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1.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(5): 492-504, Sept-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1040093

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become a therapeutic option for high-risk or non-operable patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. Atrioventricular conduction disturbances requiring permanent pacemaker (PPM) are a common and clinically important complication. Objectives: To evaluate the incidence of conduction disorders (CDs) after TAVI and the need for subsequent PPM implantation. To identify the predictors of postoperative PPM implantation. Methods: Retrospective study. All patients who underwent TAVI in a public hospital from December/2011 to June/2016 were included. Multivariate analysis was conducted to establish the predictor of permanent pacemaker implantation. Survival curves were constructed by the Kaplan-Meyer method. Statistically significant variables were those with p value < 0.05. Results: 64 patients with AS underwent TAVI. Eleven patients were excluded. TAVI induced a new CD in 40 (77%) of the remaining 53 patients. The most common new CDs were 3rd degree AV block (32%) and left bundle branch block (30%). Sixteen patients (30,2%) underwent PPM implantation during the index hospitalization. On univariate analysis the risk factors for PPM implantation were CoreValve® use (OR: 1,76; P = 0,005), larger prosthesis implantation (P = 0,015), presence of a QRS ≥ 120 ms (OR: 5,62; P = 0,012), and 1st degree AV block (OR: 13; P = 0.008). On multivariate analysis the presence of 1st degree AV block predicted the need for PPM. Conclusion: TAVI induced CDs requiring PPM in 30% of the patients. The presence of 1st degree AV block predicted the need for PPM.

2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 77: 48-52, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248465

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical and epidemiological features, treatments, and outcomes of patients with isolated right-sided and left-sided fungal endocarditis and to determine the risk factors for in-hospital mortality in patients with Candida sp endocarditis. METHODS: A retrospective review of all consecutive cases of fungal endocarditis from five hospitals was performed. Clinical features were compared between patients with isolated right-sided and left-sided endocarditis. In the subgroup of fungal endocarditis due to Candida species, binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine variables related to in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Seventy-eight patients with fungal endocarditis were studied. Their median age was 50 years; 55% were male and 19 patients (24%) had isolated right-sided endocarditis. Overall, cardiac surgery was performed in 46 patients (59%), and in-hospital mortality was 54%. Compared to patients with left-side fungal endocarditis, patients with isolated right-sided endocarditis had lower mortality (32% vs. 61%; p=0.025) and were less often submitted to cardiac surgery (37% vs. 66%; p=0.024). The most frequent etiology was Candida spp (85%). In this subgroup, acute heart failure (odds ratio 5.0; p=0.027) and exclusive medical treatment (odds ratio 11.1; p=0.004) were independent predictors of in-hospital death, whereas isolated right-sided endocarditis was related to a lower risk of mortality (odds ratio 0.13; p=0.023). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with isolated right-sided fungal endocarditis have particular clinical and epidemiological features. They were submitted to cardiac surgery less often and had better survival than patients with left-sided fungal endocarditis. Isolated right-sided endocarditis was also a marker of a less harmful illness in the subgroup of Candida sp endocarditis.

3.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 19(5): 529-534, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29957138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early onset prosthetic valve endocarditis (EO-PVE) is an serious complication associated with heart valve replacement surgery. OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory profile of patients with EO-PVE in a cardiac surgical hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of an endocarditis database, implemented prospectively, with a post hoc study driven by analysis of cases of adults with definite endocarditis occurring up to 12 months after heart valve surgery. RESULTS: We identified 26 cases in 2,496 surgeries in the period 2006-2016. The average annual incidence was 1.04%. The median time between valve replacement and the diagnosis of EO-PVE was 33 days (interquartile range [IQR] 19.25-118.75). Biologic and mechanical prostheses were affected in 53.8% and 46.2%, respectively. Rheumatic disease was present in 57.7% of patients. The most common causative pathogens were Staphylococcus epidermidis (23.1%). No Staphylococcus aureus infection was reported. Complications were present in 73.1% of cases, including embolism (65.4%), acute renal failure (38.5%), and heart failure (23.1%). The mortality rate at 30 days and 12 months was 3.8% and 34.6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort EO-PVE was an serious complication of heart valve replacement with a high morbidity and mortality, despite its low frequency.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Endocardite Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/patologia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/efeitos adversos , Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Endocardite Bacteriana/mortalidade , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
4.
Braz J Cardiovasc Surg ; 33(1): 1-7, 2018 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29617494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement has been an alternative to invasive treatment for symptomatic severe aortic stenosis in high risk patients. The primary endpoint was 30-day and 1-year mortality from any cause. Secondary endpoints were to compare the clinical and echocardiographic variation pre-and post- transcatheter aortic valve replacement, and the occurrence of complications throughout a 4-year follow-up period. METHODS: This prospective cohort, nestled to a multicenter study (Registro Brasileiro de Implante de Bioprótese por Cateter), describes the experience of a public tertiary center in transcatheter aortic valve replacement. All patients who underwent this procedure between October 2011 and February 2016 were included. RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement. The 30-day all-cause mortality was 5.2% (n=3) and after 1 year was 17.2% (n=10). A significant improvement in New York Heart Association functional classification was observed when comparing pre-and post- transcatheter aortic valve replacement (III or IV 84.4% versus 5.8%; P<0.001). A decline in peak was observed (P<0.001) and mean (P<0.001) systolic transaortic gradient. The results of peak and mean post-implant transaortic gradient were sustained after one year (P=0.29 and P=0.36, respectively). Left ventricular ejection fraction did not change significantly during follow-up (P=0.41). The most frequent complications were bleeding (28.9%), the need for permanent pacemaker (27.6%) and acute renal injury (20.6%). CONCLUSION: Mortality and complications in this study were consistent with worldwide experience. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement had positive clinical and hemodynamic results, when comparing pre-and post-procedure, and the hemodynamic profile of the prosthesis was sustained throughout follow-up.

5.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(1): 1-7, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-897979

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement has been an alternative to invasive treatment for symptomatic severe aortic stenosis in high risk patients. The primary endpoint was 30-day and 1-year mortality from any cause. Secondary endpoints were to compare the clinical and echocardiographic variation pre-and post- transcatheter aortic valve replacement, and the occurrence of complications throughout a 4-year follow-up period. Methods: This prospective cohort, nestled to a multicenter study (Registro Brasileiro de Implante de Bioprótese por Cateter), describes the experience of a public tertiary center in transcatheter aortic valve replacement. All patients who underwent this procedure between October 2011 and February 2016 were included. Results: Fifty-eight patients underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement. The 30-day all-cause mortality was 5.2% (n=3) and after 1 year was 17.2% (n=10). A significant improvement in New York Heart Association functional classification was observed when comparing pre-and post- transcatheter aortic valve replacement (III or IV 84.4% versus 5.8%; P<0.001). A decline in peak was observed (P<0.001) and mean (P<0.001) systolic transaortic gradient. The results of peak and mean post-implant transaortic gradient were sustained after one year (P=0.29 and P=0.36, respectively). Left ventricular ejection fraction did not change significantly during follow-up (P=0.41). The most frequent complications were bleeding (28.9%), the need for permanent pacemaker (27.6%) and acute renal injury (20.6%). Conclusion: Mortality and complications in this study were consistent with worldwide experience. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement had positive clinical and hemodynamic results, when comparing pre-and post-procedure, and the hemodynamic profile of the prosthesis was sustained throughout follow-up.

6.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 17(1): 302, 2017 12 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29284400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart valve surgery outcomes are unknown in middle-income countries and thus cannot be used in health system decision making processes. This study estimated in-hospital mortality and medium and long-term survival. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 78,806 patients who underwent heart valve surgery between 2001 and 2007 in Brazil. Two national databases were used, the Hospital Information System and the Mortality Information System. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank tests were performed. Maximum and median follow-up was 7.7 and 2.8 years, respectively (0.002-7.707). RESULTS: Valve replacement accounted for 69.1% of procedures performed. Mitral stenosis, the most common valve injury, represented 38.9% of the total. In 94.7% of mitral stenosis patients, aetiology was rheumatic heart disease. In-hospital mortality was 7.6% and was higher for women, for patients who had undergone concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and for the elderly. Overall survival was 69.9% at the end of follow-up. Survival was worst among elderly, male and concomitant CABG patients (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Rheumatic heart disease is still a major public health problem in Brazil. In-hospital mortality and global survival rates of patients who have undergone heart valve surgery were less satisfactory than those reported in high-income countries. The findings of this study can contribute to guiding decision making processes in middle-income countries similar to Brazil and others concerned with improving the quality of care.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Cardiopatia Reumática/cirurgia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Comorbidade , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cardiopatia Reumática/diagnóstico , Cardiopatia Reumática/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 109(4): 348-356, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28977048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in valvular patients is similar to that of the general population, with the usual association with traditional risk factors. Nevertheless, the search for obstructive CAD is more aggressive in the preoperative period of patients with valvular heart disease, resulting in the indication of invasive coronary angiography (ICA) to almost all adult patients, because it is believed that coronary artery bypass surgery should be associated with valve replacement. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of obstructive CAD and factors associated with it in adult candidates for primary heart valve surgery between 2001 and 2014 at the National Institute of Cardiology (INC) and, thus, derive and validate a predictive obstructive CAD score. METHODS: Cross-sectional study evaluating 2898 patients with indication for heart surgery of any etiology. Of those, 712 patients, who had valvular heart disease and underwent ICA in the 12 months prior to surgery, were included. The P value < 0.05 was adopted as statistical significance. RESULTS: The prevalence of obstructive CAD was 20%. A predictive model of obstructive CAD was created from multivariate logistic regression, using the variables age, chest pain, family history of CAD, systemic arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, and male gender. The model showed excellent correlation and calibration (R² = 0.98), as well as excellent accuracy (ROC of 0.848; 95%CI: 0.817-0.879) and validation (ROC of 0.877; 95%CI: 0.830 - 0.923) in different valve populations. CONCLUSIONS: Obstructive CAD can be estimated from clinical data of adult candidates for valve repair surgery, using a simple, accurate and validated score, easy to apply in clinical practice, which may contribute to changes in the preoperative strategy of acquired heart valve surgery in patients with a lower probability of obstructive disease.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/complicações , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Angiografia Coronária , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Período Pré-Operatório , Prevalência , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(4): 348-356, Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-887953

RESUMO

Abstract Background: The prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in valvular patients is similar to that of the general population, with the usual association with traditional risk factors. Nevertheless, the search for obstructive CAD is more aggressive in the preoperative period of patients with valvular heart disease, resulting in the indication of invasive coronary angiography (ICA) to almost all adult patients, because it is believed that coronary artery bypass surgery should be associated with valve replacement. Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of obstructive CAD and factors associated with it in adult candidates for primary heart valve surgery between 2001 and 2014 at the National Institute of Cardiology (INC) and, thus, derive and validate a predictive obstructive CAD score. Methods: Cross-sectional study evaluating 2898 patients with indication for heart surgery of any etiology. Of those, 712 patients, who had valvular heart disease and underwent ICA in the 12 months prior to surgery, were included. The P value < 0.05 was adopted as statistical significance. Results: The prevalence of obstructive CAD was 20%. A predictive model of obstructive CAD was created from multivariate logistic regression, using the variables age, chest pain, family history of CAD, systemic arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, and male gender. The model showed excellent correlation and calibration (R² = 0.98), as well as excellent accuracy (ROC of 0.848; 95%CI: 0.817-0.879) and validation (ROC of 0.877; 95%CI: 0.830 - 0.923) in different valve populations. Conclusions: Obstructive CAD can be estimated from clinical data of adult candidates for valve repair surgery, using a simple, accurate and validated score, easy to apply in clinical practice, which may contribute to changes in the preoperative strategy of acquired heart valve surgery in patients with a lower probability of obstructive disease.


Resumo Fundamento: A prevalência de doença arterial coronariana (DAC) nos pacientes valvares é semelhante à da população geral, com associação usual aos fatores de risco tradicionais. Ainda assim, a busca por DAC obstrutiva é mais agressiva nos valvulopatas em pré-operatório, determinando a angiografia coronariana invasiva (ACI) a praticamente todos os pacientes adultos, uma vez que se acredita que a cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica deva ser associada à troca valvar. Objetivos: Avaliar a prevalência de DAC obstrutiva e identificar fatores a ela associados em adultos candidatos à cirurgia cardíaca primariamente valvar entre os anos de 2001 a 2014 no Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia (INC) e elaborar um modelo preditivo de DAC obstrutiva através de escore derivado de análise multivariada. A partir da estimativa da probabilidade pré-teste de DAC obstrutiva, espera-se melhor estratégia pré-operatória para cada paciente. Métodos: Estudo transversal avaliando 2.898 pacientes com indicação de cirurgia cardíaca por qualquer etiologia. Desses, foram estudados 712 pacientes valvopatas submetidos à ACI nos 12 meses anteriores à cirurgia. Diferenças com valor de p < 0,05 foram consideradas estatisticamente significativas. Resultados: A prevalência de DAC obstrutiva foi de 20%. Um modelo preditivo de DAC obstrutiva foi criado a partir de regressão logística multivariada, utilizando as variáveis idade, dor torácica, história familiar de DAC, hipertensão arterial sistêmica, diabetes mellitus, dislipidemia, tabagismo e sexo masculino. O modelo demonstrou excelente correlação e calibração (R2 = 0,98), além de ótima acurácia (ROC de 0,848; IC95% 0,817 - 0,879) e validação em diferente população valvar (ROC de 0,877; IC 95%: 0,830 - 0,923). Conclusões: É possível estimar DAC obstrutiva a partir de dados clínicos com elevada acurácia, o que pode vir a permitir estabelecer estratégias pré-operatórias de acordo com a probabilidade pré-teste individual, evitando a indicação indiscriminada de procedimentos desnecessários e invasivos, principalmente nos grupos de menor probabilidade de DAC obstrutiva. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2017; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)

9.
Braz J Cardiovasc Surg ; 32(3): 202-209, 2017 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28832799

RESUMO

Objective:: To assess heart rhythm and predictive factors associated with sinus rhythm after one year in patients with rheumatic valve disease undergoing concomitant surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation. Operative mortality, survival and occurrence of stroke after one year were also evaluated. Methods:: Retrospective longitudinal observational study of 103 patients undergoing rheumatic mitral valve surgery and ablation of atrial fibrillation using uni- or bipolar radiofrequency between January 2013 and December 2014. Age, gender, functional class (NYHA), type of atrial fibrillation, EuroSCORE, duration of atrial fibrillation, stroke, left atrial size, left ventricular ejection fraction, cardiopulmonary bypass time, myocardial ischemia time and type of radiofrequency were investigated. Results:: After one year, 66.3% of patients were in sinus rhythm. Sinus rhythm at hospital discharge, lower left atrial size in the preoperative period and bipolar radiofrequency were associated with a greater chance of sinus rhythm after one year. Operative mortality was 7.7%. Survival rate after one year was 92.3% and occurrence of stroke was 1%. Conclusion:: Atrial fibrillation ablation surgery with surgical approach of rheumatic mitral valve resulted in 63.1% patients in sinus rhythm after one year. Discharge from hospital in sinus rhythm was a predictor of maintenance of this rhythm. Increased left atrium and use of unipolar radiofrequency were associated with lower chance of sinus rhythm. Operative mortality rate of 7.7% and survival and stroke-free survival contribute to excellent care results for this approach.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Cardiopatia Reumática/cirurgia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Ablação por Cateter/mortalidade , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/mortalidade , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Análise Multivariada , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cardiopatia Reumática/mortalidade , Cardiopatia Reumática/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(3): 240-247, May-June 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-839230

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Background: Embolic complications of infective endocarditis are common. The impact of asymptomatic embolism is uncertain. Objectives: To determine the frequency of emboli due to IE and to identify events associated with embolism. Methods: Retrospective analysis of an endocarditis database, prospectively implemented, with a post hoc study driven by analysis of data on embolic events. Data was obtained from the International Collaboration Endocarditis case report forms and additional information on embolic events and imaging reports were obtained from the medical records. Variables associated with embolism were analyzed by the statistical software R version 3.1.0. Results: In the study period, 2006-2011, 136 episodes of definite infective endocarditis were included. The most common complication was heart failure (55.1%), followed by embolism (50%). Among the 100 medical records analyzed for emboli in left-sided infective endocarditis, 36 (36%) were found to have had asymptomatic events, 11 (11%) to the central nervous system and 28 (28%) to the spleen. Cardiac surgery was performed in 98/136 (72%). In the multivariate analysis, splenomegaly was the only associated factor for embolism to any site (p < 0.01, OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.04-11). Factors associated with embolism to the spleen were positive blood cultures (p = 0.05, OR 8.9, 95% CI 1.45-177) and splenomegaly (p < 0.01, OR 9.28, 95% CI 3.32-29); those associated to the central nervous system were infective endocarditis of the mitral valve (p < 0.05, OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.23-10) and male gender (p < 0.05, OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.04-10). Splenectomy and cardiac surgery did not impact on in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: Asymptomatic embolism to the central nervous system and to the spleen were frequent. Splenomegaly was consistently associated with embolic events.

11.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 32(3): 202-209, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-897907

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: To assess heart rhythm and predictive factors associated with sinus rhythm after one year in patients with rheumatic valve disease undergoing concomitant surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation. Operative mortality, survival and occurrence of stroke after one year were also evaluated. Methods: Retrospective longitudinal observational study of 103 patients undergoing rheumatic mitral valve surgery and ablation of atrial fibrillation using uni- or bipolar radiofrequency between January 2013 and December 2014. Age, gender, functional class (NYHA), type of atrial fibrillation, EuroSCORE, duration of atrial fibrillation, stroke, left atrial size, left ventricular ejection fraction, cardiopulmonary bypass time, myocardial ischemia time and type of radiofrequency were investigated. Results: After one year, 66.3% of patients were in sinus rhythm. Sinus rhythm at hospital discharge, lower left atrial size in the preoperative period and bipolar radiofrequency were associated with a greater chance of sinus rhythm after one year. Operative mortality was 7.7%. Survival rate after one year was 92.3% and occurrence of stroke was 1%. Conclusion: Atrial fibrillation ablation surgery with surgical approach of rheumatic mitral valve resulted in 63.1% patients in sinus rhythm after one year. Discharge from hospital in sinus rhythm was a predictor of maintenance of this rhythm. Increased left atrium and use of unipolar radiofrequency were associated with lower chance of sinus rhythm. Operative mortality rate of 7.7% and survival and stroke-free survival contribute to excellent care results for this approach.

12.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 21(3): 240-247, 2017 May - Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28263711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Embolic complications of infective endocarditis are common. The impact of asymptomatic embolism is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of emboli due to IE and to identify events associated with embolism. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of an endocarditis database, prospectively implemented, with a post hoc study driven by analysis of data on embolic events. Data was obtained from the International Collaboration Endocarditis case report forms and additional information on embolic events and imaging reports were obtained from the medical records. Variables associated with embolism were analyzed by the statistical software R version 3.1.0. RESULTS: In the study period, 2006-2011, 136 episodes of definite infective endocarditis were included. The most common complication was heart failure (55.1%), followed by embolism (50%). Among the 100 medical records analyzed for emboli in left-sided infective endocarditis, 36 (36%) were found to have had asymptomatic events, 11 (11%) to the central nervous system and 28 (28%) to the spleen. Cardiac surgery was performed in 98/136 (72%). In the multivariate analysis, splenomegaly was the only associated factor for embolism to any site (p<0.01, OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.04-11). Factors associated with embolism to the spleen were positive blood cultures (p=0.05, OR 8.9, 95% CI 1.45-177) and splenomegaly (p<0.01, OR 9.28, 95% CI 3.32-29); those associated to the central nervous system were infective endocarditis of the mitral valve (p<0.05, OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.23-10) and male gender (p<0.05, OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.04-10). Splenectomy and cardiac surgery did not impact on in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic embolism to the central nervous system and to the spleen were frequent. Splenomegaly was consistently associated with embolic events.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas , Embolia/etiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/complicações , Doenças Assintomáticas/mortalidade , Embolia/mortalidade , Endocardite Bacteriana/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
14.
Infection ; 45(2): 199-207, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27771866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a severe disease. Pathogen isolation is fundamental so as to treat effectively and reduce morbidity and mortality. Blood and valve culture and histopathology (HP) are routinely employed for this purpose. Valve HP is the gold standard for diagnosis. OBJECTIVES: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of clinical criteria for IE (the modified Duke and the St Thomas' minor modifications, STH) of blood and valve culture compared to valve HP, and to evaluate antibiotic treatment duration. METHODS: Prospective case series of patients, from 2006 to 2014 with surgically treated IE. Statistical analysis was done by the R software. RESULTS: There were 136 clinically definite episodes of IE in 133 patients. Mean age ± SD was 43 ± 15.6 years and IE was left sided in 81.6 %. HP was definite in 96 valves examined, which were used as gold standard. Sensitivity of blood culture was 61 % (CI 0.51, 0.71) and of valve culture 15 % (CI 0.07, 0.26). The modified Duke criteria were 65 % (CI 0.55, 0.75) sensitive and 33 % specific, while the STH's sensitivity was 72 % (CI 0.61, 0.80) with similar specificity. In multivariate analysis and logistic regression, the only variable with statistical significance was duration of antibiotic therapy postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: Valve HP had high sensitivity and valve culture low sensitivity in the diagnosis of IE. The STH's criteria were more sensitive than the modified Duke criteria. Valve HP should guide duration of postoperative antibiotic treatment.


Assuntos
Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Endocardite/diagnóstico , Endocardite/patologia , Valvas Cardíacas/patologia , Histocitoquímica/métodos , Adulto , Endocardite/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 29(1): 24-30, jan.-fev.2016. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-797109

RESUMO

A hipertensão pulmonar (HP) grave contribui para significante morbidade e mortalidade, e podeaumentar o número de complicações e morte na cirurgia cardíaca. Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto da HP na mortalidade cirúrgica e na sobrevida em três anos, após cirurgia de troca valvar aórtica.Métodos: Estudo de coorte retrospectiva realizado com pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de troca valvar aórtica, demaio de 2011 a dezembro de 2012, no Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, RJ. A população estudada foi estratificadaem dois grupos, de acordo com a pressão sistólica da artéria pulmonar (PSAP) em: <45 mmHg e ≥45 mmHg. Foi utilizado o teste do qui-quadrado para a comparação entre os grupos; a mortalidade e cirúrgica foi estudada por regressão logística e a sobrevida pela curva de Kaplan-Meier e teste de log-rank; e a razão de risco pelo método de Cox. Resultados: Estudados 182 pacientes, 57,0% do sexo masculino, idade 61,0±13,0 anos, com hipertensão arterial sistêmica (72,0%), diabetes mellitus (22,0%), classe funcional pela New York Heart Association III/IV (61,1%), PSAP≥45mmHg (14,3%). A mortalidade geral foi 12,0%. A sobrevida foi maior no grupo com PSAP <45mmHg – 89,0%em um ano e 86,0% em três anos, comparado com o grupo com PSAP ≥45mmHg – 68,8% em um ano e 58,1%(35,1% a 75,4%) em três anos (p=0,0004). Conclusão: Pacientes com PSAP ≥45mmHg apresentaram maior mortalidade cirúrgica e pior sobrevida em três anos após cirurgia de troca valvar aórtica...


Background: Severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) contributes to significant morbidity and mortality and may increase the number of complications and death in heart surgery.Objective: To evaluate the impact of PH on surgical mortality and three-year survival after aortic valve replacement surgery. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing aortic valve replacement surgery from May 2011 to December 2012 at Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, RJ. The study population was stratified into two groups according to the systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP): <45mmHg and ≥45mmHg. The chi-square test was used for comparison between groups; surgical mortality was studied by logistic regression and survival by Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test; the hazard ratio was examined using the Cox method. Results: The study included 182 patients, 57.0% were males aged 61.0±13.0 years, with systemic arterial hypertension (72.0%), diabetes mellitus (22.0%), functional class by the New York Heart Association III/IV (61.1%), SPAP ≥45mmHg (14.3%). Overallmortality rate was 12.0%. Survival rate was higher in the group with SPAP <45mmHg — 89.0% at one year and 86.0% at three year compared with the group with SPAP ≥45mmHg — 68.8% at one year and 58.1% (35.1% to 75.4%) at three years (p=0.0004). Conclusion: Patients with SPAP ≥45mmHg had higher surgical mortality and worse survival at three years after aortic valvereplacement surgery...


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Sobrevida , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Análise de Variância , Estudos de Coortes , Vasos Coronários , Doenças Reumáticas/etiologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/mortalidade , Análise Multivariada , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Infection ; 44(4): 459-66, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26670038

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the clinical characteristics of blood culture-negative endocarditis (BCNE) and how it compares to those of blood culture-positive endocarditis (BCPE) cases and show how molecular tools helped establish the etiology in BCNE. METHODS: Adult patients with definite infective endocarditis (IE) and having valve surgery were included. Valves were studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Statistical analysis compared BCNE and BCPE. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-one patients were included; 53 (40 %) had BCNE. The mean age was 45 ± 16 years; 33 (62 %) were male. BCNE was community-acquired in 41 (79 %). Most patients were referred from other hospitals (38, 73 %). Presentation was subacute in 34 (65 %), with fever in 47/53 (90 %) and a new regurgitant murmur in 34/42 (81 %). Native valves were affected in 74 %, mostly left-sided. All echocardiograms showed major criteria for IE. Antibiotics were used prior to BC collection in 31/42 (74 %). Definite histological diagnosis was established for 35/50 (70 %) valves. PCR showed oralis group streptococci in 21 (54 %), S. aureus in 3 (7.7 %), gallolyticus group streptococci in 2 (5.1 %), Coxiella burnetii in 1 (2.5 %) and Rhizobium sp. in 1 (2.5 %). In-hospital mortality was 9/53 (17 %). Fever (p = 0.06, OR 4.7, CI 0.91-24.38) and embolic complications (p = 0.003, OR 3.3, CI 1.55-6.82) were more frequent in BCPE cases, while new acute regurgitation (p = 0.05, OR 0.3, CI 0.098-0.996) and heart failure (p = 0.02, OR 0.3, CI 0.13-0.79) were less so. CONCLUSIONS: BCNE resulted mostly from prior antibiotics and was associated with severe hemodynamic compromise. Valve histopathology and PCR were useful in confirming the diagnosis and pointing to the etiology of BCNE.


Assuntos
Hemocultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Endocardite Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Endocardite Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Adulto , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Feminino , Valvas Cardíacas/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 19(2): 209-12, 2015 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25636194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus bovis is a classical etiology of endocarditis and is associated with colonic lesions. No series of cases from Brazil has been described. OBJECTIVES: To describe aspects of S. bovis endocarditis. METHODS: This is a case series of patients admitted to a cardiac surgery referral center, during the years 2005-2014. Clinical, laboratory, echochardiographic, colonoscopic, treatment, surgical and outcome variables were studied. RESULTS: Nine patients with S. bovis endocarditis were included; all cases fulfilled the modified Duke criteria. Incidence was 8/220 (4%) in years 2006-2014. There were seven male and two female patients; mean age was 56.7 years, standard deviation 13.4. All patients had native aortic valve involvement. Presentation was subacute in 7/9 (71%). Fever was present in 7/9 (77.7%), embolic lesions to solid organs occurred in three, and perivalvular abscess in two patients. All echocardiograms showed moderate to severe valvular regurgitation and vegetations. Microcytic anemia was seen in 7/7 patients. Colonoscopy showed abnormal findings in 7/9 (77.7%). Surgery was indicated for 6/9 patients due to acute aortic regurgitation and left ventricular failure. All patients were discharged home. CONCLUSIONS: S. bovis most frequently affected the aortic valve of male patients. Colon disease was frequent. Surgery was indicated frequently due to hemodynamic compromise.


Assuntos
Doenças do Colo/complicações , Endocardite Bacteriana/complicações , Infecções Estreptocócicas/complicações , Streptococcus bovis/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças do Colo/microbiologia , Colonoscopia , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia
18.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 103(4): 292-8, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25352503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infective endocarditis (HCA-IE), a severe complication of medical care, shows a growing incidence in literature. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate epidemiology, etiology, risk factors for acquisition, complications, surgical treatment, and outcome of HCA-IE. METHODS: Observational prospective case series study (2006-2011) in a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro. RESULTS: Fifty-three patients with HCA-IE from a total of 151 cases of infective endocarditis (IE) were included. There were 26 (49%) males (mean age of 47 ± 18.7 years), 27 (51%) females (mean age of 42 ± 20.1 years). IE was acute in 37 (70%) cases and subacute in 16 (30%) cases. The mitral valve was affected in 19 (36%) patients and the aortic valve in 12 (36%); prosthetic valves were affected in 23 (43%) patients and native valves in 30 (57%). Deep intravenous access was used in 43 (81%) cases. Negative blood cultures were observed in 11 (21%) patients, Enterococcus faecalis in 10 (19%), Staphylococcus aureus in 9 (17%), and Candida sp. in 7 (13%). Fever was present in 49 (92%) patients, splenomegaly in 12 (23%), new regurgitation murmur in 31 (58%), and elevated C-reactive protein in 44/53 (83%). Echocardiograms showed major criteria in 46 (87%) patients, and 34 (64%) patients were submitted to cardiac surgery. Overall mortality was 17/53 (32%). CONCLUSION: In Brazil HCA-IE affected young subjects. Patients with prosthetic and native valves were affected in a similar proportion, and non-cardiac surgery was an infrequent predisposing factor, whereas intravenous access was a common one. S. aureus was significantly frequent in native valve HCA-IE, and overall mortality was high.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Endocardite/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/cirurgia , Ecocardiografia , Endocardite/microbiologia , Endocardite/cirurgia , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 103(4): 292-298, 10/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-725324

RESUMO

Background: Healthcare-associated infective endocarditis (HCA-IE), a severe complication of medical care, shows a growing incidence in literature. Objective: To evaluate epidemiology, etiology, risk factors for acquisition, complications, surgical treatment, and outcome of HCA-IE. Methods: Observational prospective case series study (2006-2011) in a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Results: Fifty-three patients with HCA-IE from a total of 151 cases of infective endocarditis (IE) were included. There were 26 (49%) males (mean age of 47 ± 18.7 years), 27 (51%) females (mean age of 42 ± 20.1 years). IE was acute in 37 (70%) cases and subacute in 16 (30%) cases. The mitral valve was affected in 19 (36%) patients and the aortic valve in 12 (36%); prosthetic valves were affected in 23 (43%) patients and native valves in 30 (57%). Deep intravenous access was used in 43 (81%) cases. Negative blood cultures were observed in 11 (21%) patients, Enterococcus faecalis in 10 (19%), Staphylococcus aureus in 9 (17%), and Candida sp. in 7 (13%). Fever was present in 49 (92%) patients, splenomegaly in 12 (23%), new regurgitation murmur in 31 (58%), and elevated C-reactive protein in 44/53 (83%). Echocardiograms showed major criteria in 46 (87%) patients, and 34 (64%) patients were submitted to cardiac surgery. Overall mortality was 17/53 (32%). Conclusion: In Brazil HCA-IE affected young subjects. Patients with prosthetic and native valves were affected in a similar proportion, and non-cardiac surgery was an infrequent predisposing factor, whereas intravenous access was a common one. S. aureus was significantly frequent in native valve HCA-IE, and overall mortality was high. .


Fundamento: A endocardite infecciosa associada aos cuidados de saúde (EI-ACS) é uma complicação grave associada aos cuidados médico-hospitalares, com uma incidência crescente na população. Objetivo: Avaliar a EI-ACS com relação à sua epidemiologia, etiologia, fatores de risco de aquisição, complicações, tratamento cirúrgico e quadro clínico. Métodos: Este estudo de caráter observacional e prospectivo avaliou uma série de casos reportados entre 2006 e 2011 em um hospital público no Rio de Janeiro. Resultados: Cinquenta e três pacientes com EI-ACS de um total de 151 casos de endocardite infecciosa (EI) foram incluídos no estudo, dos quais 26 (49%) eram do sexo masculino (idade média de 47 ± 18,7 anos), e 27 (51%) eram sexo feminino (idade média de 42 ± 20,1 anos). Quadros clínicos agudos de EI ocorreram em 37 casos (70%) e quadros subagudos em 16 casos (30%). A válvula mitral foi afetada em 19 casos (36%), e a valva aórtica em 12 casos (36%). As válvulas cardíacas protéticas foram afetadas em 23 casos (43%), e as válvulas cardíacas nativas em 30 casos (57%). O acesso venoso profundo foi usado em 43 pacientes (81%). Hemoculturas negativas foram observadas em amostras de 11 pacientes (21%). Nas hemoculturas positivas, Enterococcus faecalis foi identificado em 10 casos (19%), Staphylococcus aureus em 9 casos (17%) e Candida sp. em 7 casos (13%). Febre ocorreu em 49 pacientes (92%), esplenomegalia em 12 pacientes (23%), novo sopro de regurgitação valvar em 31 pacientes (58%) e proteína C reativa elevada em 44 pacientes (83%). O ecocardiograma apresentou critérios principais em 46 casos (87%). Trinta e quatro pacientes (64%) foram submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca. A mortalidade ocorreu em 17 casos (32%). Conclusão: EI-ACS afeta ...


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Endocardite/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/cirurgia , Ecocardiografia , Endocardite/microbiologia , Endocardite/cirurgia , Hospitais Públicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 0: 0, 2014 Aug 29.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25211203

RESUMO

Background: Healthcare-associated infective endocarditis (HCA-IE), a severe complication of medical care, shows a growing incidence in literature. Objective: To evaluate epidemiology, etiology, risk factors for acquisition, complications, surgical treatment, and outcome of HCA-IE. Methods: Observational prospective case series study (2006-2011) in a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Results: Fifty-three patients with HCA-IE from a total of 151 cases of infective endocarditis (IE) were included. There were 26 (49%) males (mean age of 47 ± 18.7 years), 27 (51%) females (mean age of 42 ± 20.1 years). IE was acute in 37 (70%) cases and subacute in 16 (30%) cases. The mitral valve was affected in 19 (36%) patients and the aortic valve in 12 (36%); prosthetic valves were affected in 23 (43%) patients and native valves in 30 (57%). Deep intravenous access was used in 43 (81%) cases. Negative blood cultures were observed in 11 (21%) patients, Enterococcus faecalis in 10 (19%), Staphylococcus aureus in 9 (17%), and Candida sp. in 7 (13%). Fever was present in 49 (92%) patients, splenomegaly in 12 (23%), new regurgitation murmur in 31 (58%), and elevated C-reactive protein in 44/53 (83%). Echocardiograms showed major criteria in 46 (87%) patients, and 34 (64%) patients were submitted to cardiac surgery. Overall mortality was 17/53 (32%). Conclusion: In Brazil HCA-IE affected young subjects. Patients with prosthetic and native valves were affected in a similar proportion, and non-cardiac surgery was an infrequent predisposing factor, whereas intravenous access was a common one. S. aureus was significantly frequent in native valve HCA-IE, and overall mortality was high.

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