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1.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12 Suppl 2): ii2-ii6, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312651

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This article introduces a series of articles on antibiotic consumption in the community between 1997 and 2017, which provide an update of previous articles covering the periods 1997-2003 and 1997-2009. METHODS: In this article, differences in participating countries, the ATC/DDD classification system, and data collection, validation and analysis between the current and previous series are described. RESULTS: In the previous series, 33 European countries provided valid data for further analysis, while the current series focused on 30 countries belonging to the EU or the European Economic Area (EEA). For both series, data were collected in accordance with the WHO ATC classification system. While the previous series reported data in accordance with the ATC/DDD index 2011, the current series employed the ATC/DDD index 2019. Both series focused on consumption of antibacterials for systemic use (ATC J01) and collected data expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day and packages per 1000 inhabitants per day. When studying consumption expressed in packages per 1000 inhabitants per day, countries reporting total care data, i.e. community and hospital sector combined, were included in the previous series but excluded in the current series. While the previous series used non-linear mixed models to evaluate time trends in antibiotic consumption, the current series allowed for inclusion of change-points with a data-driven location. In addition, both series assessed the composition and quality of antibiotic consumption in the EU/EEA. CONCLUSIONS: The updated analyses of two decades of ESAC-Net data provide the most comprehensive and detailed description of antibiotic consumption in the community in Europe.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Uso de Medicamentos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Coleta de Dados , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia , Humanos
2.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12 Suppl 2): ii37-ii44, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312652

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Data on quinolone consumption in the community were collected from 30 EU/European Economic Area (EEA) countries over two decades. This article reviews temporal trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and changes in the composition of main subgroups of quinolones. METHODS: For the period 1997-2017, data on consumption of quinolones, i.e. ATC group J01M, in the community and aggregated at the level of the active substance, were collected using the WHO ATC/DDD methodology (ATC/DDD index 2019). Consumption was expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day and in packages per 1000 inhabitants per day. Quinolone consumption was analysed by subgroups based on pharmacokinetic profile, and presented as trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and compositional changes. RESULTS: In 2017, quinolone consumption in the community expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day varied by a factor of 8.2 between countries with the highest (Bulgaria) and the lowest (Norway) consumption. The second-generation quinolones accounted for >50% of quinolone consumption in most countries. Quinolone consumption significantly increased up to 2001, and did not change significantly afterwards. Seasonal variation increased significantly over time. Proportional consumption of third-generation quinolones significantly increased over time relative to that of second-generation quinolones, while proportional consumption of both third- and second-generation quinolones significantly increased relative to that of first-generation quinolones. Levofloxacin and moxifloxacin represented >40% of quinolone consumption in the community in southern EU/EEA countries. CONCLUSIONS: Quinolone consumption in the community is no longer increasing in the EU/EEA, but its seasonal variation continues to increase significantly as is the proportion of quinolones to treat respiratory infections.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Quinolonas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Uso de Medicamentos , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais
3.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12 Suppl 2): ii30-ii36, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Data on the consumption of macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramins (MLS) in the community were collected from 30 EU/European Economic Area (EEA) countries over two decades. This article reviews temporal trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and changes in composition of the main subgroups of MLS. METHODS: For the period 1997-2017, data on consumption of MLS, i.e. ATC group J01F, in the community and aggregated at the level of the active substance, were collected using the WHO ATC/DDD methodology (ATC/DDD index 2019). Consumption was expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day and in packages per 1000 inhabitants per day. Consumption of MLS was analysed and presented as trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and compositional changes, using a classification based on mean plasma elimination half-life for macrolides. RESULTS: In 2017, consumption of MLS in the community expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day varied by a factor of 13 between countries with the highest (Greece) and the lowest (Sweden) consumption. Consumption of MLS did not change significantly up to 2003, after which it significantly increased up to 2007. No significant change was observed after 2007. Consumption of MLS showed high seasonal variation. The proportional consumption of long-acting macrolides significantly increased over time compared with that of intermediate-acting macrolides, and proportional consumption of the latter increased compared with that of short-acting macrolides. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of MLS did not change significantly over time during 2007-2017, while the proportional consumption of long-acting macrolides increased. Seasonal variation remained high, which suggests that MLS are still prescribed inappropriately in many countries.


Assuntos
Macrolídeos , Estreptograminas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos , União Europeia , Humanos , Lincosamidas
4.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12 Suppl 2): ii7-ii13, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312654

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Data on antibiotic consumption in the community were collected from 30 EU/EEA countries over two decades. This article reviews temporal trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and changes in the composition of the main antibiotic groups. METHODS: For the period 1997-2017, data on consumption of antibiotics, i.e. antibacterials for systemic use (ATC group J01), in the community, aggregated at the level of the active substance, were collected using the WHO ATC/DDD methodology (ATC/DDD index 2019). Consumption was expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day and in packages per 1000 inhabitants per day. Antibiotic consumption was analysed based on ATC-3 groups, and presented as trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and compositional changes. RESULTS: In 2017, antibiotic consumption in the community expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day varied by a factor 3.6 between countries with the highest (Greece) and the lowest (the Netherlands) consumption. Antibiotic consumption in the EU/EEA did not change significantly over time. Antibiotic consumption showed a significant seasonal variation, which decreased over time. The number of DDD per package significantly increased over time. The proportional consumption of sulphonamides and trimethoprim (J01E) relative to other groups significantly decreased over time, while the proportional consumption of other antibacterials (J01X) relative to other groups significantly increased over time. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, antibiotic consumption in the community in the EU/EEA did not change during 1997-2017, while seasonal variation consistently decreased over time. The number of DDD per package increased during 1997-2017.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Infecções Bacterianas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Uso de Medicamentos , União Europeia , Humanos , Trimetoprima
5.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12 Suppl 2): ii79-ii85, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312655

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This tutorial describes and illustrates statistical methods to detect time trends possibly including abrupt changes (referred to as change-points) in the consumption of antibiotics in the community. METHODS: For the period 1997-2017, data on consumption of antibacterials for systemic use (ATC group J01) in the community, aggregated at the level of the active substance, were collected using the WHO ATC/DDD methodology and expressed in DDD (ATC/DDD index 2019) per 1000 inhabitants per day. Trends over time and presence of common change-points were studied through a set of non-linear mixed models. RESULTS: After a thorough description of the set of models used to assess the time trend and presence of common change-points herein, the methodology was applied to the consumption of antibacterials for systemic use (ATC J01) in 25 EU/European Economic Area (EEA) countries. The best fit was obtained for a model including two change-points: one in the first quarter of 2004 and one in the last quarter of 2008. CONCLUSIONS: Allowing for the inclusion of common change-points improved model fit. Individual countries investigating changes in their antibiotic consumption pattern can use this tutorial to analyse their country data.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Uso de Medicamentos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
6.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12 Suppl 2): ii60-ii67, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312656

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The quality of antibiotic consumption in the community can be assessed using 12 drug-specific quality indicators (DSQIs) developed by the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC) project. We compared quality in 2009 and 2017 in the EU/European Economic Area (EEA) and evaluated the impact of using different DDD values (ATC/DDD indices 2011 and 2019) for the 2009 quality assessment using these DSQIs and a joint scientific opinion (JSO) indicator. METHODS: We calculated the 12 DSQIs and the JSO indicator for 2017 and for 2009 for EU/EEA countries able to deliver values. For each of the indicators we grouped the 2017 and 2009 indicator values into four quartiles. To evaluate changes in quality between 2009 and 2017, we used the quartile distribution of the 2009 indicator values in 30 EU/EEA countries as benchmarks. In addition, we compared the quality assessment for 2009 using the ATC/DDD indices 2011 and 2019. RESULTS: In 2017, a difference in the quality of antibiotic consumption in the community between northern and southern EU/EEA countries remained, but also several eastern EU/EEA countries shifted towards lower quality. Quality of antibiotic consumption decreased between 2009 and 2017 in particular indicator values for penicillin, quinolone, relative ß-lactam and broad- versus narrow-spectrum antibiotic consumption, and seasonal variation. Using different ATC/DDD indices did not substantially change countries' ranking based on their DSQI values. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of antibiotic consumption in the community as measured by the DSQIs further decreased between 2009 and 2017, especially in Southern and Eastern European countries. A continuous effort to improve antibiotic consumption is essential to reduce antibiotic consumption in general and the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in particular.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Quinolonas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia , Humanos , Penicilinas
7.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12 Suppl 2): ii14-ii21, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312657

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Data on consumption of penicillins in the community were collected from 30 EU/European Economic Area (EEA) countries over two decades. This article reviews temporal trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and changes in the composition of the main subgroups of penicillins. METHODS: For the period 1997-2017, data on consumption of penicillins, i.e. ß-lactam antibacterials, penicillins (ATC group J01C), in the community aggregated at the level of the active substance, were collected using the WHO ATC/DDD methodology (ATC/DDD index 2019). Consumption was expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day and in packages per 1000 inhabitants per day. Consumption of penicillins was analysed based on ATC-4 subgroups, and presented as trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and compositional changes. RESULTS: In 2017, consumption of penicillins in the community expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day varied by a factor of 4.9 between countries with the highest (Spain) and the lowest (the Netherlands) consumption. An increase in consumption of penicillins, which was not statistically significant, was observed between 1997 and 2003 and up to 2010. A decrease, which was not statistically significant, was observed from 2010 onwards. Proportional consumption of combinations of penicillins, including ß-lactamase inhibitors (J01CR) increased during 1997-2017, which coincided with a decrease in the proportional consumption of extended-spectrum penicillins (J01CA) and narrow-spectrum penicillins (J01CE). CONCLUSIONS: Considerable variation in the patterns of consumption of penicillins was observed between EU/EEA countries. The consumption of penicillins in the EU/EEA community did not change significantly over time, while the proportional consumption of combinations of penicillins increased.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Penicilinas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia , Humanos , Espanha/epidemiologia
8.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12 Suppl 2): ii22-ii29, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312658

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Data on cephalosporin consumption in the community were collected from 30 EU/EEA countries over two decades. This article reviews temporal trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and changes in the composition of the main subgroups of cephalosporins. METHODS: For the period 1997-2017, data on consumption of cephalosporins (i.e. first-, second-, third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins; ATC subgroups J01DB, J01DC, J01DD and J01DE, respectively) in the community and aggregated at the level of the active substance, were collected using the WHO ATC/DDD methodology (ATC/DDD index 2019). Consumption was expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day and in packages per 1000 inhabitants per day. Cephalosporin consumption was analysed based on ATC-4 subgroup, and presented as trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and compositional changes. RESULTS: In 2017, cephalosporin consumption in the community expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day varied by a factor of 285 between countries with the highest (Greece) and the lowest (the Netherlands) consumption. Cephalosporin consumption did not change significantly between the first quarter of 1997 and the last quarter of 2017. Seasonal variation decreased significantly over time. Proportional consumption of second- and third-generation cephalosporins significantly increased over time compared with that of first-generation cephalosporins, and proportional consumption of fourth-generation cephalosporins significantly decreased compared with that of second- and third-generation cephalosporins. CONCLUSIONS: Despite considerable variation between countries in the composition of cephalosporin consumption and trends over time, a significant shift towards consumption of more broad-spectrum cephalosporins in the community was observed across the EU/EEA during 1997-2017.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Cefalosporinas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Uso de Medicamentos , União Europeia , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais
9.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12 Suppl 2): ii68-ii78, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312659

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Surveillance of antibiotic consumption in the community is of utmost importance to inform and evaluate control strategies. Data on two decades of antibiotic consumption in the community were collected from 30 EU/European Economic Area (EEA) countries. This article reviews temporal trends and the presence of abrupt changes in subgroups of relevance in antimicrobial stewardship. METHODS: For the period 1997-2017, data on yearly antibiotic consumption in the community, aggregated at the level of the active substance, were collected using the WHO ATC classification and expressed in DDD (ATC/DDD index 2019) per 1000 inhabitants per day. We applied a range of non-linear mixed models to assess the presence of changes in the consumption of antibacterials for systemic use (ATC group J01) and eight antibiotic subgroups. RESULTS: For the majority of the studied groups, a country-specific change-point model provided the best fit. Depending on the antibiotic group/subgroup and on the country, change-points were spread out between 2000 and 2013. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the heterogeneity in antibiotic consumption in the community across EU/EEA countries, a country-specific change-point model provided the better fit. Given the limitations of this model, our recommendation for the included countries is to carefully interpret the country-specific results presented in this article and to use the tutorial included in this series to conduct their own change-point analysis when evaluating the impact of changes in regulations, public awareness campaigns, and other national interventions to improve antibiotic consumption in the community.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Uso de Medicamentos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia , Humanos
10.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12 Suppl 2): ii45-ii59, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Data on consumption of tetracyclines, sulphonamides and trimethoprim, and other antibacterials were collected from 30 EU/European Economic Area (EEA) countries over two decades. This article reviews temporal trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and changes in the composition of main subgroups of tetracyclines, sulphonamides and trimethoprim and other antibacterials. METHODS: For the period 1997-2017, data on consumption of tetracyclines (ATC group J01A), sulphonamides and trimethoprim (ATC group J01E), and other antibacterials (ATC group J01X) in the community and aggregated at the level of the active substance, were collected using the WHO ATC/DDD methodology (ATC/DDD index 2019). Consumption was expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day and in packages per 1000 inhabitants per day. Consumption of tetracyclines, sulphonamides and trimethoprim, and other antibacterials was analysed based on ATC-4 subgroups and presented as trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and compositional changes. RESULTS: In 2017, consumption of tetracyclines, sulphonamides and trimethoprim, and other antibacterials in the community expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day varied considerably between countries. Between 1997 and 2017, consumption of tetracyclines did not change significantly, while its seasonal variation significantly decreased over time. Consumption of sulphonamides and trimethoprim significantly decreased until 2006, and its seasonal variation significantly decreased over time. The consumption of other antibacterials showed no significant change over time or in seasonal variation. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption and composition of tetracyclines, sulphonamides and trimethoprim, and other antibacterials showed wide variations between EU/EEA countries and over time. This represents an opportunity to further reduce consumption of these groups in some countries and improve the quality of their prescription.


Assuntos
Tetraciclinas , Trimetoprima , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos , União Europeia , Humanos , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Tetraciclinas/uso terapêutico , Trimetoprima/uso terapêutico
11.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e87, 2021 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818348

RESUMO

Europe is in the midst of a COVID-19 epidemic and a number of non-pharmaceutical public health and social measures have been implemented, in order to contain the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. These measures are fundamental elements of the public health approach to controlling transmission but have proven not to be sufficiently effective. Therefore, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control has conducted an assessment of research gaps that can help inform policy decisions regarding the COVID-19 response. We have identified research gaps in the area of non-pharmaceutical measures, physical distancing, contact tracing, transmission, communication, mental health, seasonality and environment/climate, surveillance and behavioural aspects of COVID-19. This prioritisation exercise is a step towards the global efforts of developing a coherent research road map in coping with the current epidemic but also developing preparedness measures for the next unexpected epidemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Pesquisa , Teste para COVID-19 , Comunicação , Busca de Comunicante , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Distanciamento Físico , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Euro Surveill ; 24(46)2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771708

RESUMO

Investments to reduce the spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the European Union have been made, including efforts to strengthen prudent antimicrobial use. Using segmented regression, we report decreasing and stabilising trends in data reported to the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption Network and stabilising trends in data reported to the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network. Our results could be an early indication of the effect of prioritising AMR on the public health agenda.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/tendências , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Klebsiella/tratamento farmacológico , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/administração & dosagem , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , União Europeia , Fluoroquinolonas/administração & dosagem , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Vigilância da População
13.
Euro Surveill ; 23(46)2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458917

RESUMO

Antimicrobial agents used to treat infections are life-saving. Overuse may result in more frequent adverse effects and emergence of multidrug-resistant microorganisms. In 2016-17, we performed the second point-prevalence survey (PPS) of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial use in European acute care hospitals. We included 1,209 hospitals and 310,755 patients in 28 of 31 European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries. The weighted prevalence of antimicrobial use in the EU/EEA was 30.5% (95% CI: 29.2-31.9%). The most common indication for prescribing antimicrobials was treatment of a community-acquired infection, followed by treatment of HAI and surgical prophylaxis. Over half (54.2%) of antimicrobials for surgical prophylaxis were prescribed for more than 1 day. The most common infections treated by antimicrobials were respiratory tract infections and the most commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents were penicillins with beta-lactamase inhibitors. There was wide variation of patients on antimicrobials, in the selection of antimicrobial agents and in antimicrobial stewardship resources and activities across the participating countries. The results of the PPS provide detailed information on antimicrobial use in European acute care hospitals, enable comparisons between countries and hospitals, and highlight key areas for national and European action that will support efforts towards prudent use of antimicrobials.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Inibidores de beta-Lactamases/uso terapêutico
14.
Crit Care Med ; 38(1): 46-50, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19770743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Surveillance data of nosocomial infection rates are increasingly used for public reporting and interhospital comparisons. Approximately 15% of nosocomial infections on intensive care units are the result of patient-to-patient transmissions of the causative organisms. These exogenous infections could be prevented by adherence to basic infection control measures. The association between bacterial cross transmissions and nosocomial infection rates was analyzed. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study during 24 months. SETTING: Eleven intensive care units from two university hospitals. PATIENTS: All inpatients. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Primary isolates of six indicator organisms (Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus) cultured from clinical samples or methicillin-resistant S. aureus surveillance testing of all inpatients were genotyped. Indistinguishable isolates in > or =2 patients defined potential episodes of transmissions. Surveillance of nosocomial infection rates was performed according to the German nosocomial infection surveillance system, Krankenhaus Infektions Surveillance System. Transmission events and nosocomial infection rates were pooled by intensive care unit to calculate Spearman's rank-correlation test. During 100,781 patient days, 100,829 microbiological specimens from 24,362 patients were sampled (average investigation density: 1.0 sample per patient and day) and 3419 primary indicator organisms were cultured. Altogether, 462 transmissions (incidence density of 4.6 transmissions per 1000 patient days; range, 1.4-8.4 days) and 1216 nosocomial infections (incidence density of 12.1 per 1000 patient days; range, 6.2-16.6 days) were discerned. Correlation analysis was unable to reveal any association between the incidence of cross transmissions and nosocomial infections, duration of hospitalization, or device use. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in nosocomial infection rates between study intensive care units are not explained solely by cross transmissions. Other factors, like the severity of the patient's underlying diseases, the patient's endogenous flora, or invasive procedures, likely have a dominant effect on the magnitude of nosocomial infection rates.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Cateteres de Demora/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Incidência , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Probabilidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
J Med Microbiol ; 57(Pt 2): 240-243, 2008 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18201993

RESUMO

We describe the case of a 66-year-old man with a culture-proven Legionella pneumonia after kidney transplantation. The patient developed the infection 15 days after discharge from a university hospital. Legionella pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 5/10 was established by positive direct fluorescence assay, positive urinary-antigen detection and isolation of the causative agent. The infection was successfully treated by giving appropriate antibiotics, but the further course was complicated by invasive aspergillosis, cytomegalovirus pneumonia, failure of the transplanted kidney and development of septic anaemia. Four months after the diagnosis of Legionella pneumonia the patient died of multi-organ failure. The microbiological and epidemiological investigation revealed that strains from the water supply of the patient's private home were indistinguishable from the patient's isolate by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequence-based typing (SBT). Unrelated strains of serogroups 4, 5, 8 and 10 from the Dresden strain collection were of different SBT types. Thus, SBT is a very useful tool for epidemiological investigation of infections by L. pneumophila serogroups other than serogroup 1.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Legionella pneumophila/isolamento & purificação , Doença dos Legionários/microbiologia , Idoso , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Aspergilose/complicações , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/complicações , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Evolução Fatal , Técnica Direta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Humanos , Transplante de Rim , Legionella pneumophila/classificação , Doença dos Legionários/complicações , Doença dos Legionários/tratamento farmacológico , Doença dos Legionários/epidemiologia , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , Pneumonia Viral , Insuficiência Renal/complicações , Sepse/complicações , Sorotipagem , Urina/microbiologia , Microbiologia da Água
16.
J Med Microbiol ; 55(Pt 3): 283-290, 2006 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16476792

RESUMO

Most routine laboratory detection of Staphylococcus aureus isolates is based on rapid agglutination test systems. Failure of agglutination assays to identify meticillin-resistant S. aureus strains (MRSA) has been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to evaluate six commercially available agglutination tests for the detection of meticillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and mecA-positive MRSA strains. The Dry Spot Staphytect Plus test (Oxoid), the Pastorex Staph Plus test (Bio-Rad), the Slidex Staph-Kit and Slidex Staph Plus test (bioMérieux), the Staphaurex Plus test (Remel) and the Staphylase Test (Oxoid) were used. As determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis, 52 distinct MRSA strains from five countries, 83 MSSA strains and 150 coagulase-negative staphylococci were included. Species identification and determination of susceptibility patterns were performed using colony morphology, Gram stain, catalase testing, tube coagulase testing, DNase testing, mannitol fermentation, susceptibility testing towards oxacillin by Etest, coagulase gene PCR, fibrinogen receptor gene PCR and PCR of the mecA gene. Sensitivity of the agglutination tests ranged from 82.7 to 100.0 % for MRSA strains and 92.8 to 100.0 % for MSSA strains, respectively. Specificity of the test systems ranged from 91.3 to 99.1 %. None of the six agglutination assays produced correct reactions for all staphylococci tested. Only the Dry Spot Staphytect Plus test correctly identified all 52 MRSA strains. For the other tests kits, sensitivity of MRSA detection was lower than for MSSA isolates. Depending upon the local MRSA prevalence and the parameter of interest (sensitivity or specificity), these test systems may be useful for routine diagnostic purposes.


Assuntos
Resistência a Meticilina , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Testes de Hemaglutinação , Humanos , Testes de Fixação do Látex , Meticilina/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
17.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 208(6): 447-53, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16325553

RESUMO

In the last few years, a dramatic increase of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) detection in German hospitals can be recognized. Under this enormous pressure it is very important for infection control teams to assess the epidemiologic situation correctly. Therefore, a prospective multicenter hospital-based surveillance of MRSA cases was executed in four university hospitals with 1017-1333 beds in Germany. Routine surveillance data were recorded of all patients with MRSA isolates from clinical samples or screening cultures. Patients had been colonized or infected with MRSA during their hospital stay. In 2002 between 183 and 291 MRSA cases were treated in the respective hospitals (between 0.53 and 0.96 MRSA cases per 1000 patient days). Of these, 44.4% were MRSA infections. The most frequent type of MRSA infections were wound infections (56.9%) followed by pneumonia (21.0%) and bloodstream infections (15.1%). Of the infected patients 51.5% were already infected at admission. The median duration of isolation of MRSA patients in private rooms was between 11 and 16 days. Altogether 21,665 isolation days were observed in four hospitals; this means 1.52% of all patient days. On average, 9.0% of roommates were identified as MRSA carriers. Due to the high percentage of imported cases, the four university hospitals introduced a general screening for MRSA at admission in all ICUs and some further departments as well as an automatic alert system for readmitted patient with MRSA during their last hospital stay.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Hospitais Universitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Resistência a Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio , Alemanha , Humanos , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Isolamento de Pacientes , Vigilância da População , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica
18.
Crit Care Med ; 33(5): 946-51, 2005 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15891318

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The proportion of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired infections that are a consequence of nosocomial cross-transmission between patients in tertiary ICUs is unknown. Such information would be useful for the implementation of appropriate infection control measures. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study during 18 months. SETTING: Five ICUs from two university hospitals. PATIENTS: All patients admitted for >/=48 hrs. MEASUREMENT: ICU-acquired infections were ascertained during daily bedside patient and chart reviews. Episodes of potential cross-transmission were identified by highly discriminating genetic typing of all clinical and surveillance isolates of the ten bacterial species most frequently associated with nosocomial infections in ICUs. Isolation of indistinguishable isolates in two or more patients defined potential transmission episodes. MAIN RESULTS: During 28,498 patient days, 431 ICU-acquired infections and 141 episodes of nosocomial transmissions were identified. A total of 278 infections were caused by the ten species that were genotyped, and 41 of these (14.5%) could be associated with transmissions between patients. CONCLUSION: Infections acquired during treatment in modern tertiary ICUs are common, but a causative role of direct patient-to-patient transmission can only be ascertained for a minority of these infections on the basis of routine microbiological investigations.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Am J Infect Control ; 31(7): 424-30, 2003 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14639440

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the cause and mode of transmission of a cluster of bloodstream infections as a result of Klebsiella pneumoniae. DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a prospective cohort study in a neonatal intensive care department from May 1999 to December 2000. METHODS: We performed surveillance of nosocomial infections, and clinical and environmental investigations. RESULTS: During an 8-week period, 5 cases of K pneumoniae bloodstream infections were observed, at least 3 of them belonging to the same genotype. Before the second case developed any symptoms of infection, the same strain had also been found in the patient environment. Intervention measures were, therefore, immediately introduced. Further cases, however, occurred in the following weeks. Even after further intervention activities and the end of the outbreak, the same strain was discovered in environmental samples from a stethoscope and a nurse's hand. CONCLUSIONS: Even where there is acute awareness of the problem and a generally high infection control level in a department, it is difficult to change behavior in such a way that further nosocomial infections can be totally excluded.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Klebsiella/epidemiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Bacteriemia/etiologia , Bacteriemia/prevenção & controle , Bacteriemia/transmissão , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecção Hospitalar/etiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Controle de Infecções , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Infecções por Klebsiella/etiologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Klebsiella/transmissão , Masculino
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