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1.
Psychophysiology ; : e13483, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578740

RESUMO

Prior research has identified two resting EEG biomarkers with potential for predicting functional outcomes in depression: theta current density in frontal brain regions (especially rostral anterior cingulate cortex) and alpha power over posterior scalp regions. As little is known about the discriminant and convergent validity of these putative biomarkers, a thorough evaluation of these psychometric properties was conducted toward the goal of improving clinical utility of these markers. Resting 71-channel EEG recorded from 35 healthy adults at two sessions (1-week retest) were used to systematically compare different quantification techniques for theta and alpha sources at scalp (surface Laplacian or current source density [CSD]) and brain (distributed inverse; exact low resolution electromagnetic tomography [eLORETA]) level. Signal quality was evaluated with signal-to-noise ratio, participant-level spectra, and frequency PCA covariance decomposition. Convergent and discriminant validity were assessed within a multitrait-multimethod framework. Posterior alpha was reliably identified as two spectral components, each with unique spatial patterns and condition effects (eyes open/closed), high signal quality, and good convergent and discriminant validity. In contrast, frontal theta was characterized by one low-variance component, low signal quality, lack of a distinct spectral peak, and mixed validity. Correlations between candidate biomarkers suggest that posterior alpha components constitute reliable, convergent, and discriminant biometrics in healthy adults. Component-based identification of spectral activity (CSD/eLORETA-fPCA) was superior to fixed, a priori frequency bands. Improved quantification and conceptualization of frontal theta is necessary to determine clinical utility.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224141, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626682

RESUMO

Several studies have shown protective effects between health outcomes and subjective reports of religious/spiritual (R/S) importance, as measured by a single self-report item. In a 3-generation study of individuals at high or low familial risk for depression, R/S importance was found to be protective against depression, as indicated by clinical and neurobiological outcomes. The psychological components underlying these protective effects, however, remain little understood. Hence, to clarify the meaning of answering the R/S importance item, we employed a comprehensive set of validated scales assessing religious beliefs and experiences and exploratory factor analysis to uncover latent R/S constructs that strongly and independently correlated with the single-item measure of R/S importance. A Varimax-rotated principal component analysis (PCA) resulted in a 23-factor solution (Eigenvalue > 1; 71.5% explained variance) with 8 factors that, respectively, accounted for at least 3% of the total variance. The first factor (15.8%) was directly related to the R/S importance item (r = .819), as well as personal relationship with the Divine, forgiveness by God, religious activities, and religious coping, while precluding gratitude, altruism, and social support, among other survey subscales. The corresponding factor scores were greater in older individuals and those at low familial risk. Moreover, Spearman rank-order correlations between the R/S importance item and other subscales revealed relative consistency across generations and risk groups. Taken together, the single R/S importance item constituted a robust measure of what may be generally conceived of as "religious importance," ranking highest among a diverse latent factor structure of R/S. As this suggests adequate single-item construct validity, it may be adequate for use in health studies lacking the resources for more extensive measures. Nonetheless, given that this single item accounted for only a small fraction of the total survey variance, results based on the item should be interpreted and applied with caution.

5.
Nat Hum Behav ; 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548678

RESUMO

The efficacy of antidepressant treatment for depression is controversial due to the only modest superiority demonstrated over placebo. However, neurobiological heterogeneity within depression may limit overall antidepressant efficacy. We sought to identify a neurobiological phenotype responsive to antidepressant treatment by testing pretreatment brain activation during response to, and regulation of, emotional conflict as a moderator of the clinical benefit of the antidepressant sertraline versus placebo. Using neuroimaging data from a large randomized controlled trial, we found widespread moderation of clinical benefits by brain activity during regulation of emotional conflict, in which greater downregulation of conflict-responsive regions predicted better sertraline outcomes. Treatment-predictive machine learning using brain metrics outperformed a model trained on clinical and demographic variables. Our findings demonstrate that antidepressant response is predicted by brain activity underlying a key self-regulatory emotional capacity. Leveraging brain-based measures in psychiatry will forge a path toward better treatment personalization, refined mechanistic insights and improved outcomes.

6.
Harv Rev Psychiatry ; 27(5): 303-316, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490186

RESUMO

Religion and spirituality (R/S) have been prominent aspects of most human cultures through the ages; however, scientific inquiry into this phenomenon has been limited. We conducted a systematic literature review of research on the neurobiological correlates of R/S, which resulted in 25 reports studying primarily R/S with electroencephalography, structural neuroimaging (MRI), and functional neuroimaging (fMRI, PET). These studies investigated a wide range of religions (e.g., Christianity, Buddhism, Islam) and R/S states and behaviors (e.g., resting state, prayer, judgments) and employed a wide range of methodologies, some of which (e.g., no control group, varying measures of religiosity, small sample sizes) raise concerns about the validity of the results. Despite these limitations, the findings of these studies collectively suggest that the experience of R/S has specific neurobiological correlates and that these correlates are distinct from non-R/S counterparts. The findings implicate several brain regions potentially associated with R/S development and behavior, including the medial frontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex, default mode network, and caudate. This research may suggest future clinical applications and interventions related to R/S and various disorders, including mood, anxiety, psychotic, pain, and vertiginous disorders. Further studies with more rigorous study designs are warranted to elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms of R/S and their potential clinical applications.

8.
Biol Psychiatry ; 85(12): 1065-1073, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is moderately heritable, with a high prevalence and a presumed high heterogeneity. Copy number variants (CNVs) could contribute to the heritable component of risk, but the two previous genome-wide association studies of rare CNVs did not report significant findings. METHODS: In this meta-analysis of four cohorts (5780 patients and 6626 control subjects), we analyzed the association of MDD to 1) genome-wide burden of rare deletions and duplications, partitioned by length (<100 kb or >100 kb) and other characteristics, and 2) individual rare exonic CNVs and CNV regions. RESULTS: Patients with MDD carried significantly more short deletions than control subjects (p = .0059) but not long deletions or short or long duplications. The confidence interval for long deletions overlapped with that for short deletions, but long deletions were 70% less frequent genome-wide, reducing the power to detect increased burden. The increased burden of short deletions was primarily in intergenic regions. Short deletions in cases were also modestly enriched for high-confidence enhancer regions. No individual CNV achieved thresholds for suggestive or significant association after genome-wide correction. p values < .01 were observed for 15q11.2 duplications (TUBGCP5, CYFIP1, NIPA1, and NIPA2), deletions in or near PRKN or MSR1, and exonic duplications of ATG5. CONCLUSIONS: The increased burden of short deletions in patients with MDD suggests that rare CNVs increase the risk of MDD by disrupting regulatory regions. Results for longer deletions were less clear, but no large effects were observed for long multigenic CNVs (as seen in schizophrenia and autism). Further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted.

9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(17): 8582-8590, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962366

RESUMO

Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) present with heterogeneous symptom profiles, while neurobiological mechanisms are still largely unknown. Brain network studies consistently report disruptions of resting-state networks (RSNs) in patients with MDD, including hypoconnectivity in the frontoparietal network (FPN), hyperconnectivity in the default mode network (DMN), and increased connection between the DMN and FPN. Using a large, multisite fMRI dataset (n = 189 patients with MDD, n = 39 controls), we investigated network connectivity differences within and between RSNs in patients with MDD and healthy controls. We found that MDD could be characterized by a network model with the following abnormalities relative to controls: (i) lower within-network connectivity in three task-positive RSNs [FPN, dorsal attention network (DAN), and cingulo-opercular network (CON)], (ii) higher within-network connectivity in two intrinsic networks [DMN and salience network (SAN)], and (iii) higher within-network connectivity in two sensory networks [sensorimotor network (SMN) and visual network (VIS)]. Furthermore, we found significant alterations in connectivity between a number of these networks. Among patients with MDD, a history of childhood trauma and current symptoms quantified by clinical assessments were associated with a multivariate pattern of seven different within- and between-network connectivities involving the DAN, FPN, CON, subcortical regions, ventral attention network (VAN), auditory network (AUD), VIS, and SMN. Overall, our study showed that traumatic childhood experiences and dimensional symptoms are linked to abnormal network architecture in MDD. Our results suggest that RSN connectivity may explain underlying neurobiological mechanisms of MDD symptoms and has the potential to serve as an effective diagnostic biomarker.

10.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 60(4): 377-379, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919484

RESUMO

The review by Sujan et al. asks a question of clinical and public health importance: are antidepressant medications safe to use during pregnancy from the perspective of their potential effects on the infant and growing child? They provide a thorough review of the animal and human literature to date, focusing primarily on offspring neurodevelopmental outcomes (autism spectrum disorder, ASD, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD). They conclude, based on their review, that antidepressant exposure in pregnancy does not substantially increase the risk of these outcomes, and that women should therefore be reassured about the safety of these medications when used in pregnancy. While their review should be of interest to clinicians and researchers, we would advocate a more conservative approach. Even if associations with ASD and ADHD are equivocal, there is still evidence that SSRI exposure may be associated with outcomes occurring at other developmental timepoints. Clinical recommendations should be based on a fuller picture of potential risks and benefits to both the mother and the fetus, in the context of the mother's underlying depression. In this commentary, we also suggest some approaches that future observational studies may adopt to help strengthen the interpretability of findings.

11.
J Affect Disord ; 245: 1070-1078, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30699849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that higher levels of anxiety and anhedonia in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) are linked to poorer treatment outcomes, mechanisms contributing to these clinical presentations remain unclear. Neuroticism, impaired cognitive control, and blunted reward learning may be critical processes involved in MDD and may help to explain symptoms of anxiety and anhedonia. METHODS: Using baseline data from patients with early-onset MDD (N = 296) in the Establishing Moderators and Biosignatures of Antidepressant Response in Clinical Care (EMBARC) trial, we conducted a path analysis to model relationships between neuroticism, cognitive control, and reward learning to levels of anxiety and anhedonia. RESULTS: Neuroticism was positively associated with both anhedonia (standardized coefficient = 0.26, p < .001) and anxiety (standardized coefficient = 0.40, p < .001). Cognitive control was negatively associated with anxiety (standardized coefficient = -0.18, p < .05). Reward learning was not significantly associated with either anxiety or anhedonia. LIMITATIONS: Extraneous variables not included in the model may have even more influence in explaining symptoms of anxiety and anhedonia. Restricted range in these variables may have attenuated some of the hypothesized relationships. Most important, because this was a cross-sectional analysis in a currently depressed sample, we cannot draw any causal conclusions without experimental and longitudinal data. CONCLUSIONS: These cross-sectional findings suggest that neuroticism may contribute to anxiety and anhedonia in patients with early onset and either chronic or recurrent MDD, while enhanced cognitive control may protect against anxiety.


Assuntos
Anedonia/fisiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Neuroticismo/fisiologia , Adulto , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recompensa , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Psychopharmacol ; 33(2): 185-193, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS:: While substantial prior research has evaluated the psychometric properties of the 12-item Concise Health Risk Tracking-Self Report (CHRT-SR12), a measure of suicide propensity and suicidal thoughts, no prior research has investigated its factor structure, sensitivity to change over time, and other psychometric properties in a placebo-controlled trial of antidepressant medication, nor determined whether symptoms change throughout treatment. METHODS:: Participants in the multi-site Establishing Moderators and Biosignatures of Antidepressant Response in Clinical Care (EMBARC) study ( n=278) provided data to evaluate the factor structure and sensitivity to change over time of the CHRT-SR12 through eight weeks of a clinical trial in which participants received either placebo or antidepressant medication (sertraline). RESULTS/OUTCOMES:: Factor analysis confirmed two factors: propensity (comprised of first-order factors including pessimism, helplessness, social support, and despair) and suicidal thoughts. Internal consistency (α's ranged from 0.69-0.92) and external validity were both acceptable, with the total score and propensity factor scores significantly correlated with total scores and single-item suicidal-thoughts scores on the self-report Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms and the clinician-rated 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Through analyzing CHRT-SR12 changes over eight treatment weeks, the total score and both the factors decreased regardless of baseline suicidal thoughts. Change in clinician-rated suicidal thoughts was reflected by change in both the total score and propensity factor score. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:: These results confirm the reliability, validity, and applicability of the CHRT-SR12 to a placebo-controlled clinical trial of depressed outpatients receiving antidepressant medication.

14.
J Affect Disord ; 244: 107-112, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Longitudinal studies of children with disruptive disorders (DDs) have shown high rates of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and substance use in adulthood, but few have examined the contribution of parental disorders. We examine child-/adulthood outcomes of DDs in offspring, whose biological parents did not have a history of ASPD, bipolar disorder, or substance use disorders. METHOD: Offspring (N = 267) of parents with or without major depression (MDD), but no ASPD or bipolar disorders were followed longitudinally over 33 years, and associations between DDs and psychiatric and functional outcomes were tested. RESULTS: Eighty-nine (33%) offspring had a DD. Those with, compared to without DDs, had higher rates of MDD (adjusted odds ratio, AOR = 3.42, p < 0.0001), bipolar disorder (AOR = 3.10, p = 0.03), and substance use disorders (AOR = 5.69, p < 0.0001) by age 18, as well as poorer school performance and global functioning. DDs continued to predict MDD and substance use outcomes in adulthood, even after accounting for presence of the corresponding disorder in childhood (MDD: hazards ratio, HR = 3.25, p < 0.0001; SUD, HR = 2.52, p < 0.0001). Associations were similar among the offspring of parents with and without major depression. DDs did not predict adulthood ASPD in either group. LIMITATIONS: Associations are largely accounted for by conduct disorder (CD), as there were few offspring with ADHD, and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) was not diagnosed at the time this study began. CONCLUSION: If there is no familial risk for ASPD, bipolar disorder or substance use, childhood DDs do not lead to ASPD in adulthood; however, the children still have poorer prognosis into midlife. Early treatment of children with DD, particularly CD, while carefully considering familial risk for these disorders, may help mitigate later adversity.


Assuntos
Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown prospectively that religiosity/spirituality protects against depression, but these findings are commonly critiqued on two grounds, namely: (1) apparent religiosity/spirituality reflects merely an original absence of depression or elevated mood and (2) religiosity/spirituality too often is measured as a global construct. The current study investigates the relationship between depression and religiosity/spirituality by examining its multidimensional structural integrity. METHOD: Confirmatory factor analyses with a previously observed cross-cultural factor structure of religiosity/spirituality variables were conducted on an independent sample, diagnostic and familial risk subgroups from this sample, and a subsample of the original cross-cultural sample. Linear regressions onto a previous diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) 5 years prior to assess the potential attenuating impact of a previous depression was explored. RESULTS: Across familial risk groups and clinical subgroups, each of the previously validated religiosity/spirituality domains was confirmed, namely: religious/spiritual commitment, contemplative practice, sense of interconnectedness, the experience of love, and altruistic engagement. Previous MDD diagnosis was associated with a lower religious/spiritual commitment among high-risk individuals, higher contemplation among low-risk individuals, and lower importance of religion or spirituality regardless of risk group. CONCLUSIONS: Structural integrity was found across familial risk groups and diagnostic history for a multidimensional structure of religiosity/spirituality. Differential associations between a previous diagnosis of MDD and level of religiosity/spirituality across domains suggest a complex and interactive relation between depression, familial risk, and religiosity/spirituality. Accounting for an empirically valid, multidimensional understanding of religiosity/spirituality may advance research on mechanisms underlying the relationship between religiosity/spirituality and mental health.

16.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 75(12): 1303, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285035
17.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 190, 2018 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217971

RESUMO

Family and twin studies have shown a genetic component to seasonal affective disorder (SAD). A number of candidate gene studies have examined the role of variations within biologically relevant genes in SAD susceptibility, but few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed to date. The authors aimed to identify genetic risk variants for SAD through GWAS. The authors performed a GWAS for SAD in 1380 cases and 2937 controls of European-American (EA) origin, selected from samples for GWAS of major depressive disorder and of bipolar disorder. Further bioinformatic analyses were conducted to examine additional genomic and biological evidence associated with the top GWAS signals. No susceptibility loci for SAD were identified at a genome-wide significant level. The strongest association was at an intronic variant (rs139459337) within ZBTB20 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.63, p = 8.4 × 10-7), which encodes a transcriptional repressor that has roles in neurogenesis and in adult brain. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis showed that the risk allele "T" of rs139459337 is associated with reduced mRNA expression of ZBTB20 in human temporal cortex (p = 0.028). Zbtb20 is required for normal murine circadian rhythm and for entrainment to a shortened day. Of the 330 human orthologs of murine genes directly repressed by Zbtb20, there were 32 associated with SAD in our sample (at p < 0.05), representing a significant enrichment of ZBTB20 targets among our SAD genetic association signals (fold = 1.93, p = 0.001). ZBTB20 is a candidate susceptibility gene for SAD, based on a convergence of genetic, genomic, and biological evidence. Further studies are necessary to confirm its role in SAD.

18.
Clin EEG Neurosci ; : 1550059418795578, 2018 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30182751

RESUMO

Several studies have found upregulated brain arousal during 15-minute EEG recordings at rest in depressed patients. However, studies based on shorter EEG recording intervals are lacking. Here we aimed to compare measures of brain arousal obtained from 2-minute EEGs at rest under eyes-closed condition in depressed patients and healthy controls in a multisite project-Establishing Moderators and Biosignatures of Antidepressant Response for Clinical Care (EMBARC). We expected that depressed patients would show stable and elevated brain arousal relative to controls. Eighty-seven depressed patients and 36 healthy controls from four research sites in the United States were included in the analyses. The Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig (VIGALL) was used for the fully automatic classification of EEG-vigilance stages (indicating arousal states) of 1-second EEG segments; VIGALL-derived measures of brain arousal were calculated. We found that depressed patients scored higher on arousal stability ( Z = -2.163, P = .015) and A stages (dominant alpha activity; P = .027) but lower on B1 stages (low-voltage non-alpha activity, P = .008) compared with healthy controls. No significant group differences were observed in Stage B2/3. In summary, we were able to demonstrate stable and elevated brain arousal during brief 2-minute recordings at rest in depressed patients. Results set the stage for examining the value of these measures for predicting clinical response to antidepressants in the entire EMBARC sample and evaluating whether an upregulated brain arousal is particularly characteristic for responders to antidepressants.

19.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 75(10): 1062-1070, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30090928

RESUMO

Importance: Previous studies have shown an inverse association between offspring religiosity and suicidal ideation/attempts, but the association of parent religiosity on offspring suicidal ideation/attempts has not been examined. Objective: To examine associations of parent and offspring religiosity with suicide ideation and attempts in offspring. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study is based on offspring (generation 3) from a 3-generation family study at New York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia University, in which generations 2 and 3 were defined as being at high risk or low risk for major depressive disorder because of the presence or absence of major depressive disorder in generation 1. The association between suicidal behaviors (ideation/attempts) and parent and offspring religiosity in generation 3 offspring aged 6 to 18 years (214 offspring from 112 nuclear families) was examined. Main Outcomes and Measures: Parents' psychiatric diagnoses and suicidal behaviors were assessed with the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, and offspring were independently assessed using the child version. Two measures of religiosity were assessed: religious importance and religious attendance. Logistic regressions in the framework of generalized estimation equations were performed to analyze offspring suicidal behaviors while adjusting for sibling correlation and offspring age, sex, and familial depression risk status. Results: Of 214 offspring, 112 (52.3%) were girls. Offspring religious importance was associated with a lower risk for suicidal behavior in girls (odds ratio [OR], 0.48; 95% CI, 0.33-0.70) but not in boys (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.74-1.80) (religiosity by sex interaction, P = .05). Religious attendance was associated with a lower risk for suicidal behavior in girls (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.49-0.84) but not boys (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.69-1.27) (religiosity by sex interaction, P = .17). Parent religious importance was associated with a lower risk for offspring suicidal behavior (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.41-0.91) but not parent religious attendance. When parent and offspring religious importance were considered simultaneously, we found a lower risk associated with parental religious importance (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.39-0.96) independent of offspring importance. These associations were independent of parental depression, marital status, and parental suicide ideation. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, parental belief in religious importance was associated with lower risk for suicidal behavior in offspring independent of an offspring's own belief about religious importance and other known parental factors, such as parental depression, suicidal behavior, and divorce.

20.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 39(11): 4213-4227, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29962049

RESUMO

Acquiring resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) datasets at multiple MRI scanners and clinical sites can improve statistical power and generalizability of results. However, multi-site neuroimaging studies have reported considerable nonbiological variability in fMRI measurements due to different scanner manufacturers and acquisition protocols. These undesirable sources of variability may limit power to detect effects of interest and may even result in erroneous findings. Until now, there has not been an approach that removes unwanted site effects. In this study, using a relatively large multi-site (4 sites) fMRI dataset, we investigated the impact of site effects on functional connectivity and network measures estimated by widely used connectivity metrics and brain parcellations. The protocols and image acquisition of the dataset used in this study had been homogenized using identical MRI phantom acquisitions from each of the neuroimaging sites; however, intersite acquisition effects were not completely eliminated. Indeed, in this study, we found that the magnitude of site effects depended on the choice of connectivity metric and brain atlas. Therefore, to further remove site effects, we applied ComBat, a harmonization technique previously shown to eliminate site effects in multi-site diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and cortical thickness studies. In the current work, ComBat successfully removed site effects identified in connectivity and network measures and increased the power to detect age associations when using optimal combinations of connectivity metrics and brain atlases. Our proposed ComBat harmonization approach for fMRI-derived connectivity measures facilitates reliable and efficient analysis of retrospective and prospective multi-site fMRI neuroimaging studies.

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