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1.
Environ Microbiol ; 23(10): 6223-6240, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472197

RESUMO

Although many endophytic plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria have been identified, relatively little is still known about the mechanisms by which they enter plants and promote plant growth. The beneficial endophyte Enterobacter sp. SA187 was shown to maintain the productivity of crops in extreme agricultural conditions. Here we present that roots of its natural host (Indigofera argentea), alfalfa, tomato, wheat, barley and Arabidopsis are all efficiently colonized by SA187. Detailed analysis of the colonization process in Arabidopsis showed that colonization already starts during seed germination, where seed-coat mucilage supports SA187 proliferation. The meristematic zone of growing roots attracts SA187, allowing epiphytic colonization in the elongation zone. Unlike primary roots, lateral roots are significantly less epiphytically colonized by SA187. Root endophytic colonization was found to occur by passive entry of SA187 at lateral-root bases. However, SA187 also actively penetrates the root epidermis by enzymatic disruption of plant cell wall material. In contrast to roots, endophytic colonization of shoots occurs via stomata, whereby SA187 can actively re-open stomata similarly to pathogenic bacteria. In summary, several entry strategies were identified that allow SA187 to establish itself as a beneficial endophyte in several plant species, supporting its use as a plant growth-promoting bacterium in agriculture systems.

2.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 684664, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34220771

RESUMO

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play an important role in the communication among organisms, including plants, beneficial or pathogenic microbes, and pests. In vitro, we observed that the growth of seven out of eight Basidiomycete species tested was inhibited by the VOCs of the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas protegens strain CHA0. In the Ascomycota phylum, only some species were sensitive (e.g., Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Botrytis cinerea, etc.) but others were resistant (e.g., Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, Verticillium dahliae, etc.). We further discovered that CHA0 as well as other ten beneficial or phytopathogenic bacterial strains were all able to inhibit Heterobasidion abietinum, which was used in this research as a model species. Moreover, such an inhibition occurred only when bacteria grew on media containing digested proteins like peptone or tryptone (e.g., Luria-Bertani agar or LBA). Also, the inhibition co-occurred with a pH increase of the agar medium where the fungus grew. Therefore, biogenic ammonia originating from protein degradation by bacteria was hypothesized to play a major role in fungus inhibition. Indeed, when tested as a synthetic compound, it was highly toxic to H. abietinum (effective concentration 50% or EC50 = 1.18 M; minimum inhibitory concentration or MIC = 2.14 M). Using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS), eight VOCs were found specifically emitted by CHA0 grown on LBA compared to the bacterium grown on potato dextrose agar (PDA). Among them, two compounds were even more toxic than ammonia against H. abietinum: dimethyl trisulfide had EC50 = 0.02 M and MIC = 0.2 M, and 2-ethylhexanol had EC50 = 0.33 M and MIC = 0.77 M. The fungus growth inhibition was the result of severe cellular and sub-cellular alterations of hyphae occurring as early as 15 min of exposure to VOCs, as evidenced by transmission and scanning electron microscopy observations. Transcriptome reprogramming of H. abietinum induced by CHA0's VOCs pointed out that detrimental effects occurred on ribosomes and protein synthesis while the cells tried to react by activating defense mechanisms, which required a lot of energy diverted from the growth and development (fitness cost).

3.
Nat Rev Microbiol ; 19(6): 391-404, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526910

RESUMO

Microorganisms produce and excrete a versatile array of metabolites with different physico-chemical properties and biological activities. However, the ability of microorganisms to release volatile compounds has only attracted research attention in the past decade. Recent research has revealed that microbial volatiles are chemically very diverse and have important roles in distant interactions and communication. Microbial volatiles can diffuse fast in both gas and water phases, and thus can mediate swift chemical interactions. As well as constitutively emitted volatiles, microorganisms can emit induced volatiles that are triggered by biological interactions or environmental cues. In this Review, we highlight recent discoveries concerning microbial volatile compounds and their roles in intra-kingdom microbial interactions and inter-kingdom interactions with plants and insects. Furthermore, we indicate the potential biotechnological applications of microbial volatiles and discuss challenges and perspectives in this emerging research field.


Assuntos
Archaea/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Animais , Plantas/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
4.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 7(1)2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477406

RESUMO

Members of the fungal genus Trichoderma (Ascomycota, Hypocreales, Hypocreaceae) are ubiquitous and commonly encountered as soil inhabitants, plant symbionts, saprotrophs, and mycoparasites. Certain species have been used to control diverse plant diseases and mitigate negative growth conditions. The versatility of Trichoderma's interactions mainly relies on their ability to engage in inter- and cross-kingdom interactions. Although Trichoderma is by far the most extensively studied fungal biocontrol agent (BCA), with a few species already having been commercialized as bio-pesticides or bio-fertilizers, their wide application has been hampered by an unpredictable efficacy under field conditions. Deciphering the dialogues within and across Trichoderma ecological interactions by identification of involved effectors and their underlying effect is of great value in order to be able to eventually harness Trichoderma's full potential for plant growth promotion and protection. In this review, we focus on the nature of Trichoderma interactions with plants and pathogens. Better understanding how Trichoderma interacts with plants, other microorganisms, and the environment is essential for developing and deploying Trichoderma-based strategies that increase crop production and protection.

5.
Microorganisms ; 8(8)2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731625

RESUMO

Plants face many biotic and abiotic challenges in nature; one of them is attack by disease-causing microbes. Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight is one of the most prominent pathogens of the potato responsible for multi-billion-dollar losses every year. We have previously reported that potato-associated Pseudomonas strains inhibited P. infestans at various developmental stages. A comparative genomics approach identified several factors putatively involved in this anti-oomycete activity, among which was the production of hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Here, we report the relative contribution of HCN emission to the overall anti-Phytophthora activity of two cyanogenic Pseudomonas strains, P. putida R32 and P. chlororaphis R47. To quantify this contribution, we generated HCN-negative mutants (Δhcn) and compared their activities to those of their respective wild types in different experiments assessing P. infestans mycelial growth, zoospore germination, and infection of potato leaf disks. Using in vitro experiments allowing only volatile-mediated interactions, we observed that HCN accounted for most of the mycelial growth inhibition (57% in R47 and 80% in R32). However, when allowing both volatile and diffusible compound-mediated interactions, HCN only accounted for 1% (R47) and 18% (R32) of mycelial growth inhibition. Likewise, both mutants inhibited zoospore germination in a similar way as their respective wild types. More importantly, leaf disk experiments showed that both wild-type and Δhcn strains of R47 and R32 were able to limit P. infestans infection to a similar extent. Our results suggest that while HCN is a major contributor to the in vitro volatile-mediated restriction of P. infestans mycelial growth, it does not play a major role in the inhibition of other disease-related features such as zoospore germination or infection of plant tissues.

6.
Pathogens ; 9(6)2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580401

RESUMO

(1) Background: S-methyl methanethiosulfonate (MMTS), a sulfur containing volatile organic compound produced by plants and bacterial species, has recently been described to be an efficient anti-oomycete agent with promising perspectives for the control of the devastating potato late blight disease caused by Phytophthora infestans. However, earlier work raised questions regarding the putative toxicity of this compound. To assess the suitability of MMTS for late blight control in the field, the present study thus aimed at evaluating the effect of MMTS on a wide range of non-target organisms in comparison to P. infestans. (2) Methods: To this end, we exposed P. infestans, as well as different pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi, bacteria, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as well as the plant Arabidopsis thaliana to MMTS treatment and evaluated their response by means of in vitro assays. (3) Results: Our results showed that fungi (both mycelium and spores) tolerated MMTS better than the oomycete P. infestans, but that the compound nevertheless exhibited non-negligible toxic effects on bacteria, nematodes and plants. (4) Conclusions: We discuss the mode of action of MMTS and conclude that even though this compound might be too toxic for chemical application in the field, its strong anti-oomycete activity could still be exploited when naturally released at the site of infection by plant-associated microbes inoculated as biocontrol agents.

7.
AMB Express ; 10(1): 100, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472439

RESUMO

During cheese ripening, the bacterial strain Pediococcus acidilactici FAM18098 produces the non-proteinogenic amino acid, α-aminobutyrate (AABA). The metabolic processes that lead to the biosynthesis of this compound are unknown. In this study, 10 P. acidilactici, including FAM18098 and nine Pediococcus pentosaceus strains, were screened for their ability to produce AABA. All P. acidilactici strains produced AABA, whereas the P. pentosaceus strains did not. The genomes of the pediococcal strains were sequenced and searched for genes encoding aminotransferases to test the hypothesis that AABA could result from the transamination of α-ketobutyrate. A GenBank and KEGG database search revealed the presence of a species-specific aminotransferase in P. acidilactici. The gene was cloned and its gene product was produced as a His-tagged fusion protein in Escherichia coli to determine the substrate specificity of this enzyme. The purified recombinant protein showed aminotransferase activity at pH 5.5. It catalyzed the transfer of the amino group from leucine, methionine, AABA, alanine, cysteine, and phenylalanine to the amino group acceptor α-ketoglutarate. Αlpha-ketobutyrate could replace α-ketoglutarate as an amino group acceptor. In this case, AABA was produced at significantly higher levels than glutamate. The results of this study show that P. acidilactici possesses a novel aminotransferase that might play a role in cheese biochemistry and has the potential to be used in biotechnological processes for the production of AABA.

8.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 857, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425922

RESUMO

For plants, the advantages of associating with beneficial bacteria include plant growth promotion, reduction of abiotic and biotic stresses and enhanced protection against various pests and diseases. Beneficial bacteria rightly equipped for successful plant colonization and showing antagonistic activity toward plant pathogens seem to be actively recruited by plants. To gain more insights into the genetic determinants responsible for plant colonization and antagonistic activities, we first sequenced and de novo assembled the complete genomes of nine Pseudomonas strains that had exhibited varying antagonistic potential against the notorious oomycete Phytophthora infestans, placed them into the phylogenomic context of known Pseudomonas biocontrol strains and carried out a comparative genomic analysis to define core, accessory (i.e., genes found in two or more, but not all strains) and unique genes. Next, we assessed the colonizing abilities of these strains and used bioassays to characterize their inhibitory effects against different stages of P. infestans' lifecycle. The phenotype data were then correlated with genotype information, assessing over three hundred genes encoding known factors for plant colonization and antimicrobial activity as well as secondary metabolite biosynthesis clusters predicted by antiSMASH. All strains harbored genes required for successful plant colonization but also distinct arsenals of antimicrobial compounds. We identified genes coding for phenazine, hydrogen cyanide, 2-hexyl, 5-propyl resorcinol and pyrrolnitrin synthesis, as well as various siderophores, pyocins and type VI secretion systems. Additionally, the comparative genomic analysis revealed about a hundred accessory genes putatively involved in anti-Phytophthora activity, including a type II secretion system (T2SS), several peptidases and a toxin. Transcriptomic studies and mutagenesis are needed to further investigate the putative involvement of the novel candidate genes and to identify the various mechanisms involved in the inhibition of P. infestans by different Pseudomonas strains.

9.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 369, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218777

RESUMO

Salinity stress is a major challenge to agricultural productivity and global food security in light of a dramatic increase of human population and climate change. Plant growth promoting bacteria can be used as an additional solution to traditional crop breeding and genetic engineering. In the present work, the induction of plant salt tolerance by the desert plant endophyte Cronobacter sp. JZ38 was examined on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana using different inoculation methods. JZ38 promoted plant growth under salinity stress via contact and emission of volatile compounds. Based on the 16S rRNA and whole genome phylogenetic analysis, fatty acid analysis and phenotypic identification, JZ38 was identified as Cronobacter muytjensii and clearly separated and differentiated from the pathogenic C. sakazakii. Full genome sequencing showed that JZ38 is composed of one chromosome and two plasmids. Bioinformatic analysis and bioassays revealed that JZ38 can grow under a range of abiotic stresses. JZ38 interaction with plants is correlated with an extensive set of genes involved in chemotaxis and motility. The presence of genes for plant nutrient acquisition and phytohormone production could explain the ability of JZ38 to colonize plants and sustain plant growth under stress conditions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of volatiles produced by JZ38 revealed the emission of indole and different sulfur volatile compounds that may play a role in contactless plant growth promotion and antagonistic activity against pathogenic microbes. Indeed, JZ38 was able to inhibit the growth of two strains of the phytopathogenic oomycete Phytophthora infestans via volatile emission. Genetic, transcriptomic and metabolomics analyses, combined with more in vitro assays will provide a better understanding the highlighted genes' involvement in JZ38's functional potential and its interaction with plants. Nevertheless, these results provide insight into the bioactivity of C. muytjensii JZ38 as a multi-stress tolerance promoting bacterium with a potential use in agriculture.

10.
New Phytol ; 226(1): 32-43, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651035

RESUMO

Like most other eukaryotes, plants do not live alone but in close association with a diverse microflora. These plant-associated microbes contribute to plant health in many different ways, ranging from modulation of hormonal pathways to direct antibiosis of plant pathogens. Over the last 15 yr, the importance of volatile organic compounds as mediators of mutualistic interactions between plant-associated bacteria and their hosts has become evident. This review summarizes current knowledge concerning bacterial volatile-mediated plant protection against abiotic and biotic stresses. It then discusses the translational potential of such metabolites or of their emitters for sustainable crop protection, the possible ways to harness this potential, and the major challenges still preventing us from doing so. Finally, the review concludes with highlighting the most pressing scientific gaps that need to be filled in order to enable a better understanding of: the molecular mechanisms underlying the biosynthesis of bacterial volatiles; the complex regulation of bacterial volatile emission in natural communities; the perception of bacterial volatiles by plants; and the modes of actions of bacterial volatiles on their host.


Assuntos
Plantas , Simbiose , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Bactérias , Estresse Fisiológico
11.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 2726, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849878

RESUMO

Plants harbor diverse microbial communities that colonize both below-ground and above-ground organs. Some bacterial members of these rhizosphere and phyllosphere microbial communities have been shown to contribute to plant defenses against pathogens. In this study, we characterize the pathogen-inhibiting potential of 78 bacterial isolates retrieved from endophytic and epiphytic communities living in the leaves of three grapevine cultivars. We selected two economically relevant pathogens, the fungus Botrytis cinerea causing gray mold and the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, which we used as a surrogate for Plasmopara viticola causing downy mildew. Our results showed that epiphytic isolates were phylogenetically more diverse than endophytic isolates, the latter mostly consisting of Bacillus and Staphylococcus strains, but that mycelial inhibition of both pathogens through bacterial diffusible metabolites was more widespread among endophytes than among epiphytes. Six closely related Bacillus strains induced strong inhibition (>60%) of Botrytis cinerea mycelial growth. Among these, five led to significant perturbation in spore germination, ranging from full inhibition to reduction in germination rate and germ tube length. Different types of spore developmental anomalies were observed for different strains, suggesting multiple active compounds with different modes of action on this pathogen. Compared with B. cinerea, the oomycete P. infestans was inhibited in its mycelial growth by a higher number and more diverse group of isolates, including many Bacillus but also Variovorax, Pantoea, Staphylococcus, Herbaspirillum, or Sphingomonas strains. Beyond mycelial growth, both zoospore and sporangia germination were strongly perturbed upon exposure to cells or cell-free filtrates of selected isolates. Moreover, three strains (all epiphytes) inhibited the pathogen's growth via the emission of volatile compounds. The comparison of the volatile profiles of two of these active strains with those of two phylogenetically closely related, inactive strains led to the identification of molecules possibly involved in the observed volatile-mediated pathogen growth inhibition, including trimethylpyrazine, dihydrochalcone, and L-dihydroxanthurenic acid. This work demonstrates that grapevine leaves are a rich source of bacterial antagonists with strong inhibition potential against two pathogens of high economical relevance. It further suggests that combining diffusible metabolite-secreting endophytes with volatile-emitting epiphytes might be a promising multi-layer strategy for biological control of above-ground pathogens.

13.
Phytopathology ; 109(9): 1555-1565, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041882

RESUMO

Late blight caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans constitutes the greatest threat to potato production worldwide. Considering the increasing concerns regarding the emergence of novel fungicide-resistant genotypes and the general demand for reducing inputs of synthetic and copper-based fungicides, the need for alternative control methods is acute. Several bacterial antagonists have shown anti-Phytophthora effects during in vitro and greenhouse experiments. We report the effects of three Pseudomonas strains recovered from field-grown potatoes against a collection of P. infestans isolates assembled for this study. The collection comprised 19 P. infestans isolates of mating types A1 and A2 greatly varying in fungicide resistance and virulence profiles as deduced from leaf disc experiments on Black's differential set. The mycelial growth of all P. infestans isolates was fully inhibited when co-cultivated with the most active Pseudomonas strain (R47). Moreover, the isolates reacted differently to exposure to the less active Pseudomonas strains (S19 and R76). Leaf disc infection experiments with six selected P. infestans isolates showed that four of them, including highly virulent and fungicide-resistant ones, could be efficiently controlled by different potato-associated Pseudomonas strains.[Formula: see text] Copyright © 2019 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.


Assuntos
Phytophthora infestans , Solanum tuberosum , Genótipo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18778, 2019 12 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31889050

RESUMO

Plant diseases are a major cause for yield losses and new strategies to control them without harming the environment are urgently needed. Plant-associated bacteria contribute to their host's health in diverse ways, among which the emission of disease-inhibiting volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We have previously reported that VOCs emitted by potato-associated bacteria caused strong in vitro growth inhibition of the late blight causing agent Phytophthora infestans. This work focuses on sulfur-containing VOCs (sVOCs) and demonstrates the high in planta protective potential of S-methyl methane thiosulfonate (MMTS), which fully prevented late blight disease in potato leaves and plantlets without phytotoxic effects, in contrast to other sVOCs. Short exposure times were sufficient to protect plants against infection. We further showed that MMTS's protective activity was not mediated by the plant immune system but lied in its anti-oomycete activity. Using quantitative proteomics, we determined that different sVOCs caused specific proteome changes in P. infestans, indicating perturbations in sulfur metabolism, protein translation and redox balance. This work brings new perspectives for plant protection against the devastating Irish Famine pathogen, while opening new research avenues on the role of sVOCs in the interaction between plants and their microbiome.


Assuntos
Phytophthora infestans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia , Enxofre/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/parasitologia
15.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 2573, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420845

RESUMO

Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans is considered as the most devastating disease of potato and is a re-emerging problem worldwide. Current late blight control practices rely mostly on synthetic fungicides or copper-based products, but growing awareness of the negative impact of these compounds on the environment has led to the search for alternative control measures. A collection of Pseudomonas strains isolated from both the rhizosphere and the phyllosphere of potato was recently characterized for in vitro protective effects against P. infestans. In the present study, we used a leaf disk assay with three different potato cultivars to compare the disease inhibition capacity of nine selected Pseudomonas strains when applied alone or in all possible dual and triple combinations. Results showed a strong cultivar effect and identified strains previously thought to be inactive based on in vitro assays as the best biocontrol candidates. One strain was much more active alone than in combination with other strains, while two other strains provided significantly better protection in dual combination than when applied alone. A subset of five strains was then further selected to determine their mutual influence on each other's survival and growth, as well as to characterize their activity against P. infestans in more details. This revealed that the two strains whose dual combination was particularly efficient were only weakly interfering with each other's growth and had complementary modes of action. Our results highlight the potential to harness the crop's native rhizosphere and phyllosphere microbiome through re-assembling strains with differing modes of action into small communities, thereby providing more consistent protection than with the application of single strains. We consider this as a first step toward more elaborate microbiome management efforts, which shall be integrated into global strategies for sustainable control of potato late blight.

16.
Front Microbiol ; 8: 1638, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28890716

RESUMO

Microbial lifeforms associated with land plants represent a rich source for crop growth- and health-promoting microorganisms and biocontrol agents. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the plant microbiota have been demonstrated to elicit plant defenses and inhibit the growth and development of numerous plant pathogens. Therefore, these molecules are prospective alternatives to synthetic pesticides and the determination of their bioactivities against plant threats could contribute to the development of control strategies for sustainable agriculture. In our previous study we investigated the inhibitory impact of volatiles emitted by Pseudomonas species isolated from a potato field against the late blight-causing agent Phytophthora infestans. Besides the well-documented emission of hydrogen cyanide, other Pseudomonas VOCs impeded P. infestans mycelial growth and sporangia germination. Current advances in the field support the emerging concept that the microbial volatilome contains unexploited, eco-friendly chemical resources that could help select for efficient biocontrol strategies and lead to a greener chemical disease management in the field.

17.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(15): 4342-4346, 2017 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28276609

RESUMO

The analysis of volatiles from bacterial cultures revealed long-chain aliphatic nitriles, a new class of natural products. Such nitriles are produced by both Gram-positive Micromonospora echinospora and Gram-negative Pseudomonas veronii bacteria, although the structures differ. A variable sequence of chain elongation and dehydration in the fatty acid biosynthesis leads to either unbranched saturated or unsaturated nitriles with an ω-7 double bond, such as (Z)-11-octadecenenitrile, or methyl-branched unsaturated nitriles with the double bond located at C-3, such as (Z)-13-methyltetradec-3-enenitrile. The nitrile biosynthesis starts from fatty acids, which are converted into their amides and finally dehydrated. The structures and biosyntheses of the 19 naturally occurring compounds were elucidated by mass spectrometry, synthesis, and feeding experiments with deuterium-labeled precursors. Some of the nitriles showed antimicrobial activity, for example, against multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus strains.


Assuntos
Micromonospora/química , Nitrilas/análise , Pseudomonas/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Estrutura Molecular , Nitrilas/síntese química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/síntese química
19.
ISME J ; 10(1): 253-64, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25989372

RESUMO

Bacterial species belonging to the genus Burkholderia have been repeatedly reported to be associated with fungi but the extent and specificity of these associations in soils remain undetermined. To assess whether associations between Burkholderia and fungi are widespread in soils, we performed a co-occurrence analysis in an intercontinental soil sample collection. This revealed that Burkholderia significantly co-occurred with a wide range of fungi. To analyse the molecular basis of the interaction, we selected two model fungi frequently co-occurring with Burkholderia, Alternaria alternata and Fusarium solani, and analysed the proteome changes caused by cultivation with either fungus in the widespread soil inhabitant B. glathei, whose genome we sequenced. Co-cultivation with both fungi led to very similar changes in the B. glathei proteome. Our results indicate that B. glathei significantly benefits from the interaction, which is exemplified by a lower abundance of several starvation factors that were highly expressed in pure culture. However, co-cultivation also gave rise to stress factors, as indicated by the increased expression of multidrug efflux pumps and proteins involved in oxidative stress response. Our data suggest that the ability of Burkholderia to establish a close association with fungi mainly lies in the capacities to utilize fungal-secreted metabolites and to overcome fungal defense mechanisms. This work indicates that beneficial interactions with fungi might contribute to the survival strategy of Burkholderia species in environments with sub-optimal conditions, including acidic soils.


Assuntos
Burkholderia/genética , Fungos/fisiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Burkholderia/fisiologia , Fungos/genética , Genoma Bacteriano
20.
Front Microbiol ; 6: 1309, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26640460

RESUMO

Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is the most devastating disease of potato. In organic farming, late blight is controlled by repeated applications of copper-based products, which negatively impact the environment. To find alternative solutions for late blight management, we have previously isolated a large collection of bacteria from the phyllosphere and the rhizosphere of potatoes. Here we report the antagonistic potential of these strains when co-cultivated with P. infestans as well as with other potato pathogens. We then focused on three Pseudomonas strains and compared their protective impact against late blight to that of well-known biocontrol strains in planta using a high-throughput leaf disk assay with automated picture analysis. When sprayed on the leaves of potatoes in the greenhouse, the strains were able to survive for at least 15 days. Under field conditions, populations decreased faster but all tested strains could still be retrieved after 8 days. The most active strain in vitro, P. chlororaphis R47, was also the best protectant on leaf disks from plants grown in the greenhouse experiment, but its protection potential could not be verified in the field due to unfavorable infection conditions. However, its protective effect against P. infestans in planta, its survival in the phyllosphere as well as its ability to colonize the potato rhizosphere in very high population densities, suggest a potential for field application, e.g., in the form of tuber treatment or leaf spray.

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