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1.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575519

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to identify pathogenic variants (PV) associated with germline cancer predisposition in an unselected cohort of older breast cancer survivors. Older patients with cancer may also be at higher risk for clonal hematopoiesis (CH) due to their age and chemotherapy exposure. Therefore, we also explored the prevalence of PVs suggestive of CH. METHODS: We evaluated 44 older adults (65 years or older) diagnosed with breast cancer who survived at least two years after diagnosis from a prospective study, compared to healthy controls over the age of 65 (n = 36). DNA extracted from blood samples and a multi-gene panel test was used to evaluate for common hereditary cancer predisposition and CH PVs. Fisher's exact test was used to compare PV rates between groups. RESULTS: Eight PVs in ATM, BRCA2 (x2), PALB2, RAD51D, BRIP1, and MUTYH (x2) were identified in 7 of 44 individuals with breast cancer (15.9%, 95% CI: 7-30%), whereas none were identified in healthy controls (p = .01). Results remained statistically significant after removal of MUTYH carriers (p = .045). PVs indicative of CH (ATM, NBN, and PPM1D [x2]) were identified in three of 27 individuals with breast cancer who received chemotherapy and in one healthy control. CONCLUSION: Moderate-risk and later disease onset high-risk hereditary cancer predisposition PVs were statistically significantly enriched in our survivorship cohort compared to controls. Because age- and chemotherapy-related CH are more frequent in this population, care must be taken to differentiate potential CH PVs from germline cancer predisposition PVs.

2.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer susceptibility have been identified; these SNPs can be combined into polygenic risk scores (PRS) to predict breast cancer risk. Since most SNPs were identified in predominantly European populations, little is known about the performance of PRS in non-Europeans. We tested the performance of a 180-SNP PRS in Latinas, a large ethnic group with variable levels of Indigenous American, European, and African ancestry. METHODS: We conducted a pooled case-control analysis of U.S. Latinas and Latin-American women (4,658 cases, 7,622 controls). We constructed a 180-SNP PRS consisting of SNPs associated with breast cancer risk (p < 5 x 10-8). We evaluated the association between the PRS and breast cancer risk using multivariable logistic regression and assessed discrimination using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). We also assessed PRS performance across quartiles of Indigenous American genetic ancestry. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Of 180 SNPs tested, 142 showed directionally consistent associations compared with European populations, and 39 were nominally statistically significant (p < 0.05). The PRS was associated with breast cancer risk, with an odds ratio (OR) per standard deviation increment of 1.58 (95% CI 1.52 to 1.64) and AUCROC of 0.63 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.64). The discrimination of the PRS was similar between the top and bottom quartiles of Indigenous American ancestry. CONCLUSIONS: The 180-SNP PRS predicts breast cancer risk in Latinas, with similar performance as reported for Europeans. The performance of the PRS did not vary substantially according to Indigenous American ancestry.

3.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 107, 2019 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533767

RESUMO

The introduction of next-generation sequencing has resulted in testing multiple genes simultaneously to identify inherited pathogenic variants (PVs) in cancer susceptibility genes. PVs with low minor allele frequencies (MAFs) (< 25-35%) are highlighted on germline genetic test reports. In this review, we focus on the challenges of interpreting PVs with low MAF in breast cancer patients undergoing germline testing and the implications for management.The clinical implications of a germline PV are substantial. For PV carriers in high-penetrance genes like BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53, prophylactic mastectomy is often recommended and radiation therapy avoided when possible for those with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS). For germline PV carriers in more moderate-risk genes such as PALB2, ATM, and CHEK2, annual breast MRI is recommended and prophylactic mastectomies considered for those with significant family histories. Detection of PVs in cancer susceptibility genes can also lead to recommendations for other prophylactic surgeries (e.g., salpingo-oophorectomy) and increased surveillance for other cancers. Therefore, recognizing when a PV is somatic rather than germline and distinguishing somatic mosaicism from clonal hematopoiesis (CH) is essential. Mutational events that occur at a post-zygotic stage are somatic and will only be present in tissues derived from the mutated cell, characterizing classic mosaicism. Clonal hematopoiesis is a form of mosaicism restricted to the hematopoietic compartment.Among the genes in multi-gene panels used for germline testing of breast cancer patients, the detection of a PV with low MAF occurs most often in TP53, though has been reported in other breast cancer susceptibility genes. Distinguishing a germline TP53 PV (LFS) from a somatic PV (TP53 mosaicism or CH) has enormous implications for breast cancer patients and their relatives.We review how to evaluate a PV with low MAF. The identification of the PV in another tissue confirms mosaicism. Older age, exposure to chemotherapy, radiation, and tobacco are known risk factors for CH, as is the absence of a LFS-related cancer in the setting of a TP53 PV with low MAF. The ability to recognize and understand the implications of somatic PVs, including somatic mosaicism and CH, enables optimal personalized care of breast cancer patients.

4.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(504)2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391323

RESUMO

Longitudinal analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has shown promise for monitoring treatment response. However, most current methods lack adequate sensitivity for residual disease detection during or after completion of treatment in patients with nonmetastatic cancer. To address this gap and to improve sensitivity for minute quantities of residual tumor DNA in plasma, we have developed targeted digital sequencing (TARDIS) for multiplexed analysis of patient-specific cancer mutations. In reference samples, by simultaneously analyzing 8 to 16 known mutations, TARDIS achieved 91 and 53% sensitivity at mutant allele fractions (AFs) of 3 in 104 and 3 in 105, respectively, with 96% specificity, using input DNA equivalent to a single tube of blood. We successfully analyzed up to 115 mutations per patient in 80 plasma samples from 33 women with stage I to III breast cancer. Before treatment, TARDIS detected ctDNA in all patients with 0.11% median AF. After completion of neoadjuvant therapy, ctDNA concentrations were lower in patients who achieved pathological complete response (pathCR) compared to patients with residual disease (median AFs, 0.003 and 0.017%, respectively, P = 0.0057, AUC = 0.83). In addition, patients with pathCR showed a larger decrease in ctDNA concentrations during neoadjuvant therapy. These results demonstrate high accuracy for assessment of molecular response and residual disease during neoadjuvant therapy using ctDNA analysis. TARDIS has achieved up to 100-fold improvement beyond the current limit of ctDNA detection using clinically relevant blood volumes, demonstrating that personalized ctDNA tracking could enable individualized clinical management of patients with cancer treated with curative intent.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445185

RESUMO

Clonal hematopoiesis (CH), characterized by the accumulation of acquired somatic mutations in the blood, is associated with an elevated risk of aging-related diseases and premature mortality in non-cancer populations. Patients who undergo autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are also at high risk of premature onset of aging-related conditions. Therefore, we examined the association between pretreatment CH and late-occurring (≥1 year) nonrelapse mortality (NRM) after HCT. We evaluated pathogenic and likely pathogenic CH variants (PVs) in 10 patients who developed NRM after HCT and in 29 HCT recipient controls matched by age at HCT ± 2 years (median, 64.6 years; range, 38.5 to 74.7 years), sex (79.5% male), diagnosis (61.5% with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 18.0% with Hodgkin lymphoma, and 20.5% with multiple myeloma), and duration of follow-up. We analyzed mobilized hematopoietic stem cell DNA in samples collected before HCT using a custom panel of amplicons covering the coding exons of 79 myeloid-related genes associated with CH. PVs with allele fractions >2% were used for analyses. Cases were significantly more likely than controls to have CH (70% versus 24.1%; P = .002), to have ≥2 unique PVs (60% versus 6.9%; P < .001), and to have PVs with allelic fractions ≥10% (40% versus 3.4%; P = .003). Here we provide preliminary evidence of an association between pre-HCT CH and NRM after HCT independent of chronologic age. Integration of CH analyses may improve the accuracy of existing pre-HCT risk prediction models, setting the stage for personalized risk assessment strategies and targeted treatments to optimally prevent or manage late complications associated with HCT.

6.
Cancer ; 125(16): 2829-2836, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer and related cause of mortality among Hispanics, yet susceptibility has been understudied. BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) mutations explain less than one-half of hereditary BC, and the proportion associated with other BC susceptibility genes is unknown. METHODS: Germline DNA from 1054 BRCA-mutation-negative Hispanic women with hereditary BC (BC diagnosed at age <51 years, bilateral BC, breast and ovarian cancer, or BC diagnosed at ages 51-70 years with ≥2 first-degree or second-degree relatives who had BC diagnosed at age <70 years), 312 local controls, and 887 multiethnic cohort controls was sequenced and analyzed for 12 known and suspected, high-penetrance and moderate-penetrance cancer susceptibility genes (ataxia telangiectasia mutated [ATM], breast cancer 1 interacting protein C-terminal helicase 1 [BRIP1], cadherin 1 [CDH1], checkpoint kinase 2 [CHEK2], nibrin [NBN], neurofibromatosis type 1 [NF1], partner and localizer of BRCA2 [PALB2], phosphatase and tensin homolog [PTEN], RAD51 paralog 3 [RAD51C], RAD51D, serine/threonine kinase 11 [STK11], and TP53). RESULTS: Forty-nine (4.6%) pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants (PVs) in 47 of 1054 participants (4.5%), including 21 truncating frameshift, 20 missense, 5 nonsense, and 4 splice variants, were identified in CHEK2 (n = 20), PALB2 (n = 18), ATM (n = 5), TP53 (n = 3), BRIP1 (n = 2), and CDH1 and NF1 (both n = 1) and none were identified in NBN, PTEN, STK11, RAD51C, or RAD51D. Nine participants carried the PALB2 c.2167_2168del PV (0.85%), and 14 carried the CHEK2 c.707T>C PV (1.32%). CONCLUSIONS: Of 1054 BRCA-negative, high-risk Hispanic women, 4.5% carried a PV in a cancer susceptibility gene, increasing understanding of hereditary BC in this population. Recurrent PVs in PALB2 and CHEK2 represented 47% (23 of 49) of the total, suggesting a founder effect. Accurate classification of variants was enabled by carefully controlling for ancestry and the increased identification of at-risk Hispanics for screening and prevention.

7.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1781-1796, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112363

RESUMO

BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) pathogenic sequence variants (PSVs) confer elevated risks of multiple cancers. However, most BRCA1/2 PSVs reports focus on European ancestry individuals. Knowledge of the PSV distribution in African descent individuals is poorly understood. We undertook a systematic review of the published literature and publicly available databases reporting BRCA1/2 PSVs also accessed the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) database to identify African or African descent individuals. Using these data, we inferred which of the BRCA PSVs were likely to be of African continental origin. Of the 43,817 BRCA1/2 PSV carriers in the CIMBA database, 469 (1%) were of African descent. Additional African descent individuals were identified in public databases (n = 291) and the literature (n = 601). We identified 164 unique BRCA1 and 173 unique BRCA2 PSVs in individuals of African ancestry. Of these, 83 BRCA1 and 91 BRCA2 PSVs are of likely or possible African origin. We observed numerous differences in the distribution of PSV type and function in African origin versus non-African origin PSVs. Research in populations of African ancestry with BRCA1/2 PSVs is needed to provide the information needed for clinical management and decision-making in African descent individuals worldwide.

8.
Br J Cancer ; 121(1): 15-21, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation face high risks of breast and ovarian cancer. In the current study, we report on uptake of cancer screening and risk-reduction options in a cohort of BRCA mutation carriers from ten countries over two time periods (1995 to 2008 and 2009 to 2017). METHODS: Eligible subjects were identified from an international database of female BRCA mutation carriers and included women from 59 centres from ten countries. Subjects completed a questionnaire at the time of genetic testing, which included past use of cancer prevention options and screening tests. Biennial follow-up questionnaires were administered. RESULTS: Six-thousand two-hundred and twenty-three women were followed for a mean of 7.5 years. The mean age at last follow-up was 52.1 years (27-96 years) and 42.3% of the women had a prior diagnosis of breast cancer. In all, 27.8% had a prophylactic bilateral mastectomy and  64.7% had a BSO. Screening with breast MRI increased from 70% before 2009 to 81% at or after 2009. There were significant differences in uptake of all options by country. CONCLUSION: For women who received genetic testing more recently, uptake of prophylactic mastectomy and breast MRI is significantly higher than those who received genetic testing more than 10 years ago. However, uptake of both BSO and breast MRI is not optimal, and interventions to increase uptake are needed.

9.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(5): 884-888, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Women diagnosed with breast cancer (BC) at an older age are less likely to undergo genetic cancer risk assessment and genetic testing since the guidelines and referrals are biased toward earlier age at diagnosis. Thus, we determined the prevalence and type of pathogenic cancer predisposition variants among women with a history of BC diagnosed at the age of 65 years or older vs younger than 65 years. DESIGN: Prospective registration cohort. SETTING: The Clinical Cancer Genomics Community Research Network, including 40 community-based clinics in the United States and 5 in Latin America. PARTICIPANTS: Women with BC and genetic testing results. MEASUREMENTS: Sociodemographic characteristics, clinical variables, and genetic profiles were compared between women aged 65 years and older and those younger than 65 years at BC diagnosis. RESULTS: Among 588 women diagnosed with BC and aged 65 years and older and 9412 diagnosed at younger than 65 years, BC-associated pathogenic variants (PVs) were detected in 5.6% of those aged 65 years and older (n = 33) and 14.2% of those younger than 65 years (n = 1340) (P < .01). PVs in high-risk genes (eg, BRCA1 and BRCA2) represented 81.1% of carriers among women aged 65 years and older (n = 27) and 93.1% of those younger than 65 years (n = 1248) (P = .01). BRCA2 PVs represented 42.4% of high-risk gene findings for those aged 65 years and older, whereas BRCA1 PVs were most common among carriers younger than 65 years (49.7%). PVs (n = 7) in moderate-risk genes represented 21.2% for carriers aged 65 years and older and 7.3% of those younger than 65 years (n = 98; P < .01). CHEK2 PVs were the most common moderate-risk gene finding in both groups. CONCLUSION: Clinically actionable BC susceptibility PVs, particularly in BRCA2 and CHEK2, were relatively prevalent among older women undergoing genetic testing. The significant burden of PVs for older women with BC provides a critical reminder to recognize the full spectrum of eligibility and provide genetic testing for older women, rather than exclusion based on chronological age alone. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:884-888, 2019.

10.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 175(2): 443-449, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30756284

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Following a diagnosis of breast cancer, BRCA mutation carriers face an increased risk of developing a second (contralateral) cancer in the unaffected breast. It is important to identify predictors of contralateral cancer in order to make informed decisions about bilateral mastectomy. The impact of bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (i.e., oophorectomy) on the risk of developing contralateral breast cancer is unclear. Thus, we conducted a prospective study of the relationship between oophorectomy and the risk of contralateral breast cancer in 1781 BRCA1 and 503 BRCA2 mutation carriers with breast cancer. METHODS: Women were followed from the date of diagnosis of their first breast cancer until the date of diagnosis of a contralateral breast cancer, bilateral mastectomy, date of death, or date of last follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of contralateral breast cancer associated with oophorectomy. Oophorectomy was included as a time-dependent covariate. We performed a left-censored analysis for those women who reported a primary breast cancer prior to study entry (i.e., from completion of baseline questionnaire). RESULTS: After an average of 9.8 years of follow-up, there were 179 (7.8%) contralateral breast cancers diagnosed. Oophorectomy was not associated with the risk of developing a second breast cancer (HR 0.92; 95% CI 0.68-1.25). The relationship did not vary by BRCA mutation type or by age at diagnosis of the first breast cancer. There was some evidence for a decreased risk of contralateral breast cancer among women with an ER-positive primary breast cancer, but this was based on a small number of events (n = 240). CONCLUSION: Overall, our findings suggest that oophorectomy has little impact on the risk of contralateral breast cancer.

11.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1800328, 2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339520

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the potential for detection of incidental germline cancer predisposition mutations through cell-free DNA (cfDNA) analyses in patients who underwent solid tumor somatic mutation evaluation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were evaluated from 10,888 unselected patients with advanced (stage III/IV) cancer who underwent Guardant360 testing between November 2015 and December 2016. The main outcome was prevalence of putative germline mutations identified among 16 actionable hereditary cancer predisposition genes. RESULTS: More than 50 cancer types were studied, including lung (41%), breast (19%), colorectal (8%), prostate (6%), pancreatic (3%), and ovarian (2%). Average patient age was 63.5 years (range, 18 to 95 years); 43% were male. One hundred and fifty-six individuals (1.4%) had suspected hereditary cancer mutations in 11 genes. Putative germline mutations were more frequent in individuals younger than 50 years versus those 50 years and older (3.0% v 1.2%, respectively; P < .001). Highest yields of putative germline findings were in patients with ovarian (8.13%), prostate (3.46%), pancreatic (3.34%), and breast (2.2%) cancer. Putative germline mutation identification was consistent among 12 individuals with multiple samples. Patients with circulating tumor DNA copy number variation and/or reversion mutations suggestive of functional loss of the wild-type allele in the tumor DNA also are described. CONCLUSION: Detection of putative germline mutations from cfDNA is feasible across multiple genes and cancer types without prior mutation knowledge. Many mutations were found in cancers without clear guidelines for hereditary cancer genetic counseling/testing. Given the clinical significance of identifying hereditary cancer predisposition for patients and their families as well as targetable germline alterations such as in BRCA1 or BRCA2, research on the best way to validate and return potential germline results from cfDNA analysis to clinicians and patients is needed.

12.
J Cancer Educ ; 2018 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30259397

RESUMO

Genetic healthcare professionals provide genetic cancer risk assessment and follow-up care for patients facing hereditary cancers. To meet the needs of those affected by hereditary colorectal cancer, City of Hope and the Hereditary Colon Cancer Foundation collaborated to develop a "Family Day" conference. We describe the development of our conference based upon the Hereditary Colon Cancer Foundation's "Family Day" program model, with refinements completed using the Participatory Action Research theoretical framework, which incorporated input from conference participants and researchers. Thirty-one participants attended the conference, representing patients with, or families, friends, and caregivers of those with, multiple colorectal cancer predisposition syndromes, including Lynch, familial adenomatous polyposis, and juvenile polyposis. Participants who completed the feedback surveys (n = 22) were highly satisfied with the presentation content, ranking the keynote lecture on family communication the highest of the conference events. Participants also provided feedback regarding how to improve future conferences. In conclusion, we share our experience and provide guidance for developing a successful hereditary colon cancer predisposition patient and family conference.

13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 9188, 2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907814

RESUMO

The detection of germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 is essential to the formulation of clinical management strategies, and in Brazil, there is limited access to these services, mainly due to the costs/availability of genetic testing. Aiming at the identification of recurrent mutations that could be included in a low-cost mutation panel, used as a first screening approach, we compiled the testing reports of 649 probands with pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants referred to 28 public and private health care centers distributed across 11 Brazilian States. Overall, 126 and 103 distinct mutations were identified in BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively. Twenty-six novel variants were reported from both genes, and BRCA2 showed higher mutational heterogeneity. Some recurrent mutations were reported exclusively in certain geographic regions, suggesting a founder effect. Our findings confirm that there is significant molecular heterogeneity in these genes among Brazilian carriers, while also suggesting that this heterogeneity precludes the use of screening protocols that include recurrent mutation testing only. This is the first study to show that profiles of recurrent mutations may be unique to different Brazilian regions. These data should be explored in larger regional cohorts to determine if screening with a panel of recurrent mutations would be effective.

14.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 171(2): 421-426, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29774471

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In the general population, an early age at first full-term birth confers protection against the risk of developing breast cancer. The relationship between age at first birth and breast cancer risk is not clear for women with a mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene. Thus, we undertook a case-control study of women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation to study the effects of age at first full-term birth matched for other reproductive factors. METHODS: Information about reproductive factors, including age at first birth as well as medical history, was collected from a routinely administered research questionnaire. There were 2,295 matched pairs of women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation included in the final analysis. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the mean age at first full-term birth among the BRCA1 (24.9 vs. 25.2; P = 0.10) or BRCA2 mutation carriers (26.5 vs. 26.6 years; P = 0.80). Findings were similar in the analysis limited to cases who were diagnosed with breast cancer prior to age 45. CONCLUSION: This matched analysis of a large number of BRCA mutation carriers suggests that age at first birth has little influence on BRCA1 or BRCA2 breast cancer risk.

15.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 110(10): 1059-1066, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618041

RESUMO

Background: In germline genetic testing, variants from understudied ancestries have been disproportionately classified as being of uncertain significance. We hypothesized that the rate of variant reclassification likewise differs by ancestry. Methods: Nonbenign variants in actionable genes were collected from consenting subjects undergoing genetic testing at two Southern California sites from September 1996 through December 2016. Variant reclassifications were recorded as they were received, until February 2017 or reclassification to benign. Excluding duplicate variants (same ancestry, laboratory, classification), generalized linear models for the hereditary breast cancer genes (BRCA1/2) and other variants investigated whether rate of reclassification differed for seven categories of ancestry compared with non-Hispanic European. Models took into account laboratory, year, gene, sex, and current classification (handled as a time-dependent covariate) and were adjusted for multiple hypothesis testing. Results: Among 1483 nonbenign variants, 693 (46.7%) involved BRCA1/2. Overall, 268 (18.1%) variants were reclassified at least once. Few (9.7%) reclassified variants underwent a net upgrade in pathogenicity. For BRCA1/2 variants, reclassification rates varied by ancestry and increased over time, more steeply for ancestries with lower initial rates (African, Ashkenazi, Chinese) than for ancestries whose initial rates were high (Middle Eastern) or similar to non-Hispanic European (non-Chinese Asian, Native American, Hispanic). In contrast, reclassification rates of non-BRCA1/2 variants did not vary over time but were elevated for most minority ancestries except non-Chinese Asian and Native American. Conclusions: For nonbenign variants in cancer-related genes, the rates at which reclassifications are issued vary by ancestry in ways that differ between BRCA1/2 and other genes.

16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(15): 3918-3923, 2018 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29572430

RESUMO

TP53 (p53) is a tumor suppressor whose functions are lost or altered in most malignancies. p53 homozygous knockout (p53-/-) mice uniformly die of spontaneous malignancy, typically T-cell lymphoma. RALBP1 (RLIP76, Rlip) is a stress-protective, mercapturic acid pathway transporter protein that also functions as a Ral effector involved in clathrin-dependent endocytosis. In stark contrast to p53-/- mice, Rlip-/- mice are highly resistant to carcinogenesis. We report here that partial Rlip deficiency induced by weekly administration of an Rlip-specific phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide, R508, strongly inhibited spontaneous as well as benzo(a)pyrene-induced carcinogenesis in p53-/- mice. This treatment effectively prevented large-scale methylomic and transcriptomic abnormalities suggestive of inflammation found in cancer-bearing p53-/- mice. The remarkable efficiency with which Rlip deficiency suppresses spontaneous malignancy in p53-/- mice has not been observed with any previously reported pharmacologic or genetic intervention. These findings are supported by cross-breeding experiments demonstrating that hemizygous Rlip deficiency also reduces the spontaneous malignancy phenotype of p53+/- mice. Rlip is found on the cell surface, and antibodies directed against Rlip were found to inhibit growth and promote apoptosis of cell lines as effectively as Rlip siRNA. The work presented here investigates several features, including oxidative DNA damage of the Rlip-p53 association in malignant transformation, and offers a paradigm for the mechanisms of tumor suppression by p53 and the prospects of suppressing spontaneous malignancy in hereditary cancer syndromes such as Li-Fraumeni.


Assuntos
Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/deficiência , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Animais , Apoptose , Feminino , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/deficiência , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo
17.
Fam Cancer ; 17(4): 495-505, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29445900

RESUMO

Comprehensive genomic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) helps patients, family members, and providers make informed choices about cancer screening, surgical and chemotherapeutic risk reduction, and genetically targeted cancer therapies. The increasing availability of multigene panel tests for clinical applications allows testing of well-defined high-risk genes, as well as moderate-risk genes, for which the penetrance and spectrum of cancer risk are less well characterized. Moderate-risk genes are defined as genes that, when altered by a pathogenic variant, confer a 2 to fivefold relative risk of cancer. Two such genes included on many comprehensive cancer panels are the DNA repair genes ATM and CHEK2, best known for moderately increased risk of breast cancer development. However, the impact of screening and preventative interventions and spectrum of cancer risk beyond breast cancer associated with ATM and/or CHEK2 variants remain less well characterized. We convened a large, multidisciplinary, cross-sectional panel of GCRA clinicians to review challenging, peer-submitted cases of patients identified with ATM or CHEK2 variants. This paper summarizes the inter-professional case discussion and recommendations generated during the session, the level of concordance with respect to recommendations between the academic and community clinician participants for each case, and potential barriers to implementing recommended care in various practice settings.

18.
Hum Mutat ; 39(5): 593-620, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29446198

RESUMO

The prevalence and spectrum of germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been reported in single populations, with the majority of reports focused on White in Europe and North America. The Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) has assembled data on 18,435 families with BRCA1 mutations and 11,351 families with BRCA2 mutations ascertained from 69 centers in 49 countries on six continents. This study comprehensively describes the characteristics of the 1,650 unique BRCA1 and 1,731 unique BRCA2 deleterious (disease-associated) mutations identified in the CIMBA database. We observed substantial variation in mutation type and frequency by geographical region and race/ethnicity. In addition to known founder mutations, mutations of relatively high frequency were identified in specific racial/ethnic or geographic groups that may reflect founder mutations and which could be used in targeted (panel) first pass genotyping for specific populations. Knowledge of the population-specific mutational spectrum in BRCA1 and BRCA2 could inform efficient strategies for genetic testing and may justify a more broad-based oncogenetic testing in some populations.

19.
Genet Med ; 20(8): 809-816, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29189820

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Blood/saliva DNA is thought to represent the germ line in genetic cancer-risk assessment. Cases with pathogenic TP53 variants detected by multigene panel testing are often discordant with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, raising concern about misinterpretation of acquired aberrant clonal expansions (ACEs) with TP53 variants as germ-line results. METHODS: Pathogenic TP53 variants with abnormal next-generation sequencing metrics (e.g., decreased ratio (<25%) of mutant to wild-type allele, more than two detected alleles) were selected from a CLIA laboratory testing cohort. Alternate tissues and/or close relatives were tested to distinguish between ACE and germ-line status. Clinical data and Li-Fraumeni syndrome testing criteria were examined. RESULTS: Among 114,630 multigene panel tests and 1,454 TP53 gene-specific analyses, abnormal next-generation sequencing metrics were observed in 20% of 353 TP53-positive results, and ACE was confirmed for 91% of cases with ancillary materials, most of these due to clonal hematopoiesis. Only four met Chompret criteria. Individuals with ACE were older (50 years vs. 33.7; P = 0.02) and were identified more frequently in multigene panel tests (66/285; 23.2%) than in TP53 gene-specific tests (6/68; 8.8%, P = 0.005). CONCLUSION: ACE confounds germ-line diagnosis, may portend hematologic malignancy, and may provoke unwarranted clinical interventions. Ancillary testing to confirm germ-line status should precede Li-Fraumeni syndrome management.

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