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1.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0266752, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544468

RESUMO

To increase power and minimize bias in statistical analyses, quantitative outcomes are often adjusted for precision and confounding variables using standard regression approaches. The outcome is modeled as a linear function of the precision variables and confounders; however, for many complex phenotypes, the assumptions of the linear regression models are not always met. As an alternative, we used neural networks for the modeling of complex phenotypes and covariate adjustments. We compared the prediction accuracy of the neural network models to that of classical approaches based on linear regression. Using data from the UK Biobank, COPDGene study, and Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP), we examined the features of neural networks in this context and compared them with traditional regression approaches for prediction of three outcomes: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), age at smoking cessation, and log transformation of age at smoking cessation (due to age at smoking cessation being right-skewed). We used mean squared error to compare neural network and regression models, and found the models performed similarly unless the observed distribution of the phenotype was skewed, in which case the neural network had smaller mean squared error. Our results suggest neural network models have an advantage over standard regression approaches when the phenotypic distribution is skewed. However, when the distribution is not skewed, the approaches performed similarly. Our findings are relevant to studies that analyze phenotypes that are skewed by nature or where the phenotype of interest is skewed as a result of the ascertainment condition.

2.
Noncoding RNA ; 8(2)2022 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35447890

RESUMO

MicroRNAs have been independently associated with asthma and COPD; however, it is unclear if microRNA associations will overlap when evaluating retrospective acute exacerbations. Objective: We hypothesized that peripheral blood microRNAs would be associated with retrospective acute asthma exacerbations in a pediatric asthma cohort and that such associations may also be relevant to acute COPD exacerbations. Methods: We conducted small-RNA sequencing on 374 whole-blood samples from children with asthma ages 6-14 years who participated in the Genetics of Asthma in Costa Rica Study (GACRS) and 450 current and former adult smokers with and without COPD who participated in the COPDGene study. Measurements and Main Results: After QC, we had 351 samples and 649 microRNAs for Differential Expression (DE) analysis between the frequent (n = 183) and no or infrequent exacerbation (n = 168) groups in GACRS. Fifteen upregulated miRs had odds ratios (OR) between 1.22 and 1.59 for a doubling of miR counts, while five downregulated miRs had ORs between 0.57 and 0.8. These were assessed for generalization in COPDGene, where three of the upregulated miRs (miR-532-3p, miR-296-5p, and miR-766-3p) and two of the downregulated miRs (miR-7-5p and miR-451b) replicated. Pathway enrichment analysis showed MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways were strongly enriched for target genes of DE miRNAs and miRNAs generalizing to COPD exacerbations, as well as infection response pathways to various pathogens. Conclusion: miRs (451b; 7-5p; 532-3p; 296-5p and 766-3p) associated with both childhood asthma and adult COPD exacerbations may play a vital role in airflow obstruction and exacerbations and point to shared genomic regulatory machinery underlying exacerbations in both diseases.

3.
Lancet Haematol ; 9(5): e340-e349, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35344689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevalence estimates for monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) are based on predominantly White study populations screened by serum protein electrophoresis supplemented with immunofixation electrophoresis. A prevalence of 3% is reported for MGUS in the general population of European ancestry aged 50 years or older. MGUS prevalence is two times higher in individuals of African descent or with a family history of conditions related to multiple myeloma. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and clinical implications of monoclonal gammopathies in a high-risk US population screened by quantitative mass spectrometry. METHODS: We used quantitative matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and EXENT-iQ software to screen for and quantify monoclonal gammopathies in serum from 7622 individuals who consented to the PROMISE screening study between Feb 26, 2019, and Nov 4, 2021, and the Mass General Brigham Biobank (MGBB) between July 28, 2010, and July 1, 2021. M-protein concentrations at the monoclonal gammopathy of indeterminate potential (MGIP) level were confirmed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry testing. 6305 (83%; 2211 from PROMISE, 4094 from MGBB) of 7622 participants in the cohorts were at high risk for developing a monoclonal gammopathy on the basis of Black race or a family history of haematological malignancies and fell within the eligible high-risk age range (30 years or older for PROMISE cohort and 18 years or older for MGBB cohort); those over 18 years were also eligible if they had two or more family members with a blood cancer (PROMISE cohort). Participants with a plasma cell malignancy diagnosed before screening were excluded. Longitudinal clinical data were available for MGBB participants with a median follow-up time from serum sample screening of 4·5 years (IQR 2·4-6·7). The PROMISE study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03689595. FINDINGS: The median age at time of screening was 56·0 years (IQR 46·8-64·1). 5013 (66%) of 7622 participants were female, 2570 (34%) male, and 39 (<1%) unknown. 2439 (32%) self-identified as Black, 4986 (65%) as White, 119 (2%) as other, and 78 (1%) unknown. Using serum protein electrophoresis with immunofixation electrophoresis, the MGUS prevalence was 6% (101 of 1714) in high-risk individuals aged 50 years or older. Using mass spectrometry, we observed a total prevalence of monoclonal gammopathies of 43% (1788 of 4207) in this group. We termed monoclonal gammopathies below the clinical immunofixation electrophoresis detection level (<0·2 g/L) MGIPs, to differentiate them from those with higher concentrations, termed mass-spectrometry MGUS, which had a 13% (592 of 4207) prevalence by mass spectrometry in high-risk individuals aged 50 years or older. MGIP was predominantly of immunoglobulin M isotype, and its prevalence increased with age (19% [488 of 2564] for individuals aged <50 years, 29% [1464 of 5058] for those aged ≥50 years, and 37% [347 of 946] for those aged ≥70 years). Mass-spectrometry MGUS prevalence increased with age (5% [127 of 2564] for individuals aged <50 years, 13% [678 of 5058] for those aged ≥50 years, and 18% [173 of 946] for those aged ≥70 years) and was higher in men (314 [12%] of 2570) compared with women (485 [10%] 5013; p=0·0002), whereas MGIP prevalence did not differ significantly by gender. In those aged 50 years or older, the prevalence of mass spectrometry was significantly higher in Black participants (224 [17%] of 1356) compared with the controls (p=0·0012) but not in those with family history (368 [13%] of 2851) compared with the controls (p=0·1008). Screen-detected monoclonal gammopathies correlated with increased all-cause mortality in MGBB participants (hazard ratio 1·55, 95% CI 1·16-2·08; p=0·0035). All monoclonal gammopathies were associated with an increased likelihood of comorbidities, including myocardial infarction (odds ratio 1·60, 95% CI 1·26-2·02; p=0·00016 for MGIP-high and 1·39, 1·07-1·80; p=0·015 for mass-spectrometry MGUS). INTERPRETATION: We detected a high prevalence of monoclonal gammopathies, including age-associated MGIP, and made more precise estimates of mass-spectrometry MGUS compared with conventional gel-based methods. The use of mass spectrometry also highlighted the potential hidden clinical significance of MGIP. Our study suggests the association of monoclonal gammopathies with a variety of clinical phenotypes and decreased overall survival. FUNDING: Stand Up To Cancer Dream Team, the Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation, and National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Gamopatia Monoclonal de Significância Indeterminada , Mieloma Múltiplo , Paraproteinemias , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Gamopatia Monoclonal de Significância Indeterminada/epidemiologia , Mieloma Múltiplo/epidemiologia , Paraproteinemias/diagnóstico , Paraproteinemias/epidemiologia , Prevalência
4.
Nat Med ; 28(4): 814-822, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35314841

RESUMO

The application of large-scale metabolomic profiling provides new opportunities for realizing the potential of omics-based precision medicine for asthma. By leveraging data from over 14,000 individuals in four distinct cohorts, this study identifies and independently replicates 17 steroid metabolites whose levels were significantly reduced in individuals with prevalent asthma. Although steroid levels were reduced among all asthma cases regardless of medication use, the largest reductions were associated with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment, as confirmed in a 4-year low-dose ICS clinical trial. Effects of ICS treatment on steroid levels were dose dependent; however, significant reductions also occurred with low-dose ICS treatment. Using information from electronic medical records, we found that cortisol levels were substantially reduced throughout the entire 24-hour daily period in patients with asthma who were treated with ICS compared to those who were untreated and to patients without asthma. Moreover, patients with asthma who were treated with ICS showed significant increases in fatigue and anemia as compared to those without ICS treatment. Adrenal suppression in patients with asthma treated with ICS might, therefore, represent a larger public health problem than previously recognized. Regular cortisol monitoring of patients with asthma treated with ICS is needed to provide the optimal balance between minimizing adverse effects of adrenal suppression while capitalizing on the established benefits of ICS treatment.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides , Asma , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
5.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 29(5): 761-769, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35139533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To facilitate patient disease subset and risk factor identification by constructing a pipeline which is generalizable, provides easily interpretable results, and allows replication by overcoming electronic health records (EHRs) batch effects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used 1872 billing codes in EHRs of 102 880 patients from 12 healthcare systems. Using tools borrowed from single-cell omics, we mitigated center-specific batch effects and performed clustering to identify patients with highly similar medical history patterns across the various centers. Our visualization method (PheSpec) depicts the phenotypic profile of clusters, applies a novel filtering of noninformative codes (Ranked Scope Pervasion), and indicates the most distinguishing features. RESULTS: We observed 114 clinically meaningful profiles, for example, linking prostate hyperplasia with cancer and diabetes with cardiovascular problems and grouping pediatric developmental disorders. Our framework identified disease subsets, exemplified by 6 "other headache" clusters, where phenotypic profiles suggested different underlying mechanisms: migraine, convulsion, injury, eye problems, joint pain, and pituitary gland disorders. Phenotypic patterns replicated well, with high correlations of ≥0.75 to an average of 6 (2-8) of the 12 different cohorts, demonstrating the consistency with which our method discovers disease history profiles. DISCUSSION: Costly clinical research ventures should be based on solid hypotheses. We repurpose methods from single-cell omics to build these hypotheses from observational EHR data, distilling useful information from complex data. CONCLUSION: We establish a generalizable pipeline for the identification and replication of clinically meaningful (sub)phenotypes from widely available high-dimensional billing codes. This approach overcomes datatype problems and produces comprehensive visualizations of validation-ready phenotypes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35196534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the microbiome has an established role in asthma development, less is known about its contribution to morbidity in children with asthma. OBJECTIVE: In this ancillary study of the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART), we analyzed the gut microbiome and metabolome of wheeze frequency in children with asthma. METHODS: Bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA microbiome and untargeted metabolomic profiling were performed on fecal samples collected from 3-year-old children with parent-reported physician-diagnosed asthma. We analyzed wheeze frequency by calculating the proportion of quarterly questionnaires administered between ages 3 and 5 years in which parents reported the child had wheezed (wheeze proportion). Taxa and metabolites associated with wheeze were analyzed by identifying log fold changes with respect to wheeze frequency and correlation/linear regression analyses, respectively. Microbe-metabolite and microbe-microbe correlation networks were compared between subjects with high and low wheeze proportion. RESULTS: Specific taxa, including the genus Veillonella and histidine pathway metabolites, were enriched in subjects with high wheeze proportion. Among wheeze-associated taxa, Veillonella and Oscillospiraceae UCG-005, which was inversely associated with wheeze, were correlated with the greatest number of fecal metabolites. Microbial networks were similar between subjects with low versus high wheeze frequency. CONCLUSION: Gut microbiome features are associated with wheeze frequency in children with asthma, suggesting an impact of the gut microbiome on morbidity in childhood asthma.

7.
EClinicalMedicine ; 43: 101254, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35005585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to vitamin D in early life has been associated with improved bone mineralization, but no studies have investigated the combined effect of pregnancy supplementation and childhood 25(OH)D concentrations on bone health. METHODS: We analyzed the effect of serum 25(OH)D concentrations at age 6 months and 6 years and the combined effect with prenatal high-dose vitamin D (2800 vs. 400 IU/day) on bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans at age 3 and 6 years and longitudinal risk of fractures in a double-blinded, randomized clinical trial in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood 2010 (COPSAC2010) mother-child cohort with enrollment from March 4, 2009, to November 17, 2010, and clinical follow-up until January 31, 2019 (NCT00856947). All participants randomized to intervention and with complete data were included in the analyses. FINDINGS: At age 6 months, serum 25(OH)D concentration was measured in 93% (n = 541) of 584 children. Children with sufficient (≥ 75 nmol/l) vs. insufficient (< 75 nmol/l) concentrations did not have lower risk of fractures: incidence rate ratio (95% CI); 0.64 (0.37;1.11), p = 0.11. However, vitamin D sufficient children from mothers receiving high-dose supplementation during pregnancy had a 60% reduced incidence of fractures compared with vitamin D insufficient children from mothers receiving standard-dose: 0.40 (0.19;0.84), p = 0.02.At age 6 years, serum 25(OH)D concentration was measured in 83% (n = 318) of 383 children with available DXA data. Whole-body bone mineralization was higher in vitamin D sufficient children at age 6 years; BMD, adjusted mean difference (aMD) (95% CI): 0.011 g/cm2 (0.001;0.021), p = 0.03, and BMC, aMD: 12.3 g (-0.8;25.4), p = 0.07, with the largest effect in vitamin D sufficient children from mothers receiving high-dose vitamin D supplementation; BMD, aMD: 0.016 g/cm2 (0.002;0.030), p = 0.03, and BMC, aMD: 23.5 g (5.5;41.5), p = 0.01. INTERPRETATION: Childhood vitamin D sufficiency improved bone mineralization and in combination with prenatal high-dose vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of fractures. FUNDING: The study was supported by The Lundbeck Foundation R16-A1694, The Danish Ministry of Health 903,516, The Danish Council for Strategic Research 0603-00280B and The European Research Council 946,228.

8.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(3): 106268, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34974241

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms is multifactorial and includes genetic, environmental, and anatomic influences. We aimed to identify image-based morphological parameters that were associated with middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation aneurysms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated three-dimensional morphological parameters obtained from CT angiography (CTA) or digital subtraction angiography (DSA) from 317 patients with unilateral MCA bifurcation aneurysms diagnosed at the Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital between 1990 and 2016. We chose the contralateral unaffected MCA bifurcation as the control group, in order to control for genetic and environmental risk factors. Diameters and angles of surrounding parent and daughter vessels of 634 MCAs were examined. RESULTS: Univariable and multivariable statistical analyses were performed to determine statistical significance. Sensitivity analyses with smaller (≤ 3 mm) aneurysms only and with angles excluded, were also performed. In a multivariable conditional logistic regression model we showed that smaller diameter size ratio (OR 0.0004, 95% CI 0.0001-0.15), larger daughter-daughter angles (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.06-1.11) and larger parent-daughter angle ratios (OR 4.24, 95% CI 1.77-10.16) were significantly associated with MCA aneurysm presence after correcting for other variables. In order to account for possible changes to the vasculature by the aneurysm, a subgroup analysis of small aneurysms (≤ 3 mm) was performed and showed that the results were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Easily measurable morphological parameters of the surrounding vasculature of the MCA may provide objective metrics to assess MCA aneurysm formation risk in high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Intracraniano , Artéria Cerebral Média , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Feminino , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
Cells ; 11(2)2022 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35053372

RESUMO

Aberrant remodeling of the asthmatic airway is not well understood but is thought to be attributable in part to mechanical compression of airway epithelial cells. Here, we examine compression-induced expression and secretion of the extracellular matrix protein tenascin C (TNC) from well-differentiated primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells grown in an air-liquid interface culture. We measured TNC mRNA expression using RT-qPCR and secreted TNC protein using Western blotting and ELISA. To determine intracellular signaling pathways, we used specific inhibitors for either ERK or TGF-ß receptor, and to assess the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) we used a commercially available kit and Western blotting. At baseline, secreted TNC protein was significantly higher in asthmatic compared to non-asthmatic cells. In response to mechanical compression, both TNC mRNA expression and secreted TNC protein was significantly increased in both non-asthmatic and asthmatic cells. TNC production depended on both the ERK and TGF-ß receptor pathways. Moreover, mechanically compressed HBE cells released EVs that contain TNC. These data reveal a novel mechanism by which mechanical compression, as is caused by bronchospasm, is sufficient to induce the production of ECM protein in the airway and potentially contribute to airway remodeling.


Assuntos
Força Compressiva , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Pulmão/citologia , Estresse Mecânico , Tenascina/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/metabolismo , Tenascina/genética
10.
Thorax ; 77(5): 452-460, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580195

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Asthma is a complex disease with heterogeneous expression/severity. There is growing interest in defining asthma endotypes consistently associated with different responses to therapy, focusing on type 2 inflammation (Th2) as a key pathological mechanism. Current asthma endotypes are defined primarily by clinical/laboratory criteria. Each endotype is likely characterised by distinct molecular mechanisms that identify optimal therapies. METHODS: We applied unsupervised (without a priori clinical criteria) principal component analysis on sputum airway cells RNA-sequencing transcriptomic data from 19 asthmatics from the Severe Asthma Research Program at baseline and 6-8 weeks follow-up after a 40 mg dose of intramuscular corticosteroids. We investigated principal components PC1, PC3 for association with 55 clinical variables. RESULTS: PC3 was associated with baseline Th2 clinical features including blood (rank-sum p=0.0082) and airway (rank-sum p=0.0024) eosinophilia, FEV1 change (Kendall tau-b R=-0.333 (-0.592 to -0.012)) and follow-up FEV1 albuterol response (Kendall tau-b R=0.392 (0.079 to 0.634)). PC1 with blood basophlia (rank-sum p=0.0191). The top 5% genes contributing to PC1, PC3 were enriched for distinct immune system/inflammation ontologies suggesting distinct subject-specific clusters of transcriptomic response to corticosteroids. PC3 association with FEV1 change was reproduced in silico in a comparable independent 14-subject (baseline, 8 weeks after daily inhaled corticosteroids (ICS)) airway epithelial cells microRNAome dataset. CONCLUSIONS: Transcriptomic PCs from this unsupervised methodology define molecular pharmacogenomic endotypes that may yield novel biology underlying different subject-specific responses to corticosteroid therapy in asthma, and optimal personalised asthma care. Top contributing genes to these PCs may suggest new therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Asma , Eosinófilos , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/genética , Basófilos/patologia , Eosinófilos/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Pulmão , Escarro , Esteroides/uso terapêutico
11.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 205(3): 288-299, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767496

RESUMO

Rationale: Current guidelines do not sufficiently capture the heterogeneous nature of asthma; a more detailed molecular classification is needed. Metabolomics represents a novel and compelling approach to derive asthma endotypes (i.e., subtypes defined by functional and/or pathobiological mechanisms). Objectives: To validate metabolomic-driven endotypes of asthma and explore their underlying biology. Methods: In the Genetics of Asthma in Costa Rica Study (GACRS), untargeted metabolomic profiling, similarity network fusion, and spectral clustering was used to identify metabo-endotypes of asthma, and differences in asthma-relevant phenotypes across these metabo-endotypes were explored. The metabo-endotypes were recapitulated in the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP), and clinical differences were determined. Metabolomic drivers of metabo-endotype membership were investigated by meta-analyzing findings from GACRS and CAMP. Measurements and Main Results: Five metabo-endotypes were identified in GACRS with significant differences in asthma-relevant phenotypes, including prebronchodilator (p-ANOVA = 8.3 × 10-5) and postbronchodilator (p-ANOVA = 1.8 × 10-5) FEV1/FVC. These differences were validated in the recapitulated metabo-endotypes in CAMP. Cholesterol esters, trigylcerides, and fatty acids were among the most important drivers of metabo-endotype membership. The findings suggest dysregulation of pulmonary surfactant homeostasis may play a role in asthma severity. Conclusions: Clinically meaningful endotypes may be derived and validated using metabolomic data. Interrogating the drivers of these metabo-endotypes has the potential to help understand their pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Asma/metabolismo , Asma/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Metabolômica , Adolescente , Asma/diagnóstico , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
Thorax ; 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501119

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Older adults have the greatest burden of asthma and poorest outcomes. The pharmacogenetics of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment response is not well studied in older adults. METHODS: A genome-wide association study of ICS response was performed in asthmatics of European ancestry in Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) by fitting Cox proportional hazards regression models, followed by validation in the Mass General Brigham (MGB) Biobank and Rotterdam Study. ICS response was measured using two definitions in asthmatics on ICS treatment: (1) absence of oral corticosteroid (OCS) bursts using prescription records and (2) absence of asthma-related exacerbations using diagnosis codes. A fixed-effect meta-analysis was performed for each outcome. The validated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were functionally annotated to standard databases. RESULTS: In 5710 subjects in GERA, 676 subjects in MGB Biobank, and 465 subjects in the Rotterdam Study, four novel SNPs on chromosome six near PTCHD4 validated across all cohorts and met genome-wide significance on meta-analysis for the OCS burst outcome. In 4541 subjects in GERA and 505 subjects in MGB Biobank, 152 SNPs with p<5 × 10-5 were validated across these two cohorts for the asthma-related exacerbation outcome. The validated SNPs included methylation and expression quantitative trait loci for CPED1, CRADD and DST for the OCS burst outcome and GM2A, SNW1, CACNA1C, DPH1, and RPS10 for the asthma-related exacerbation outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple novel SNPs associated with ICS response were identified in older adult asthmatics. Several SNPs annotated to genes previously associated with asthma and other airway or allergic diseases, including PTCHD4.

13.
Genet Med ; 24(2): 454-462, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906510

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The clinical genomics knowledgebase is dynamic with variant classifications changing as newly identified cases, additional population data, and other evidence become available. This is a challenge for the clinical laboratory because of limited resource availability for variant reassessment. METHODS: Throughout the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics phase III program, clinical sites associated with the Mass General Brigham/Broad sequencing center received automated, real-time notifications when reported variants were reclassified. In this study, we summarized the nature of these reclassifications and described the proactive reassessment framework we used for the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics program data set to identify variants most likely to undergo reclassification. RESULTS: Reanalysis of 1855 variants led to the reclassification of 2% (n = 45) of variants, affecting 0.6% (n = 67) of participants. Of these reclassifications, 78% (n = 35) were high-impact changes affecting reportability, with 8 variants downgraded from likely pathogenic/pathogenic to variants of uncertain significance (VUS) and 27 variants upgraded from VUS to likely pathogenic/pathogenic. Most upgraded variants (67%) were initially classified as VUS-Favor Pathogenic, highlighting the benefit of VUS subcategorization. The most common reason for reclassification was new published case data and/or functional evidence. CONCLUSION: Our results highlight the importance of periodic sequence variant reevaluation and the need for automated approaches to advance routine implementation of variant reevaluations in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos , Variação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Variação Genética/genética , Genômica , Humanos
14.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 69, 2022 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35331221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of death in adults that may have origins in early lung development. It is a complex disease, influenced by multiple factors including genetic variants and environmental factors. Maternal smoking during pregnancy may influence the risk for diseases during adulthood, potentially through epigenetic modifications including methylation. METHODS: In this work, we explore the fetal origins of COPD by utilizing lung DNA methylation marks associated with in utero smoke (IUS) exposure, and evaluate the network relationships between methylomic and transcriptomic signatures associated with adult lung tissue from former smokers with and without COPD. To identify potential pathobiological mechanisms that may link fetal lung, smoke exposure and adult lung disease, we study the interactions (physical and functional) of identified genes using protein-protein interaction networks. RESULTS: We build IUS-exposure and COPD modules, which identify connected subnetworks linking fetal lung smoke exposure to adult COPD. Studying the relationships and connectivity among the different modules for fetal smoke exposure and adult COPD, we identify enriched pathways, including the AGE-RAGE and focal adhesion pathways. CONCLUSIONS: The modules identified in our analysis add new and potentially important insights to understanding the early life molecular perturbations related to the pathogenesis of COPD. We identify AGE-RAGE and focal adhesion as two biologically plausible pathways that may reveal lung developmental contributions to COPD. We were not only able to identify meaningful modules but were also able to study interconnections between smoke exposure and lung disease, augmenting our knowledge about the fetal origins of COPD.


Assuntos
Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Gravidez , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/genética
15.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E104, 2021 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941480

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: National obesity prevention strategies may benefit from precision health approaches involving diverse participants in population health studies. We used cohort data from the National Institutes of Health All of Us Research Program (All of Us) Researcher Workbench to estimate population-level obesity prevalence. METHODS: To estimate state-level obesity prevalence we used data from physical measurements made during All of Us enrollment visits and data from participant electronic health records (EHRs) where available. Prevalence estimates were calculated and mapped by state for 2 categories of body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2): obesity (BMI >30) and severe obesity (BMI >35). We calculated and mapped prevalence by state, excluding states with fewer than 100 All of Us participants. RESULTS: Data on height and weight were available for 244,504 All of Us participants from 33 states, and corresponding EHR data were available for 88,840 of these participants. The median and IQR of BMI taken from physical measurements data was 28.4 (24.4- 33.7) and 28.5 (24.5-33.6) from EHR data, where available. Overall obesity prevalence based on physical measurements data was 41.5% (95% CI, 41.3%-41.7%); prevalence of severe obesity was 20.7% (95% CI, 20.6-20.9), with large geographic variations observed across states. Prevalence estimates from states with greater numbers of All of Us participants were more similar to national population-based estimates than states with fewer participants. CONCLUSION: All of Us participants had a high prevalence of obesity, with state-level geographic variation mirroring national trends. The diversity among All of Us participants may support future investigations on obesity prevention and treatment in diverse populations.


Assuntos
Obesidade Mórbida , Saúde da População , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(12): 2224-2237, 2021 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752750

RESUMO

Over 100 million research participants around the world have had research array-based genotyping (GT) or genome sequencing (GS), but only a small fraction of these have been offered return of actionable genomic findings (gRoR). Between 2017 and 2021, we analyzed genomic results from 36,417 participants in the Mass General Brigham Biobank and offered to confirm and return pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants (PLPVs) in 59 genes. Variant verification prior to participant recontact revealed that GT falsely identified PLPVs in 44.9% of samples, and GT failed to identify 72.0% of PLPVs detected in a subset of samples that were also sequenced. GT and GS detected verified PLPVs in 1% and 2.5% of the cohort, respectively. Of 256 participants who were alerted that they carried actionable PLPVs, 37.5% actively or passively declined further disclosure. 76.3% of those carrying PLPVs were unaware that they were carrying the variant, and over half of those met published professional criteria for genetic testing but had never been tested. This gRoR protocol cost approximately $129,000 USD per year in laboratory testing and research staff support, representing $14 per participant whose DNA was analyzed or $3,224 per participant in whom a PLPV was confirmed and disclosed. These data provide logistical details around gRoR that could help other investigators planning to return genomic results.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Genômica , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , DNA , Revelação , Dever de Recontatar , Feminino , Pesquisa em Genética , Testes Genéticos , Genômica/economia , Genômica/normas , Genômica/tendências , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
J Pers Med ; 11(11)2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34834499

RESUMO

Metabolomic indicators of asthma treatment responses have yet to be identified. In this study, we aimed to uncover plasma metabolomic profiles associated with asthma exacerbations while on inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment. We determined whether these profiles change with age from adolescence to adulthood. We utilized data from 170 individuals with asthma on ICS from the Mass General Brigham Biobank to identify plasma metabolites associated with asthma exacerbations while on ICS and examined potential effect modification of metabolite-exacerbation associations by age. We used liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling. Sex-stratified analyses were also performed for the significant associations. The age range of the participating individuals was 13-43 years with a mean age of 33.5 years. Of the 783 endogenous metabolites tested, eight demonstrated significant associations with exacerbation after correction for multiple comparisons and adjusting for potential confounders (Bonferroni p value < 6.2 × 10-4). Potential effect modification by sex was detected for fatty acid metabolites, with males showing a greater reduction in their metabolite levels with ICS exacerbation. Thirty-eight metabolites showed suggestive interactions with age on exacerbation (nominal p-value < 0.05). Our findings demonstrate that plasma metabolomic profiles differ for individuals who experience asthma exacerbations while on ICS. The differentiating metabolites may serve as biomarkers of ICS response and may highlight metabolic pathways underlying ICS response variability.

18.
iScience ; 24(10): 103163, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693221

RESUMO

RANTES is implicated in allergic asthma and in T cell-dependent clearance of infection. RANTES receptor family comprises CCR1, CCR3, and CCR5, which are G-protein-coupled receptors consisting of seven transmembrane helices. Infections with respiratory viruses like Rhinovirus cause induction of RANTES production by epithelial cells. Here, we studied the role of RANTES in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells in cohorts of children with and without asthma and validated and extended this study to the airways of adults with and without asthma. We further translated these studies to a murine model of asthma induced by house dust mite allergen in wild-type RANTES and CCR5-deficient mice. Here we show an unpredicted therapeutic role of RANTES in the resolution of allergen-induced asthma by orchestrating the transition of effector GATA-3+CD4+ T cells into immune-regulatory-type T cells and inflammatory eosinophils into resident eosinophils as well as increased IL-10 production in the lung.

19.
Thorax ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650005

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The biochemical mechanisms underlying lung function are incompletely understood. OBJECTIVES: To identify and validate the plasma metabolome of lung function using two independent adult cohorts: discovery-the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk, n=10 460) and validation-the VA Normative Aging Study (NAS) metabolomic cohort (n=437). METHODS: We ran linear regression models for 693 metabolites to identify associations with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC), in EPIC-Norfolk then validated significant findings in NAS. Significance in EPIC-Norfolk was denoted using an effective number of tests threshold of 95%; a metabolite was considered validated in NAS if the direction of effect was consistent and p<0.05. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of 156 metabolites that associated with FEV1 in EPIC-Norfolk after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, height, smoking and asthma status, 34 (21.8%) validated in NAS, including several metabolites involved in oxidative stress. When restricting the discovery sample to men only, a similar percentage, 18 of 79 significant metabolites (22.8%) were validated. A smaller number of metabolites were validated for FEV1/FVC, 6 of 65 (9.2%) when including all EPIC-Norfolk as the discovery population, and 2 of 34 (5.9%) when restricting to men. These metabolites were characterised by involvement in respiratory track secretants. Interestingly, no metabolites were validated for both FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. CONCLUSIONS: The validation of metabolites associated with respiratory function can help to better understand mechanisms of lung health and may assist the development of biomarkers.

20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19959, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620889

RESUMO

Electronic health records (EHR) provide an unprecedented opportunity to conduct large, cost-efficient, population-based studies. However, the studies of heterogeneous diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), often require labor-intensive clinical review and testing, limiting widespread use of these important resources. To develop a generalizable and efficient method for accurate identification of large COPD cohorts in EHRs, a COPD datamart was developed from 3420 participants meeting inclusion criteria in the Mass General Brigham Biobank. Training and test sets were selected and labeled with gold-standard COPD classifications obtained from chart review by pulmonologists. Multiple classes of algorithms were built utilizing both structured (e.g. ICD codes) and unstructured (e.g. medical notes) data via elastic net regression. Models explicitly including and excluding spirometry features were compared. External validation of the final algorithm was conducted in an independent biobank with a different EHR system. The final COPD classification model demonstrated excellent positive predictive value (PPV; 91.7%), sensitivity (71.7%), and specificity (94.4%). This algorithm performed well not only within the MGBB, but also demonstrated similar or improved classification performance in an independent biobank (PPV 93.5%, sensitivity 61.4%, specificity 90%). Ancillary comparisons showed that the classification model built including a binary feature for FEV1/FVC produced substantially higher sensitivity than those excluding. This study fills a gap in COPD research involving population-based EHRs, providing an important resource for the rapid, automated classification of COPD cases that is both cost-efficient and requires minimal information from unstructured medical records.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Capacidade Vital
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