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1.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470781

RESUMO

Like all biofluid-contacting medical devices, intranasal splints are highly prone to bacterial adhesion and clot formation. Despite their widespread use and the numerous complications associated with infected splints, limited success has been achieved in advancing their safety and surface biocompatibility, and, to date, no surface-coating strategy has been proposed to simultaneously enhance the antithrombogenicity and bacterial repellency of intranasal splints. Herein, we report an efficient, highly stable lubricant-infused coating for intranasal splints to render their surfaces antithrombogenic and repellent toward bacterial cells. Lubricant-infused intranasal splints were prepared by creating superhydrophobic polysiloxane nanofilament (PSnF) coatings using surface-initiated polymerization of n-propyltrichlorosilane (n-PTCS) and further infiltrating them with a silicone oil lubricant. Compared with commercially available intranasal splints, lubricant-infused, PSnF-coated splints significantly attenuated plasma and blood clot formation and prevented bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation for up to 7 days, the typical duration for which intranasal splints are kept. We further demonstrated that the performance of our engineered biointerface is independent of the underlying substrate and could be used to enhance the hemocompatibility and repellency properties of other medical implants such as medical-grade catheters.

2.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(1): 20-29, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047462

RESUMO

Although anticoagulants have been in use for more than 80 years, heparin and vitamin K antagonists were the sole available options until recently. Although these agents revolutionized the prevention and treatment of thrombotic diseases, their use has been hampered by the necessity for coagulation monitoring and by bleeding complications resulting in part from their multiple sites of action. Owing to advances in basic science, animal models, and epidemiology, the arsenal of available anticoagulants has expanded in the past two decades. This evolution has yielded many novel compounds that target single coagulation enzymes. Initially, thrombin and factor Xa were targeted because of their critical roles in coagulation. However, attention has now shifted to compounds that target upstream reactions, particularly those catalyzed by factors XIIa and XIa, which are part of the contact system. This shift is predicated on epidemiological and experimental evidence suggesting that these factors are more important for thrombosis than for hemostasis. With the goal of developing a new class of anticoagulants associated with a lower risk of bleeding than currently available agents, dozens of drugs targeting the contact system are now in development. This article focuses on the rationale, development, and testing of these new agents with a concentration on those that have reached or completed phase 2 evaluation for at least one indication.

3.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 157: 103125, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254037

RESUMO

Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) therapy is recommended over vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) for the treatment of cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT) and extended therapy is recommended in those with active cancer to prevent recurrent thrombosis. However, the inconvenience of daily subcutaneous injections and the cost of LMWH therapy hinder long-term use. Observational data demonstrate that persistence with LMWH therapy is low in clinical practice and that many patients are switched to oral alternatives - namely VKAs and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Recently, the efficacy and safety of apixaban, edoxaban, and rivaroxaban versus LMWH therapy for the treatment of CAT have been demonstrated in randomized trials. This review provides a critical evaluation of studies with DOACs in this setting and an update on the guidance regarding anticoagulant use for the treatment of CAT. In recognition of the heterogeneity of patients with cancer and the challenges of CAT, patient cases with expert clinical perspectives are presented.

4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2022886, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112399

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) and concomitant chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been reported to have a higher risk of thrombosis and major bleeding complications compared with patients without concomitant CKD. The use of anticoagulation therapy is challenging, as many anticoagulant medications are excreted by the kidney. Large-scale data are needed to clarify the impact of CKD for anticoagulant treatment strategies and clinical outcomes of patients with VTE. Objective: To compare clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, and 12-month outcomes among patients with VTE and concomitant moderate to severe CKD (stages 3-5) vs patients with VTE and mild to no CKD (stages 1-2) in a contemporary international registry. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Global Anticoagulant Registry in the Field-Venous Thromboembolism (GARFIELD-VTE) study is a prospective noninterventional investigation of real-world treatment practices. A total of 10 684 patients from 415 sites in 28 countries were enrolled in the GARFIELD-VTE between May 2014 and January 2017. This cohort study included 8979 patients (6924 patients with mild to no CKD and 2055 patients with moderate to severe CKD) who had objectively confirmed VTE within 30 days before entry in the registry. Chronic kidney disease stages were defined by estimated glomerular filtration rates. Data were extracted from the study database on December 8, 2018, and analyzed between May 1, 2019, and July 30, 2020. Exposure: Moderate to severe CKD vs mild to no CKD. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, recurrent VTE, and major bleeding. Event rates and 95% CIs were calculated and expressed per 100 person-years. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated with Cox proportional hazards regression models and adjusted for relevant confounding variables. All-cause mortality was considered a competing risk for other clinical outcomes in the estimation of cumulative incidences. Results: Of the 10 684 patients with objectively confirmed VTE, serum creatinine data were available for 8979 patients (84.0%). Of those, 4432 patients (49.4%) were female and 5912 patients (65.8%) were White; 6924 patients (77.1%; median age, 57 years; interquartile range [IQR], 44-69 years) were classified as having mild to no CKD, and 2055 patients (22.9%; median age, 70 years; IQR, 59-78 years) were classified as having moderate to severe CKD. Calculations using the equation from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study indicated that, among the 6924 patients with mild to no CKD, 2991 patients had stage 1 CKD, and 3933 patients had stage 2 CKD; among the 2055 patients with moderate to severe CKD, 1650 patients had stage 3 CKD, 190 patients had stage 4 CKD, and 215 patients had stage 5 CKD. The distribution of VTE presentation was comparable between groups. In total, 1171 patients (57.0%) with moderate to severe CKD and 4079 patients (58.9%) with mild to no CKD presented with deep vein thrombosis alone, 547 patients (26.6%) with moderate to severe CKD and 1723 patients (24.9%) with mild to no CKD presented with pulmonary embolism alone, and 337 patients (16.4%) with moderate to severe CKD and 1122 patients (16.2%) with mild to no CKD presented with both pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. Compared with patients with mild to no CKD, patients with moderate to severe CKD were more likely to be female (3259 women [47.1%] vs 1173 women [57.1%]) and older than 65 years (2313 patients [33.4%] vs 1278 patients [62.2%]). At baseline, the receipt of parenteral therapy alone was comparable between the 2 groups (355 patients [17.3%] with moderate to severe CKD vs 1253 patients [18.1%] with mild to no CKD). Patients with moderate to severe CKD compared with those with mild to no CKD were less likely to be receiving direct oral anticoagulant therapy, either alone (557 patients [27.1%] vs 2139 patients [30.9%]) or in combination with parenteral therapy (319 patients [15.5%] vs 1239 patients [17.9%]). Patients with moderate to severe CKD had a higher risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.44; 95% CI, 1.21-1.73), major bleeding (aHR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.03-1.90), and recurrent VTE (aHR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.10-1.77) than patients with mild to no CKD. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study of patients with VTE, the presence of moderate to severe CKD was associated with increases in the risk of death, VTE recurrence, and major bleeding compared with the presence of mild to no CKD.


Assuntos
Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/fisiopatologia
5.
F1000Res ; 92020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082930

RESUMO

Focusing on the current state of the art, this article (a) describes recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of venous thromboembolism (VTE), (b) discusses current approaches for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of VTE, (c) outlines the role of aspirin for VTE prevention and treatment, and (d) highlights the unmet needs in VTE management and describes novel approaches to address them.

7.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(10): 2783-2784, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749030
8.
Biomaterials ; 258: 120291, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798745

RESUMO

Device-associated clot formation and poor tissue integration are ongoing problems with permanent and temporary implantable medical devices. These complications lead to increased rates of mortality and morbidity and impose a burden on healthcare systems. In this review, we outline the current approaches for developing single and multi-functional surface coating techniques that aim to circumvent the limitations associated with existing blood-contacting medical devices. We focus on surface coatings that possess dual hemocompatibility and biofunctionality features and discuss their advantages and shortcomings to providing a biocompatible and biodynamic interface between the medical implant and blood. Lastly, we outline the newly developed surface modification techniques that use lubricant-infused coatings and discuss their unique potential and limitations in mitigating medical device-associated complications.

11.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 4(4): 500-505, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542210

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is predicted to overwhelm health care capacity in the United States and worldwide, and, as such, interventions that could prevent clinical decompensation and respiratory compromise in infected patients are desperately needed. Excessive cytokine release and activation of coagulation appear to be key drivers of COVID-19 pneumonia and associated mortality. Contact activation has been linked to pathologic upregulation of both inflammatory mediators and coagulation, and accumulating preclinical and clinical data suggest it to be a rational therapeutic target in patients with COVID-19. Pharmacologic inhibition of the interaction between coagulation factors XI and XII has been shown to prevent consumptive coagulopathy, pathologic systemic inflammatory response, and mortality in at least 2 types of experimental sepsis. Importantly, inhibition of contact activation also prevented death from Staphylococcus aureus-induced lethal systemic inflammatory response syndrome in nonhuman primates. The contact system is likely dispensable for hemostasis and may not be needed for host immunity, suggesting it to be a reasonably safe target that will not result in immunosuppression or bleeding. As a few drugs targeting contact activation are already in clinical development, immediate clinical trials for their use in patients with COVID-19 are potentially feasible for the prevention or treatment of respiratory distress.

12.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(25): 3140-3147, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospitalized acutely ill medical patients are at risk for fatal and major thromboembolic events. Whether use of extended-duration primary thromboprophylaxis can prevent such events is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether extended-duration rivaroxaban reduces the risk of venous and arterial fatal and major thromboembolic events without significantly increasing major bleeding in acutely ill medical patients after discharge. METHODS: MARINER (A Study of Rivaroxaban [JNJ-39039039] on the Venous Thromboembolic Risk in Post-Hospital Discharge Patients) studied acutely ill medical patients with additional risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Medically ill patients with a baseline creatinine clearance ≥50 ml/min were randomized in a double-blind fashion to rivaroxaban 10 mg or placebo daily at hospital discharge for 45 days. Exploratory efficacy analyses were performed with the intent-to-treat population including all data through day 45. Time-to-event curves were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. A blinded independent committee adjudicated all clinical events. RESULTS: In total, 4,909 patients were assigned to rivaroxaban and 4,913 patients to placebo. The mean age was 67.8 years, 55.5% were men, mean baseline creatinine clearance was 87.8 ml/min, and mean duration of hospitalization was 6.7 days. The pre-specified composite efficacy endpoint (symptomatic VTE, myocardial infarction, nonhemorrhagic stroke, and cardiovascular death) occurred in 1.28% and 1.77% of patients in the rivaroxaban and placebo groups, respectively (hazard ratio: 0.72; 95% confidence interval: 0.52 to 1.00; p = 0.049), whereas major bleeding occurred in 0.27% and 0.18% of patients in the rivaroxaban and placebo groups, respectively (hazard ratio: 1.44; 95% confidence interval: 0.62 to 3.37; p = 0.398). CONCLUSIONS: Extended-duration rivaroxaban in hospitalized medically ill patients resulted in a 28% reduction in fatal and major thromboembolic events without a significant increase in major bleeding. (A Study of Rivaroxaban [JNJ-39039039] on the Venous Thromboembolic Risk in Post-Hospital Discharge Patients [MARINER]; NCT02111564).


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente/métodos , Quimioprevenção , Hemorragia , Alta do Paciente , Rivaroxabana , Tromboembolia Venosa , Doença Aguda/terapia , Idoso , Quimioprevenção/efeitos adversos , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Método Duplo-Cego , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle
13.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(9): 2364-2376, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thrombin-activated platelets can promote fibrinolysis by binding plasminogen in a fibrinogen-dependent manner and enhancing its activation by tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA). Whether t-PA also binds to activated platelets and the mechanism for regulation of platelet-dependent fibrinolysis remain unknown. OBJECTIVES: Determine the mechanism of plasminogen and t-PA binding on thrombin-activated platelets and its regulation by activated thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFIa). METHODS: Plasminogen and t-PA binding with or without TAFIa treatment was quantified using flow cytometry. Plasmin generation on platelets was quantified using a plasmin-specific substrate. Mass spectrometry analyses identified fibrinogen as a potential target of TAFIa. Thrombus formation was studied in mice lacking fibrinogen (Fg-/- ) using intravital microscopy. RESULTS: Plasminogen and t-PA bind to platelets activated by thrombin but not by other agonists, including protease-activated receptor agonists (PAR-AP). Plasminogen binds via its kringle domains because ε-aminocaproic acid eliminates binding, whereas t-PA binds via its finger and kringle domains. Plasminogen binding is fibrinogen-dependent because it is abolished on (a) Fg-/- platelets, and (b) thrombi in Fg-/- mice. Binding requires thrombin-mediated fibrinogen modification because addition of batroxobin to PAR-AP activated platelets has no effect on plasminogen binding but induces t-PA binding. TAFIa reduces plasminogen and t-PA binding to thrombin-activated platelets and attenuates plasmin generation in a concentration-dependent manner. Mass spectrometry identified K556 on the fibrinogen alpha-chain as a potential thrombin cleavage site that generates a TAFIa sensitive C-terminal lysine residue. CONCLUSION: These findings provide novel mechanistic insights into how platelets activated by thrombin at sites of vascular injury can influence fibrinolysis.

14.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 50(2): 267-277, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583306

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in cancer patients and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD (GARFIELD)-VTE (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02155491) is a prospective, observational study of 10,684 patients with objectively diagnosed VTE from 415 sites in 28 countries. We compared baseline characteristics, VTE treatment patterns, and 1-year outcomes (mortality, recurrent VTE and major bleeding) in 1075 patients with active cancer, 674 patients with a history of cancer, and 8935 patients without cancer. Patients with active cancer and history of cancer were older than cancer-free patients, with median ages of 64.8, 68.9, and 58.4 years, respectively. The most common sites of active cancer were lung (14.5%), colorectal (11.0%), breast (10.6%), and gynaecological (10.3%). Active cancer patients had a higher incidence of upper limb and vena cava thrombosis than cancer-free patients (9.0% vs 4.8% and 5.1% vs 1.4%, respectively), and were more likely to receive parenteral anticoagulation as monotherapy than cancer-free patients (57.8% vs 12.1%), and less likely to receive DOACs (14.2% vs 50.6%). Rates of death, recurrent VTE, and major bleeding were higher in active cancer patients than in cancer-free patients, with hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 14.2 (12.1-16.6), 1.6 (1.2-2.0) and 3.8 (2.9-5.0), respectively. VTE was the second most common cause of death in patients with active cancer or history of cancer. In patients with VTE, those with active cancer are at higher risk of death, recurrence, and major bleeding than those without cancer.

15.
Blood ; 136(12): 1433-1441, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396939

RESUMO

Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are an emerging treatment option for patients with cancer and acute venous thromboembolism (VTE), but studies have reported inconsistent results. This systematic review and meta-analysis compared the efficacy and safety of DOACs and low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) in these patients. MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and conference proceedings were searched to identify relevant randomized controlled trials. Additional data were obtained from the original authors to homogenize definitions for all study outcomes. The primary efficacy and safety outcomes were recurrent VTE and major bleeding, respectively. Other outcomes included the composite of recurrent VTE and major bleeding, clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding (CRNMB), and all-cause mortality. Summary relative risks (RRs) were calculated in a random effects meta-analysis. In the primary analysis comprising 2607 patients, the risk of recurrent VTE was nonsignificantly lower with DOACs than with LMWHs (RR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.39-1.17). Conversely, the risks of major bleeding (RR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.55-3.35) and CRNMB (RR, 1.63; 95% CI, 0.73-3.64) were nonsignificantly higher. The risk of the composite of recurrent VTE or major bleeding was nonsignificantly lower with DOACs than with LMWHs (RR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.60-1.23). Mortality was comparable in both groups (RR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.68-1.36). Findings were consistent during the on-treatment period and in those with incidental VTE. In conclusion, DOACs are an effective treatment option for patients with cancer and acute VTE, although caution is needed in patients at high risk of bleeding.

16.
Thromb Res ; 191: 103-112, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422442

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Randomized controlled trials have shown that direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are a safe and effective alternative to vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) for the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, there are limited post-marketing data describing the effectiveness and safety of the DOACs in the community setting. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of DOACs and VKAs on 12-month outcomes in a real-world VTE patient population. METHODS: The Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD (GARFIELD)-VTE is an observational study designed to document real-world treatment practices. This intention-to-treat analysis included 7987 VTE patients initiated on either DOACs (N = 4791) or VKAs (N = 3196) with or without pre-treatment with parenteral anticoagulants. Treatment groups were balanced according to baseline characteristics, using overlapping propensity score weights. RESULTS: After adjustment for baseline characteristics, all-cause mortality was significantly lower with DOAC than with VKAs (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.95. Patients receiving VKAs were more likely than those receiving DOACs to die of complications of VTE (4.7% vs 2.7%) or from bleeding (4.2% vs. 1.3%). There was no significant difference in recurrent VTE (HR: 0.91, 95% CI 0.71-1.18), major bleeding (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.69-1.54), or overall bleeding (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.81-1.14) with DOACs or VKAs. CONCLUSIONS: n this real-world analysis of VTE treatment, DOACs were associated with reduced all-cause mortality compared with VKAs, and similar rates of recurrent VTE and bleeding.

17.
Thromb Haemost ; 120(5): 847-856, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of death in cancer patients. Although patients with cancer have numerous risk factors for VTE, the relative contribution of cancer treatments is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between cancer therapies and the risk of VTE. METHODS: From UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, data on patients with first cancer diagnosis between 2008 and 2016 were extracted along with information on hospitalization, treatments, and cause of death. Primary outcome was active cancer-associated VTE. To establish the independent effects of risk factors, adjusted subhazard ratios (adj-SHR) were calculated using Fine and Gray regression analysis accounting for death as competing risk. RESULTS: Among 67,801 patients with a first cancer diagnosis, active cancer-associated VTE occurred in 1,473 (2.2%). During a median observation time of 1.2 years, chemotherapy, surgery, hormonal therapy, radiation therapy, and immunotherapy were given to 71.1, 37.2, 17.2, 17.5, and 1.4% of patients with VTE, respectively. The active cancers associated with the highest risk of VTE-as assessed by incidence rates-included pancreatic cancer, brain cancer, and metastatic cancer. Chemotherapy was associated with an increased risk of VTE (adj-SHR: 3.17, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.76-3.65) while immunotherapy with a not significant reduced risk (adj-SHR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.30-1.52). There was no association between VTE and radiation therapy (adj-SHR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.65-1.27) and hormonal therapies. CONCLUSION: VTE risk varies with cancer type. Chemotherapy was associated with an increased VTE risk, whereas with radiation and immunotherapy therapy, an association was not confirmed.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/terapia , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade
18.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 50(1): 12-19, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323190

RESUMO

Anticoagulant plasma concentrations and patient characteristics might affect the benefit-risk balance of therapy. The study objective was to assess the impact of model-predicted rivaroxaban exposure and patient characteristics on outcomes in patients receiving rivaroxaban for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis (VTE-P) after hip/knee replacement surgery. Post hoc exposure-response analyses were conducted using data from the phase 3 RECORD1-4 studies, in which 12,729 patients were randomized to rivaroxaban 10 mg once daily or enoxaparin for ≤ 39 days. Multivariate regression approaches were used to correlate model-predicted individual rivaroxaban exposures and patient characteristics with outcomes. In the absence of measured rivaroxaban exposure, exposure estimates were predicted based on individual increases in prothrombin time (PT) and by making use of the known correlation between rivaroxaban plasma concentration and dynamics of PT. No significant associations between rivaroxaban exposure and total VTE or major bleeding were identified. A significant association between exposure and a composite of major or non-major clinically relevant (NMCR) bleeding from day 4 after surgery was observed. The relationship was shallow, with an approximate predicted absolute increase in a composite of major or NMCR bleeding from 1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76-1.54] to 2.18% (95% CI 1.51-3.17) at the 5th and 95th percentiles of trough plasma concentration, respectively. In conclusion, based on the underlying data and analysis, no reliable target window for exposure with improved benefit-risk could be identified within the investigated exposure range. Hence, monitoring rivaroxaban levels is unlikely to be beneficial in VTE-P.

19.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 50(1): 1-11, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323191

RESUMO

Anticoagulant plasma concentrations and patient characteristics might affect the benefit-risk balance of therapy. This study assessed the impact of model-predicted rivaroxaban exposure and patient characteristics on outcomes in patients receiving rivaroxaban for venous thromboembolism treatment (VTE-T) using data from the phase 3 EINSTEIN-DVT and EINSTEIN-PE studies. In the absence of measured rivaroxaban exposure, exposure estimates were predicted based on individual increases in prothrombin time (PT) and the known correlation between rivaroxaban plasma concentrations and PT dynamics. The composite efficacy outcomes evaluated were recurrent deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) and recurrent DVT, PE and all-cause death; safety outcomes were major bleeding and the composite of major or non-major clinically relevant (NMCR) bleeding. Exposure-response relationships were evaluated using multivariate logistic and Cox regression for the twice-daily (BID) and once-daily (OD) dosing periods, respectively. Predicted rivaroxaban exposure and CrCl were significantly associated with both efficacy outcomes in the BID period. In the OD period, exposure was significantly associated with recurrent DVT and PE but not recurrent DVT, PE and all-cause death. The statistically significant exposure-efficacy relationships were shallow. Exposure-safety relationships were absent within the investigated exposure range. During both dosing periods, low baseline hemoglobin and prior bleeding were associated with the composite of major or NMCR bleeding. In conclusion, based on the underlying data and analysis, no reliable target window for exposure with improved benefit-risk could be identified within the investigated exposure range. Therefore, monitoring rivaroxaban levels is unlikely to be beneficial in VTE-T.

20.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 50(1): 20-29, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323192

RESUMO

Rivaroxaban exposure and patient characteristics may affect the rivaroxaban benefit-risk balance. This study aimed to quantify associations between model-predicted rivaroxaban exposure and patient characteristics and efficacy and safety outcomes in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), using data from the phase 3 ROCKET AF trial (NCT00403767). In ROCKET AF, 14,264 patients with NVAF were randomized to rivaroxaban (20 mg once daily [OD], or 15 mg OD if creatinine clearance was 30-49 mL/min) or dose-adjusted warfarin (median follow-up: 707 days); rivaroxaban plasma concentration was measured in a subset of 161 patients. In this post hoc exposure-response analysis, a multivariate Cox model was used to correlate individual predicted rivaroxaban exposures and patient characteristics with time-to-event efficacy and safety outcomes in 7061 and 7111 patients, respectively. There was no significant association between model-predicted rivaroxaban trough plasma concentration (Ctrough) and efficacy outcomes. Creatinine clearance and history of stroke were significantly associated with efficacy outcomes. Ctrough was significantly associated with the composite of major or non-major clinically relevant (NMCR) bleeding (hazard ratio [95th percentile vs. median]: 1.26 [95% confidence interval 1.13-1.40]) but not with major bleeding alone. The exposure-response relationship for major or NMCR bleeding was shallow with no clear threshold for an acceleration in risk. History of gastrointestinal bleeding had a greater influence on safety outcomes than Ctrough. These results support fixed rivaroxaban 15 mg and 20 mg OD dosages in NVAF. Therapeutic drug monitoring is unlikely to offer clinical benefits in this indication beyond evaluation of patient characteristics.

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