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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(24): 3118-3131, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subclinical changes on the electrocardiogram are risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. Recognition and knowledge of electrolyte associations in cardiac electrophysiology are based on only in vitro models and observations in patients with severe medical conditions. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate associations between serum electrolyte concentrations and changes in cardiac electrophysiology in the general population. METHODS: Summary results collected from 153,014 individuals (54.4% women; mean age 55.1 ± 12.1 years) from 33 studies (of 5 ancestries) were meta-analyzed. Linear regression analyses examining associations between electrolyte concentrations (mmol/l of calcium, potassium, sodium, and magnesium), and electrocardiographic intervals (RR, QT, QRS, JT, and PR intervals) were performed. The study adjusted for potential confounders and also stratified by ancestry, sex, and use of antihypertensive drugs. RESULTS: Lower calcium was associated with longer QT intervals (-11.5 ms; 99.75% confidence interval [CI]: -13.7 to -9.3) and JT duration, with sex-specific effects. In contrast, higher magnesium was associated with longer QT intervals (7.2 ms; 99.75% CI: 1.3 to 13.1) and JT. Lower potassium was associated with longer QT intervals (-2.8 ms; 99.75% CI: -3.5 to -2.0), JT, QRS, and PR durations, but all potassium associations were driven by use of antihypertensive drugs. No physiologically relevant associations were observed for sodium or RR intervals. CONCLUSIONS: The study identified physiologically relevant associations between electrolytes and electrocardiographic intervals in a large-scale analysis combining cohorts from different settings. The results provide insights for further cardiac electrophysiology research and could potentially influence clinical practice, especially the association between calcium and QT duration, by which calcium levels at the bottom 2% of the population distribution led to clinically relevant QT prolongation by >5 ms.

2.
Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) ; 67: 134-141, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medial and lateral hamstrings are known for their capacity to promote internal or external rotation of the knee. Apart from implant geometry, increased co-contraction to a larger share of either the medial or lateral hamstrings has the potential to contribute to the restricted knee internal rotation especially under consideration of cruciate ligament substituting compared to cruciate ligament retaining knee endoprosthesis designs. Hence, the purpose of the study was to evaluate, whether increased co-contraction of the hamstrings contribute to the impaired knee internal rotation in total and unicondylar knee arthroplasty patients during level and decline walking. METHODS: Knee joint angles were calculated using an inverse kinematics model in Anybody. Muscle activity was examined of the semitendinosus and biceps femoris. FINDINGS: Knee internal rotation was constraint in the operated compared to the non-operated limb only in the total knee arthroplasty group during decline slope walking. Co-contraction values revealed no statistically significant differences between the operated and non-operated limb during the limited knee internal rotation period of time (59-94% of stance). Biceps femoris activity was significantly reduced (69-71% of stance) in the operated limb in the total knee arthroplasty group during decline slope walking. INTERPRETATION: Contrary to the proposed mechanism, aspects other than co-contraction between semitendinosus and biceps femoris are involved in the impaired transverse plane knee motion. These include implant congruency and probably friction. Unexpectedly, the biceps femoris did not compensate the absence of the anterior cruciate ligament with increased muscular activity in the operated limb of the total knee arthroplasty group.

4.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 69(3): 729-741, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081791

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents the most common form of neurodegenerative disorders with only palliative treatments currently available. Amyloid plaque formation caused by amyloid-ß (Aß) aggregation and neurofibrillary tangle formation caused by hyperphosphorylated tau are hallmarks for the development of AD. The 37 kDa/67 kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) has been implicated in AD and tools blocking or downregulating LRP/LR impede amyloid plaque formation in vitro and in vivo. We have recently shown that LRP::FLAG enhances telomerase activity with a concomitant reduction of senescent markers. Here, we overexpressed LRP::FLAG in HEK293 and SH-SY5Y cells, which resulted in an increase in hTERT levels as well as increased telomerase activity and increased cell viability in the presence of cytotoxic levels of exogenous Aß. LRP::FLAG overexpression decreased Aß shedding and intracellular Aß levels in HEK293 cells. This suggests that LRP::FLAG rescues cells from Aß-induced cytotoxicity through increased telomerase activity. This study recommends LRP::FLAG as a novel alternative therapeutic for AD treatment through activation of telomerase activity.

5.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a key driver of atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction (MI), and beyond proteins and microRNAs (miRs), long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in inflammation control. To obtain further information on the possible role of lncRNAs in the context of atherosclerosis, we obtained comprehensive transcriptome maps of circulating immune cells (PBMCs) of early onset MI patients. One lncRNA significantly suppressed in post-MI patients was further investigated in a murine knockout model. METHODS AND RESULTS: Individual RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was conducted on PBMCs from 28 post-MI patients with a history of MI at age ≤50 years and stable disease ≥3 months before study participation, and from 31 healthy individuals without manifest cardiovascular disease or family history of MI as controls. RNA-seq revealed deregulated protein-coding transcripts and lncRNAs in post-MI PBMCs, among which NEAT1 was the most highly expressed lncRNA, and the only one significantly suppressed in patients. Multivariate statistical analysis of validation cohorts of 106 post-MI patients and 85 controls indicated that the PBMC NEAT1 levels were influenced (p = 0.001) by post MI status independent of statin intake, left ventricular ejection fraction, LDL or HDL cholesterol, or age. We investigated NEAT1-/- mice as a model of NEAT1 deficiency to evaluate if NEAT1 depletion may directly and causally alter immune regulation. RNA-seq of NEAT1-/- splenocytes identified disturbed expression and regulation of chemokines/receptors, innate immunity genes, TNF and caspases, and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under baseline conditions. NEAT1-/- spleen displayed anomalous Treg and TH cell differentiation. NEAT1-/- bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) displayed altered transcriptomes with disturbed chemokine/chemokine receptor expression, increased baseline phagocytosis (p < 0.0001), and attenuated proliferation (p = 0.0013). NEAT1-/- BMDMs responded to LPS with increased (p < 0.0001) ROS production and disturbed phagocytic activity (p = 0.0318). Monocyte-macrophage differentiation was deregulated in NEAT1-/- bone marrow and blood. NEAT1-/- mice displayed aortic wall CD68+ cell infiltration and there was evidence of myocardial inflammation which could lead to severe and potentially life-threatening structural damage in some of these animals. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates distinctive alterations of lncRNA expression in post-MI patient PBMCs. Regarding the monocyte-enriched NEAT1 suppressed in post-MI patients, the data from NEAT1-/- mice identify NEAT1 as a novel lncRNA-type immunoregulator affecting monocyte-macrophage functions and T cell differentiation. NEAT1 is part of a molecular circuit also involving several chemokines and interleukins persistently deregulated post-MI. Individual profiling of this circuit may contribute to identify high risk patients likely to benefit from immunomodulatory therapies. It also appears reasonable to look for new therapeutic targets within this circuit.

6.
Parasitol Res ; 118(5): 1633-1638, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877440

RESUMO

Systematic, continuous mosquito surveillance is considered the most reliable tool to predict the spread and establishment of alien mosquito species such as the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus), Japanese bush mosquito (Aedes japonicus), and the transmission risk of mosquito-borne arboviruses to humans. Only single individuals of Ae. albopictus have been found in Austria so far. However, it is likely that the species will be able to establish populations in the future due to global trade and traffic as well as increasing temperatures in the course of global climate change. In summer 2017, a project surveilling the oviposition of newly introduced Aedes mosquitoes, using ovitraps, was set up by means of citizen scientists and researchers and was performed in six federal provinces of Austria-Tyrol, Carinthia, Vienna, Lower Austria, Styria, and Burgenland. Eggs of Ae. albopictus were identified in Tyrol during the months August and September, while Ae. japonicus was found in Lower Austria, Styria, and Burgenland. In Vienna and Carinthia, all ovitraps were negative for Aedes eggs; however, Ae. japonicus was found for the first time in Vienna in July 2017 during routine sampling of adult mosquitoes. With this project, we demonstrated the benefits of citizen scientists for ovitrap-based mosquito surveillance. The finding of Ae. albopictus eggs in Northern Tyrol is not yet a proof of the establishment of a self-sustaining population, although it indicates the ongoing introduction of this species along main traffic routes from Italy, where this mosquito is well established. The risk of establishment of the tiger mosquito in the Lower Inn Valley is therefore a given and informing the public about preventive measures to hinder and delay this development is highly recommended.


Assuntos
Aedes/anatomia & histologia , Aedes/classificação , Espécies Introduzidas , Oviposição/fisiologia , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Arbovirus/transmissão , Arbovirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Áustria , Mudança Climática , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente
7.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 481-493, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804560

RESUMO

Reduced lung function predicts mortality and is key to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a genome-wide association study in 400,102 individuals of European ancestry, we define 279 lung function signals, 139 of which are new. In combination, these variants strongly predict COPD in independent populations. Furthermore, the combined effect of these variants showed generalizability across smokers and never smokers, and across ancestral groups. We highlight biological pathways, known and potential drug targets for COPD and, in phenome-wide association studies, autoimmune-related and other pleiotropic effects of lung function-associated variants. This new genetic evidence has potential to improve future preventive and therapeutic strategies for COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
8.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(2): 144-152, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673084

RESUMO

Importance: Increased free thyroxine (FT4) and decreased thyrotropin are associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) in observational studies, but direct involvement is unclear. Objective: To evaluate the potential direct involvement of thyroid traits on AF. Design, Setting, and Participants: Study-level mendelian randomization (MR) included 11 studies, and summary-level MR included 55 114 AF cases and 482 295 referents, all of European ancestry. Exposures: Genomewide significant variants were used as instruments for standardized FT4 and thyrotropin levels within the reference range, standardized triiodothyronine (FT3):FT4 ratio, hypothyroidism, standardized thyroid peroxidase antibody levels, and hyperthyroidism. Mendelian randomization used genetic risk scores in study-level analysis or individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 2-sample MR for the summary-level data. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalent and incident AF. Results: The study-level analysis included 7679 individuals with AF and 49 233 referents (mean age [standard error], 62 [3] years; 15 859 men [29.7%]). In study-level random-effects meta-analysis, the pooled hazard ratio of FT4 levels (nanograms per deciliter) for incident AF was 1.55 (95% CI, 1.09-2.20; P = .02; I2 = 76%) and the pooled odds ratio (OR) for prevalent AF was 2.80 (95% CI, 1.41-5.54; P = .003; I2 = 64%) in multivariable-adjusted analyses. The FT4 genetic risk score was associated with an increase in FT4 by 0.082 SD (standard error, 0.007; P < .001) but not with incident AF (risk ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.62-1.14; P = .27) or prevalent AF (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.64-2.73; P = .46). Similarly, in summary-level inverse-variance weighted random-effects MR, gene-based FT4 within the reference range was not associated with AF (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.89-1.14; P = .88). However, gene-based increased FT3:FT4 ratio, increased thyrotropin within the reference range, and hypothyroidism were associated with AF with inverse-variance weighted random-effects OR of 1.33 (95% CI, 1.08-1.63; P = .006), 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.92; P < .001), and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.90-0.99; P = .009), respectively, and robust to tests of horizontal pleiotropy. However, the subset of hypothyroidism single-nucleotide polymorphisms involved in autoimmunity and thyroid peroxidase antibodies levels were not associated with AF. Gene-based hyperthyroidism was associated with AF with MR-Egger OR of 1.31 (95% CI, 1.05-1.63; P = .02) with evidence of horizontal pleiotropy (P = .045). Conclusions and Relevance: Genetically increased FT3:FT4 ratio and hyperthyroidism, but not FT4 within the reference range, were associated with increased AF, and increased thyrotropin within the reference range and hypothyroidism were associated with decreased AF, supporting a pathway involving the pituitary-thyroid-cardiac axis.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 112-138, 2019 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595373

RESUMO

Mitochondria (MT), the major site of cellular energy production, are under dual genetic control by 37 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes and numerous nuclear genes (MT-nDNA). In the CHARGEmtDNA+ Consortium, we studied genetic associations of mtDNA and MT-nDNA associations with body mass index (BMI), waist-hip-ratio (WHR), glucose, insulin, HOMA-B, HOMA-IR, and HbA1c. This 45-cohort collaboration comprised 70,775 (insulin) to 170,202 (BMI) pan-ancestry individuals. Validation and imputation of mtDNA variants was followed by single-variant and gene-based association testing. We report two significant common variants, one in MT-ATP6 associated (p ≤ 5E-04) with WHR and one in the D-loop with glucose. Five rare variants in MT-ATP6, MT-ND5, and MT-ND6 associated with BMI, WHR, or insulin. Gene-based meta-analysis identified MT-ND3 associated with BMI (p ≤ 1E-03). We considered 2,282 MT-nDNA candidate gene associations compiled from online summary results for our traits (20 unique studies with 31 dataset consortia's genome-wide associations [GWASs]). Of these, 109 genes associated (p ≤ 1E-06) with at least 1 of our 7 traits. We assessed regulatory features of variants in the 109 genes, cis- and trans-gene expression regulation, and performed enrichment and protein-protein interactions analyses. Of the identified mtDNA and MT-nDNA genes, 79 associated with adipose measures, 49 with glucose/insulin, 13 with risk for type 2 diabetes, and 18 with cardiovascular disease, indicating for pleiotropic effects with health implications. Additionally, 21 genes related to cholesterol, suggesting additional important roles for the genes identified. Our results suggest that mtDNA and MT-nDNA genes and variants reported make important contributions to glucose and insulin metabolism, adipocyte regulation, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

10.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0205492, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30304032

RESUMO

Due to the significant role of rotational properties for normal knee function, this study aimed to investigate transverse plane kinematics and kinetics in total knee arthroplasty and unicondylar knee arthroplasty patients during activities of daily living compared to a healthy control group, including stair ascent and descent. The study participants consisted of a total knee arthroplasty group including posterior cruciate retaining and posterior stabilized designs as well as a unicondylar knee arthroplasty group and a healthy control group. Three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics were captured using a Vicon system and two Kistler force plates embedded in the floor and another two in a staircase. Inverse dynamics of the lower limbs was computed in Anybody™ Modeling System. Transverse plane joint angles and joint moments were analyzed utilizing the statistical non-parametric mapping approach, considering the entire curve shape for statistical analysis. The patients with total knee arthroplasty exhibited significantly reduced knee internal rotation of the operated knee compared to the control group and the patients' unimpaired limb, especially during the stair climbing tasks. Both unicondylar and total knee arthroplasty patients were found to have similar reduced internal rotation motion time series in stair descent. In conclusion, potential kinematic and kinetic benefits of unicondylar knee arthroplasty over total knee arthroplasty could not be proven in the current study. Aside from the usually mentioned reasons inducing constrained knee internal rotation in total knee arthroplasty patients, future studies should investigate to what extent co-contraction may contribute to this functional impairment in patients after knee arthroplasty surgery.

11.
Curr Issues Mol Biol ; 30: 89-106, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30070653

RESUMO

After replanting apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) on the same site severe growth suppressions, and a decline in yield and fruit quality are observed in all apple producing areas worldwide. The causes of this complex phenomenon, called apple replant disease (ARD), are only poorly understood up to now which is in part due to inconsistencies in terms and methodologies. Therefore we suggest the following definition for ARD: ARD describes a harmfully disturbed physiological and morphological reaction of apple plants to soils that faced alterations in their (micro-) biome due to the previous apple cultures. The underlying interactions likely have multiple causes that extend beyond common analytical tools in microbial ecology. They are influenced by soil properties, faunal vectors, and trophic cascades, with genotype-specific effects on plant secondary metabolism, particularly phytoalexin biosynthesis. Yet, emerging tools allow to unravel the soil and rhizosphere (micro-) biome, to characterize alterations of habitat quality, and to decipher the plant reactions. Thereby, deep insights into the reactions taking place at the root rhizosphere interface will be gained. Counteractions are suggested, taking into account that culture management should emphasize on improving soil microbial and faunal diversity as well as habitat quality rather than focus on soil disinfection.

12.
Genome Biol ; 19(1): 87, 2018 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies conducted on QRS duration, an electrocardiographic measurement associated with heart failure and sudden cardiac death, have led to novel biological insights into cardiac function. However, the variants identified fall predominantly in non-coding regions and their underlying mechanisms remain unclear. RESULTS: Here, we identify putative functional coding variation associated with changes in the QRS interval duration by combining Illumina HumanExome BeadChip genotype data from 77,898 participants of European ancestry and 7695 of African descent in our discovery cohort, followed by replication in 111,874 individuals of European ancestry from the UK Biobank and deCODE cohorts. We identify ten novel loci, seven within coding regions, including ADAMTS6, significantly associated with QRS duration in gene-based analyses. ADAMTS6 encodes a secreted metalloprotease of currently unknown function. In vitro validation analysis shows that the QRS-associated variants lead to impaired ADAMTS6 secretion and loss-of function analysis in mice demonstrates a previously unappreciated role for ADAMTS6 in connexin 43 gap junction expression, which is essential for myocardial conduction. CONCLUSIONS: Our approach identifies novel coding and non-coding variants underlying ventricular depolarization and provides a possible mechanism for the ADAMTS6-associated conduction changes.


Assuntos
Proteínas ADAMTS/genética , Conexina 43/genética , Exoma , Loci Gênicos , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Animais , Eletrocardiografia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/patologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
13.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 221(6): 985-989, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29908910

RESUMO

Reference values (RV95) are statistically derived values comprising the rounded 95th percentiles within the 95% confidence interval and indicate the upper margin of background exposure to chemical substances in a population at a given time period. Based on representative national human biomonitoring data on several urinary phthalate metabolites in children, adolescents and adults from 2010 to 2011, RV95 were derived for the Austrian population based on a IUPAC guideline and the recommendation of the German Human Biomonitoring Commission. The RV95 (rounded values) for phthalate metabolites in children and adolescents aged 6-15 years are 110 µg/l (confidence interval of 95th population percentile: 83.7-163) for mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), 45 µg/l (40.9-60.6) for mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), 130 µg/l (126-161) for mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), 25 µg/l (17.8-33.6) for mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), 100 µg/l (94.0-126) for the sum of the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites including mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5oxo-MEHP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP), and 1.5 µg/l (0.64-1.6) for mono-cyclohexyl phthalate (MCHP). In adults aged 18-81 years, RV95 are 440 µg/l (353-636) for MEP, 40 µg/l (33.1-52.1) for MnBP, 110 µg/l (87.3-118) for MiBP, 10 µg/l (7.2-11.8) for MBzP, 50 µg/l (44.6-68.3) for the sum of MEHP, 5OH-MEHP, 5oxo-MEHP and 5cx-MEPP, and 1.5 µg/l (0.95-1.8) for MCHP. For almost all investigated metabolites, children and adolescents exhibit higher RV95 than adults, with the exceptions being MEP and MCHP. Compared to available RV95 for Germany and Canada, Austrian values are lower for all investigated population groups.

14.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(1): e001758, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29874175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: QT interval, measured through a standard ECG, captures the time it takes for the cardiac ventricles to depolarize and repolarize. JT interval is the component of the QT interval that reflects ventricular repolarization alone. Prolonged QT interval has been linked to higher risk of sudden cardiac arrest. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed an ExomeChip-wide analysis for both QT and JT intervals, including 209 449 variants, both common and rare, in 17 341 genes from the Illumina Infinium HumanExome BeadChip. We identified 10 loci that modulate QT and JT interval duration that have not been previously reported in the literature using single-variant statistical models in a meta-analysis of 95 626 individuals from 23 cohorts (comprised 83 884 European ancestry individuals, 9610 blacks, 1382 Hispanics, and 750 Asians). This brings the total number of ventricular repolarization associated loci to 45. In addition, our approach of using coding variants has highlighted the role of 17 specific genes for involvement in ventricular repolarization, 7 of which are in novel loci. CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses show a role for myocyte internal structure and interconnections in modulating QT interval duration, adding to previous known roles of potassium, sodium, and calcium ion regulation, as well as autonomic control. We anticipate that these discoveries will open new paths to the goal of making novel remedies for the prevention of lethal ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac arrest.

15.
Oncotarget ; 9(43): 27059-27073, 2018 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29930750

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by accumulation of amyloid beta (Aß) plaque and neurofibrillary tangle formation. We have shown in vitro, that knock-down and blockade of the 37 kDa/67 kDa Laminin Receptor (LRP/LR) resulted in reduced Aß induced cytotoxicity and Aß accumulation. In order to test the effect of blocking LRP/LR on Aß formation and AD associated symptoms, AD transgenic mice received the anti-LRP/LR specific antibody, IgG1-iS18 through intranasal administration. We show that this treatment resulted in an improvement in memory, and decreased Aß plaque formation. Moreover, a significant decrease in Aß42 protein expression with a concomitant increase in amyloid precursor protein (APP) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (mTERT) levels was observed. These data recommend IgG1-iS18 as a potentially powerful therapeutic antibody for AD treatment.

16.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(5): e002037, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29748316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electrical conduction from the cardiac sinoatrial node to the ventricles is critical for normal heart function. Genome-wide association studies have identified more than a dozen common genetic loci that are associated with PR interval. However, it is unclear whether rare and low-frequency variants also contribute to PR interval heritability. METHODS: We performed large-scale meta-analyses of the PR interval that included 83 367 participants of European ancestry and 9436 of African ancestry. We examined both common and rare variants associated with the PR interval. RESULTS: We identified 31 genetic loci that were significantly associated with PR interval after Bonferroni correction (P<1.2×10-6), including 11 novel loci that have not been reported previously. Many of these loci are involved in heart morphogenesis. In gene-based analysis, we found that multiple rare variants at MYH6 (P=5.9×10-11) and SCN5A (P=1.1×10-7) were associated with PR interval. SCN5A locus also was implicated in the common variant analysis, whereas MYH6 was a novel locus. CONCLUSIONS: We identified common variants at 11 novel loci and rare variants within 2 gene regions that were significantly associated with PR interval. Our findings provide novel insights to the current understanding of atrioventricular conduction, which is critical for cardiac activity and an important determinant of health.

17.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 602, 2018 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29843646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer remains one of the leading causes of death around the world, where incidence and mortality rates are at a constant increase. Tumourigenic cells are characteristically seen to over-express the 37 kDa/67 kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) compared to their normal cell counterparts. This receptor has numerous roles in tumourigenesis including metastasis, angiogenic enhancement, telomerase activation, cell viability and apoptotic evasion. This study aimed to expose the role of LRP/LR on the cellular viability of early (SW-480) and late (DLD-1) stage colorectal cancer cells. METHODS: siRNA were used to down-regulate the expression of LRP/LR in SW-480 and DLD-1 cells which was assessed using western blotting. Subsequently, cell survival was evaluated using the MTT cell survival assay and confocal microscopy. Thereafter, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and caspase activity assays were used to investigate the mechanism underlying the cell death observed upon LRP/LR knockdown. The data was analysed using Student's t-test with a confidence interval of 95%, with p-values of less than 0.05 seen as significant. RESULTS: Here we reveal that siRNA-mediated knock-down of LRP led to notable decreases in cell viability through increased levels of apoptosis, apparent by compromised membrane integrity and significantly high caspase-3 activity. Down-regulated LRP resulted in a significant increase in caspase-8 and -9 activity in both cell lines. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that the receptor is critically implicated in apoptosis and that LRP/LR down-regulation induces apoptosis in early and late stage colorectal cancer cells through both apoptotic pathways. Thus, this study suggests that siRNA-mediated knock-down of LRP could be a possible therapeutic strategy for the treatment of early and late stage colorectal carcinoma.

18.
Exp Cell Res ; 368(1): 1-12, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29653110

RESUMO

The 37 kDa/67 kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) is over-expressed in tumor cells and has been implicated in several tumourigenic processes such as metastasis and telomerase activation, however, more importantly the focus of the present study is on the maintenance of cellular viability and the evasion of apoptosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of LRP/LR on the cellular viability of early (A375) and late stage (A375SM) malignant melanoma cells. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis revealed that A375SM cells contain more cell-surface and total LRP/LR levels in comparison to the A375 cells, respectively. In order to determine the effect of LRP/LR on cell viability and apoptosis, LRP was down-regulated via siRNA technology. MTT assays revealed that LRP knock-down led to significant reductions in the viability of A375 and A375SM cells. Confocal microscopy indicated nuclear morphological changes suggestive of apoptotic induction in both cell lines and Annexin-V FITC/PI assays confirmed this observation. Additionally, caspase-3 activity assays revealed that apoptosis was induced in both cell lines after siRNA-mediated down-regulation of LRP. Caspase-8 and -9 activity assays suggested that post LRP knock-down; A375 cells undergo apoptosis solely via the extrinsic pathway, while A375SM cells undergo apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway. IMPLICATIONS: siRNAs mediated LRP knock-down might represent a powerful alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of malignant melanoma through the induction of apoptosis.

19.
Int J Med Microbiol ; 308(6): 558-568, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198880

RESUMO

In light of continuously accumulating data and knowledge on major human pathogens, comprehensive and up-to-date sources of easily accessible information are urgently required. The AureoWiki database (http://aureowiki.med.uni-greifswald.de) provides detailed information on the genes and proteins of clinically and experimentally relevant S. aureus strains, currently covering NCTC 8325, COL, Newman, USA300_FPR3757, and N315. By implementing a pan-genome approach, AureoWiki facilitates the transfer of knowledge gained in studies with different S. aureus strains, thus supporting functional annotation and better understanding of this organism. All data related to a given gene or gene product is compiled on a strain-specific gene page. The gene pages contain sequence-based information complemented by data on, for example, protein function and localization, transcriptional regulation, and gene expression. The information provided is connected via links to other databases and published literature. Importantly, orthologous genes of the individual strains, which are linked by a pan-genome gene identifier and a unified gene name, are presented side by side using strain-specific tabs. The respective pan-genome gene page contains an orthologue table for 32 S. aureus strains, a multiple-strain genome viewer, a protein sequence alignment as well as other comparative information. The data collected in AureoWiki is also accessible through various download options in order to support bioinformatics applications. In addition, based on two large-scale gene expression data sets, AureoWiki provides graphical representations of condition-dependent mRNA levels and protein profiles under various laboratory and infection-related conditions.

20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(1): 562-571, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29047065

RESUMO

This study forms the first report on analyzing fullerenes in the Austrian environment and cosmetic products available on the Austrian market. We developed, optimized, and validated a novel method for the analysis of C60 and C70 fullerenes and N-methylfulleropyrrolidine C60 (NMFP) for measuring sensitivities in the low nanograms per liter range in order to prove their presence in the environment (12 wastewater- and 12 sewage sludge samples) and in 11 selected fullerene-containing cosmetic products from three different brands. The optimized method relies on a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) or solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and, for the first time, introduced the Carrez-clarification, followed by liquid chromatography (LC) and coupled to a hybrid triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS) quantification. The total variability of the new established LC-MS/MS method based on all the tested matrices was below 10%. We found recoveries generally higher than 70% for both tap water and surface water. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) for the wastewater samples were measured to be from 0.8 to 1.6 ng/L, for the sewage sludge samples, from 1.4 to 2.6 ng/g DM (drymass), and for the cosmetic samples from 0.2 to 0.4 ng/g. None of the analyzed samples of wastewater or sewage sludge samples contained fullerenes. But in 70% of the tested cosmetics, fullerene concentrations between 10 and 340 ng/g were detected. These values were much lower than concentrations causing toxicity in water animals.


Assuntos
Cosméticos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fulerenos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Áustria , Esgotos/análise , Águas Residuárias/análise
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