the Jaccard index. Our analysis results of the SARS-CoV-2 genome data illustrates the geographic and chronological progression of the virus, starting from the first cases that were observed in China to the current wave of cases in Europe and North America. This is in line with a phylogenetic analysis which we use to contrast our results. We also observe that, based on their sequence data, the SARS-CoV-2 viruses cluster in distinct genetic subgroups. It is the subject of ongoing research to examine whether the genetic subgroup could be related to diseases outcome and its potential implications for vaccine development.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung function impairment in early life often persists into adulthood. Therefore, identifying risk factors for low childhood lung function is crucial. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effect of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) level and childhood asthma phenotype on childhood lung function in the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART). METHODS: The 25(OH)D level was measured at set time points in mothers during pregnancy and in children during early life. On the basis of parental reports, children were categorized into 3 clinical phenotypes: asymptomatic/infrequent wheeze, early transient wheeze, and asthma at age 6 years. Lung function was assessed with impulse oscillometry at ages 4, 5, and 6 years and with spirometry at ages 5 and 6 years. RESULTS: A total of 570 mother-child pairs were included in this post hoc analysis. Mean gestational 25(OH)D-level quartiles were negatively associated with child respiratory resistance at 5 Hz (R5) from age 4 to 6 years (ß, -0.021 kPa/L/s; 95% CI, -0.035 to -0.007; P = .003) and positively associated with FEV1 (ß, 0.018 L; 95% CI, 0.005-0.031; P = .008) and forced vital capacity (ß, 0.022 L; 95% CI, 0.009-0.036; P = .002) from age 5 to 6 years. Children with asthma at age 6 years had lower lung function from age 4 to 6 years than the asymptomatic/infrequent wheeze group (ß, 0.065 kPa/L/s; 95% CI, 0.028 to 0.102; P < .001 for R5 and ß, -0.063 L; 95% CI, -0.099 to -0.028; P < .001 for FEV1). CONCLUSIONS: Low gestational 25(OH)D level and childhood asthma are important risk factors for decreased lung function in early childhood.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggest a protective effect of high-dose vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy on offspring risk of persistent wheeze, but only in some individuals, which might be explained by variations in vitamin D pathway genes. This study aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation by maternal and offspring vitamin D receptor (VDR) genotype and GC genotype, encoding vitamin D binding protein (VDBP), in two RCTs. METHODS: In the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2010 ) RCT, we analyzed the effect of high-dose vitamin D during pregnancy on the risk of persistent wheeze age 0-3 years by variants in single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VDR (rs1544410, rs2228570, rs7975128, rs7975232) and GC (rs4588, rs7041). Replication was sought in the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART). RESULTS: In COPSAC2010 , VDR SNP rs1544410 influenced the effect of high-dose vitamin D: maternal Pinteraction  = .049 and child Pinteraction  = .001, with the largest effect in offspring from mothers with TT genotype: hazard ratio (95% CI), 0.26 (0.10-0.68), P = .006, and no effect among CT or CC genotypes: 0.85 (0.48-1.51), P = .58 and 0.94 (0.47-1.89), P = .87, respectively. However, these findings were not replicated in VDAART. There was no significant effect modification from maternal or offspring GC genotype in either COPSAC2010 or VDAART: all Pinteraction  ≥ .17. CONCLUSIONS: We found that the effect of high-dose vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on offspring risk of persistent wheeze was significantly influenced by VDR genotype in the COPSAC2010 RCT, but not VDAART, which may be due to population differences.

9.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(2): 1742-1764, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468710

RESUMO

Fetal perturbations in DNA methylation during lung development may reveal insights into the enduring impacts on adult lung health and disease during aging that have not been explored altogether before. We studied the association between genome-wide DNA-methylation and post-conception age in fetal-lung (n=78, 42 exposed to in-utero-smoke (IUS)) tissue and chronological age in adult-lung tissue (n=160, 114 with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) using multi-variate linear regression models with covariate adjustment and tested for effect modification by phenotypes. Overlapping age-associations were evaluated for functional and tissue-specific enrichment using the Genotype-Tissue-Expression (GTEx) project. We identified 244 age-associated differentially methylated positions and 878 regions overlapping between fetal and adult-lung tissues. Hyper-methylated CpGs (96%) were enriched in transcription factor activity (FDR adjusted P=2x10-33) and implicated in developmental processes including embryonic organ morphogenesis, neurogenesis and growth delay. Hypo-methylated CpGs (2%) were enriched in oxido-reductase activity and VEGFA-VEGFR2 Signaling. Twenty-one age-by-sex and eleven age-by-pack-years interactions were statistically significant (FDR<0.05) in adult-lung tissue. DNA methylation in transcription factors during development in fetal lung recapitulates in adult-lung tissue with aging. These findings reveal molecular mechanisms and pathways that may link disrupted development in early-life and age-associated lung diseases.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6217, 2020 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277504

RESUMO

Although the taxonomic composition of the human microbiome varies tremendously across individuals, its gene composition or functional capacity is highly conserved - implying an ecological property known as functional redundancy. Such functional redundancy has been hypothesized to underlie the stability and resilience of the human microbiome, but this hypothesis has never been quantitatively tested. The origin of functional redundancy is still elusive. Here, we investigate the basis for functional redundancy in the human microbiome by analyzing its genomic content network - a bipartite graph that links microbes to the genes in their genomes. We find that this network exhibits several topological features that favor high functional redundancy. Furthermore, we develop a simple genome evolution model to generate genomic content network, finding that moderate selection pressure and high horizontal gene transfer rate are necessary to generate genomic content networks with key topological features that favor high functional redundancy. Finally, we analyze data from two published studies of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), finding that high functional redundancy of the recipient's pre-FMT microbiota raises barriers to donor microbiota engraftment. This work elucidates the potential ecological and evolutionary processes that create and maintain functional redundancy in the human microbiome and contribute to its resilience.

11.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 8(4)2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291534

RESUMO

Background: In utero smoke (IUS) exposure is associated with asthma susceptibility. Objective: We sought to test the hypothesis that changes in miRNA expression by IUS exposure during human lung development is associated with asthma susceptibility. Methods: Gene expression was profiled from 53 IUS unexposed and 51 IUS exposed human fetal lung tissues. We tested for the differential expression of miRNAs across post-conception age and by IUS using linear models with covariate adjustment. We tested the IUS-associated miRNAs for association with their gene expression targets using pair-wise inverse correlation. Using our mouse model, we investigated the persistence of the IUS-associated miRNA signature using RT-PCR from the lungs of mouse pups with and without IUS at postnatal day 14. MiRNAs were then tested for association with asthma and exacerbations using whole blood gene expression profiles from Asthma BRIDGE. Results: Five miRNAs were differentially expressed across post-conception age (adjusted p < 0.0002) including two that were differentially expressed by IUS exposure in human fetal lung (p < 0.05). MiR-15a was differentially expressed by post-conception age (p = 0.00002), IUS exposure in human fetal lung (p = 0.005), and in the post-natal mouse lung (p = 0.01). MiR-15a was also associated with the in utero expression of GSDMB (adjusted p = 0.0002), a known childhood asthma gene and with asthma exacerbations (p = 0.0009) in Asthma BRIDGE. Thus, miR-15a is expressed during human lung development, is impacted by IUS exposure, regulates the intrauterine expression of asthma genes, and is associated with asthma severity. Conclusions: These results provide evidence for the role of miR-15a in the fetal origin of asthma.

12.
World Neurosurg ; 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307259

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify clinical and morphological risk factors that are correlated with anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysm formation. METHODS: Three-dimensional morphological parameters obtained from CT-angiography (CTA) or digital subtraction angiography (DSA) from 504 patients with ACoA aneurysms and 201 patients with aneurysms elsewhere, diagnosed at the Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital between 1990 and 2016 were evaluated. We examined the presence of hypoplastic and aplastic A1 segments, and diameters and angles of surrounding parent and daughter vessels. Univariable and multivariable statistical analyses were performed to determine statistical significance. Sensitivity analyses with small (≤ 3mm) aneurysms only was also performed. RESULTS: Aplastic and hypoplastic A1s were more common in the ACoA group (38.9% vs 6.5% hypoplastic, and 22.2% vs 0.5% aplastic). In multivariable analysis, the presence of an hypoplastic A1 segment was associated with ACoA aneurysms. A2-ACoA (daughter-daughter) angle was also significantly associated with ACoA aneurysms in multivariable analysis, however, since Pearson's correlation test between aneurysm width and daughter-daughter angle was significant, daughter-daughter angle was most likely not independently associated with aneurysm presence, but may be a result of the presence of an aneurysm. Subgroup analyses of small aneurysms (≤3mm) and of unruptured aneurysms only showed similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that of all the morphological parameters, the presence of a hypoplastic A1 segment was the only parameter independently associated with the presence of ACoA aneurysms that was uncorrelated with aneurysm size, and could aid as a simple screening parameter.

13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6398, 2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328473

RESUMO

Asthma with severe exacerbation is the most common cause of hospitalization among young children. We aim to increase the understanding of this clinically important disease entity through a genome-wide association study. The discovery analysis comprises 2866 children experiencing severe asthma exacerbation between ages 2 and 6 years, and 65,415 non-asthmatic controls, and we replicate findings in 918 children from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC) birth cohorts. We identify rs281379 near FUT2/MAMSTR on chromosome 19 as a novel risk locus (OR = 1.18 (95% CI = 1.11-1.25), Pdiscovery = 2.6 × 10-9) as well as a biologically plausible interaction between functional variants in FUT2 and ABO. We further discover and replicate a potential causal mechanism behind this interaction related to S. pneumoniae respiratory illnesses. These results suggest a novel mechanism of early childhood asthma and demonstrates the importance of phenotype-specificity for discovery of asthma genes and epistasis.


Assuntos
Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos/genética , Asma/genética , Epistasia Genética , Fucosiltransferases/genética , Infecções Pneumocócicas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Streptococcus pneumoniae/patogenicidade
14.
Bioinformatics ; 2020 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367522

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Analysis of rare variants in family-based studies remains a challenge. Transmission-based approaches provide robustness against population stratification, but the evaluation of the significance of test statistics based on asymptotic theory can be imprecise. In addition, power will depend heavily on the choice of the test statistic and on the underlying genetic architecture of the locus, which will be generally unknown. RESULTS: In our proposed framework, we utilize the FBAT haplotype algorithm to obtain the conditional offspring genotype distribution under the null hypothesis given the sufficient statistic. Based on this conditional offspring genotype distribution, the significance of virtually any association test statistic can be evaluated based on simulations or exact computations, without the need for asymptotic approximations. Besides standard linear burden-type statistics, this enables our approach to also evaluate other test statistics such as SKATs, higher criticism approaches, and maximum-single-variant-statistics, where asymptotic theory might be involved or does not provide accurate approximations for rare variant data. Based on the p-values, combined test statistics such as the aggregated Cauchy association test (ACAT) can also be utilized. In simulation studies, we show that our framework outperforms existing approaches for family-based studies in several scenarios. We also applied our methodology to a TOPMed whole-genome sequencing dataset with 897 asthmatic trios from Costa Rica. AVAILABILITY: FBAT software is available at https://sites.google.com/view/fbatwebpage. Simulation code is available at https://github.com/julianhecker/FBAT_rare_variant_test_simulations. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6417, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339817

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical drugs targeting dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) may increase the risk of fatty liver disease and other metabolic disorders. To identify potential novel CVD drug targets without these adverse effects, we perform genome-wide analyses of participants in the HUNT Study in Norway (n = 69,479) to search for protein-altering variants with beneficial impact on quantitative blood traits related to cardiovascular disease, but without detrimental impact on liver function. We identify 76 (11 previously unreported) presumed causal protein-altering variants associated with one or more CVD- or liver-related blood traits. Nine of the variants are predicted to result in loss-of-function of the protein. This includes ZNF529:p.K405X, which is associated with decreased low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P = 1.3 × 10-8) without being associated with liver enzymes or non-fasting blood glucose. Silencing of ZNF529 in human hepatoma cells results in upregulation of LDL receptor and increased LDL uptake in the cells. This suggests that inhibition of ZNF529 or its gene product should be prioritized as a novel candidate drug target for treating dyslipidemia and associated CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Genoma Humano , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Inativação Gênica , Marcação de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Fenômica , Receptores de LDL/genética , Reino Unido
16.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236019

RESUMO

Age is the dominant risk factor for infectious diseases, but the mechanisms linking the two are incompletely understood 1,2 . Age-related mosaic chromosomal alterations (mCAs) detected from blood-derived DNA genotyping, are structural somatic variants associated with aberrant leukocyte cell counts, hematological malignancy, and mortality 3-11 . Whether mCAs represent independent risk factors for infection is unknown. Here we use genome-wide genotyping of blood DNA to show that mCAs predispose to diverse infectious diseases. We analyzed mCAs from 767,891 individuals without hematological cancer at DNA acquisition across four countries. Expanded mCA (cell fraction >10%) prevalence approached 4% by 60 years of age and was associated with diverse incident infections, including sepsis, pneumonia, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalization. A genome-wide association study of expanded mCAs identified 63 significant loci. Germline genetic alleles associated with expanded mCAs were enriched at transcriptional regulatory sites for immune cells. Our results link mCAs with impaired immunity and predisposition to infections. Furthermore, these findings may also have important implications for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in prioritizing individual preventive strategies and evaluating immunization responses.

18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17928, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087795

RESUMO

Hemodynamic stress is thought to play an important role in the formation of intracranial aneurysms, which is conditioned by the geometry of the surrounding vasculature. Our goal was to identify image-based morphological parameters that were associated with basilar artery tip aneurysms (BTA) in a location-specific manner. Three-dimensional morphological parameters obtained from CT-angiography (CTA) or digital subtraction angiography (DSA) from 207 patients with BTAs and a control group of 106 patients with aneurysms elsewhere to control for non-morphological factors, who were diagnosed at the Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital between 1990 and 2016, were evaluated. We examined the presence of hypoplastic, aplastic or fetal PCoAs, vertebral dominance, and diameters and angles of surrounding parent and daughter vessels. Univariable and multivariable statistical analyses were performed to determine statistical significance. Sensitivity analyses with small (≤ 3 mm) aneurysms only and with angles excluded, were also performed. In multivariable analysis, daughter-daughter angle was directly, and parent artery diameter and diameter size ratio were inversely associated with BTAs. These results remained significant in the subgroup analysis of small aneurysms (width ≤ 3 mm) and when angles were excluded. These easily measurable and robust parameters that are unlikely to be affected by aneurysm formation could aid in risk stratification for the formation of BTAs in high-risk patients.

19.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 8(4): 704-712, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We recently described increased NFATc1, IRF4, and NIP45 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of asthmatic children and adults with multiple allergies. OBJECTIVE: NFATc2 has been described to associate with IRF4 to induce interleukin-4, and to be inhibited by T-bet. Here, we analyzed the role of NFATc2 in asthmatic children and adults. METHODS: PBMCs were isolated from the blood of control of asthmatics subjects. Some PBMCs were analyzed untreated and some cultured with and without phytohemagglutinin. Then, RNA was extracted from the cells and cytokines were measured in the supernatants via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or multiplex analysis. RNA was then reverse-transcribed and NFATc1, NFATC2, IRF4, and T-bet mRNA were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. In addition, in peripheral blood cells, NFATc2 expression was analyzed, in a population of asthmatic children and adults from the Asthma BRIDGE study. RESULTS: In addition to NFATc1 and NIP45, also NFATc2 was found upregulated in PBMCs and peripheral blood cells from asthmatic children and adults with allergic asthma. Moreover, NFATc1 directly correlated with lymphocytes number whereas NFATc2 correlated with peripheral eosinophilia in asthma. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to NFATc1 and NIP45, NFATc2 was found upregulated in asthma. Moreover, NFATc1 mRNA correlated with lymphocytes both in control and asthma, and NFATC1 and NFATc2 mRNA showed a direct correlation with eosinophils in controls but not in asthma, indicating that NFATc1 is associated with lymphocytes and not eosinophils in asthma. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Targeting NFATc2 in T lymphocytes might ameliorate the allergic phenotype in asthmatic subjects.

20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18302, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110128

RESUMO

In development of an embryo, healing of a wound, or progression of a carcinoma, a requisite event is collective epithelial cellular migration. For example, cells at the advancing front of a wound edge tend to migrate collectively, elongate substantially, and exert tractions more forcefully compared with cells many ranks behind. With regards to energy metabolism, striking spatial gradients have recently been reported in the wounded epithelium, as well as in the tumor, but within the wounded cell layer little is known about the link between mechanical events and underlying energy metabolism. Using the advancing confluent monolayer of MDCKII cells as a model system, here we report at single cell resolution the evolving spatiotemporal fields of cell migration speeds, cell shapes, and traction forces measured simultaneously with fields of multiple indices of cellular energy metabolism. Compared with the epithelial layer that is unwounded, which is non-migratory, solid-like and jammed, the leading edge of the advancing cell layer is shown to become progressively more migratory, fluid-like, and unjammed. In doing so the cytoplasmic redox ratio becomes progressively smaller, the NADH lifetime becomes progressively shorter, and the mitochondrial membrane potential and glucose uptake become progressively larger. These observations indicate that a metabolic shift toward glycolysis accompanies collective cellular migration but show, further, that this shift occurs throughout the cell layer, even in regions where associated changes in cell shapes, traction forces, and migration velocities have yet to penetrate. In characterizing the wound healing process these morphological, mechanical, and metabolic observations, taken on a cell-by-cell basis, comprise the most comprehensive set of biophysical data yet reported. Together, these data suggest the novel hypothesis that the unjammed phase evolved to accommodate fluid-like migratory dynamics during episodes of tissue wound healing, development, and plasticity, but is more energetically expensive compared with the jammed phase, which evolved to maintain a solid-like non-migratory state that is more energetically economical.

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