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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 773-787, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564431

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified thousands of genetic loci associated with cardiometabolic traits including type 2 diabetes (T2D), lipid levels, body fat distribution, and adiposity, although most causal genes remain unknown. We used subcutaneous adipose tissue RNA-seq data from 434 Finnish men from the METSIM study to identify 9,687 primary and 2,785 secondary cis-expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL; <1 Mb from TSS, FDR < 1%). Compared to primary eQTL signals, secondary eQTL signals were located further from transcription start sites, had smaller effect sizes, and were less enriched in adipose tissue regulatory elements compared to primary signals. Among 2,843 cardiometabolic GWAS signals, 262 colocalized by LD and conditional analysis with 318 transcripts as primary and conditionally distinct secondary cis-eQTLs, including some across ancestries. Of cardiometabolic traits examined for adipose tissue eQTL colocalizations, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and circulating lipid traits had the highest percentage of colocalized eQTLs (15% and 14%, respectively). Among alleles associated with increased cardiometabolic GWAS risk, approximately half (53%) were associated with decreased gene expression level. Mediation analyses of colocalized genes and cardiometabolic traits within the 434 individuals provided further evidence that gene expression influences variant-trait associations. These results identify hundreds of candidate genes that may act in adipose tissue to influence cardiometabolic traits.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(22): 10883-10888, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076557

RESUMO

We integrate comeasured gene expression and DNA methylation (DNAme) in 265 human skeletal muscle biopsies from the FUSION study with >7 million genetic variants and eight physiological traits: height, waist, weight, waist-hip ratio, body mass index, fasting serum insulin, fasting plasma glucose, and type 2 diabetes. We find hundreds of genes and DNAme sites associated with fasting insulin, waist, and body mass index, as well as thousands of DNAme sites associated with gene expression (eQTM). We find that controlling for heterogeneity in tissue/muscle fiber type reduces the number of physiological trait associations, and that long-range eQTMs (>1 Mb) are reduced when controlling for tissue/muscle fiber type or latent factors. We map genetic regulators (quantitative trait loci; QTLs) of expression (eQTLs) and DNAme (mQTLs). Using Mendelian randomization (MR) and mediation techniques, we leverage these genetic maps to predict 213 causal relationships between expression and DNAme, approximately two-thirds of which predict methylation to causally influence expression. We use MR to integrate FUSION mQTLs, FUSION eQTLs, and GTEx eQTLs for 48 tissues with genetic associations for 534 diseases and quantitative traits. We identify hundreds of genes and thousands of DNAme sites that may drive the reported disease/quantitative trait genetic associations. We identify 300 gene expression MR associations that are present in both FUSION and GTEx skeletal muscle and that show stronger evidence of MR association in skeletal muscle than other tissues, which may partially reflect differences in power across tissues. As one example, we find that increased RXRA muscle expression may decrease lean tissue mass.

3.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0195788, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659628

RESUMO

From whole organisms to individual cells, responses to environmental conditions are influenced by genetic makeup, where the effect of genetic variation on a trait depends on the environmental context. RNA-sequencing quantifies gene expression as a molecular trait, and is capable of capturing both genetic and environmental effects. In this study, we explore opportunities of using allele-specific expression (ASE) to discover cis-acting genotype-environment interactions (GxE)-genetic effects on gene expression that depend on an environmental condition. Treating 17 common, clinical traits as approximations of the cellular environment of 267 skeletal muscle biopsies, we identify 10 candidate environmental response expression quantitative trait loci (reQTLs) across 6 traits (12 unique gene-environment trait pairs; 10% FDR per trait) including sex, systolic blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Although using ASE is in principle a promising approach to detect GxE effects, replication of such signals can be challenging as validation requires harmonization of environmental traits across cohorts and a sufficient sampling of heterozygotes for a transcribed SNP. Comprehensive discovery and replication will require large human transcriptome datasets, or the integration of multiple transcribed SNPs, coupled with standardized clinical phenotyping.


Assuntos
Microambiente Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Variação Genética , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(4): 620-635, 2018 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29625024

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and functional genomics approaches implicate enhancer disruption in islet dysfunction and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. We applied genetic fine-mapping and functional (epi)genomic approaches to a T2D- and proinsulin-associated 15q22.2 locus to identify a most likely causal variant, determine its direction of effect, and elucidate plausible target genes. Fine-mapping and conditional analyses of proinsulin levels of 8,635 non-diabetic individuals from the METSIM study support a single association signal represented by a cluster of 16 strongly associated (p < 10-17) variants in high linkage disequilibrium (r2 > 0.8) with the GWAS index SNP rs7172432. These variants reside in an evolutionarily and functionally conserved islet and ß cell stretch or super enhancer; the most strongly associated variant (rs7163757, p = 3 × 10-19) overlaps a conserved islet open chromatin site. DNA sequence containing the rs7163757 risk allele displayed 2-fold higher enhancer activity than the non-risk allele in reporter assays (p < 0.01) and was differentially bound by ß cell nuclear extract proteins. Transcription factor NFAT specifically potentiated risk-allele enhancer activity and altered patterns of nuclear protein binding to the risk allele in vitro, suggesting that it could be a factor mediating risk-allele effects. Finally, the rs7163757 proinsulin-raising and T2D risk allele (C) was associated with increased expression of C2CD4B, and possibly C2CD4A, both of which were induced by inflammatory cytokines, in human islets. Together, these data suggest that rs7163757 contributes to genetic risk of islet dysfunction and T2D by increasing NFAT-mediated islet enhancer activity and modulating C2CD4B, and possibly C2CD4A, expression in (patho)physiologic states.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Sequência Conservada , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/patologia , Mutação/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Idoso , Alelos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Cromatina/metabolismo , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , DNA Intergênico/genética , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proinsulina/metabolismo , Ratos , Fatores de Risco
5.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(9): 1664-1674, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29481666

RESUMO

Comprehensive metabolite profiling captures many highly heritable traits, including amino acid levels, which are potentially sensitive biomarkers for disease pathogenesis. To better understand the contribution of genetic variation to amino acid levels, we performed single variant and gene-based tests of association between nine serum amino acids (alanine, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and valine) and 16.6 million genotyped and imputed variants in 8545 non-diabetic Finnish men from the METabolic Syndrome In Men (METSIM) study with replication in Northern Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC1966). We identified five novel loci associated with amino acid levels (P = < 5×10-8): LOC157273/PPP1R3B with glycine (rs9987289, P = 2.3×10-26); ZFHX3 (chr16:73326579, minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.42%, P = 3.6×10-9), LIPC (rs10468017, P = 1.5×10-8), and WWOX (rs9937914, P = 3.8×10-8) with alanine; and TRIB1 with tyrosine (rs28601761, P = 8×10-9). Gene-based tests identified two novel genes harboring missense variants of MAF <1% that show aggregate association with amino acid levels: PYCR1 with glycine (Pgene = 1.5×10-6) and BCAT2 with valine (Pgene = 7.4×10-7); neither gene was implicated by single variant association tests. These findings are among the first applications of gene-based tests to identify new loci for amino acid levels. In addition to the seven novel gene associations, we identified five independent signals at established amino acid loci, including two rare variant signals at GLDC (rs138640017, MAF=0.95%, Pconditional = 5.8×10-40) with glycine levels and HAL (rs141635447, MAF = 0.46%, Pconditional = 9.4×10-11) with histidine levels. Examination of all single variant association results in our data revealed a strong inverse relationship between effect size and MAF (Ptrend<0.001). These novel signals provide further insight into the molecular mechanisms of amino acid metabolism and potentially, their perturbations in disease.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Finlândia , Frequência do Gene/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
PLoS Genet ; 13(10): e1007079, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29084231

RESUMO

Lipid and lipoprotein subclasses are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, yet the genetic contributions to variability in subclass traits are not fully understood. We conducted single-variant and gene-based association tests between 15.1M variants from genome-wide and exome array and imputed genotypes and 72 lipid and lipoprotein traits in 8,372 Finns. After accounting for 885 variants at 157 previously identified lipid loci, we identified five novel signals near established loci at HIF3A, ADAMTS3, PLTP, LCAT, and LIPG. Four of the signals were identified with a low-frequency (0.005

Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Lipídeos/genética , Lipoproteínas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Triglicerídeos/genética , HDL-Colesterol/genética , Exoma/genética , Finlândia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal/métodos
7.
Diabetes ; 66(9): 2521-2530, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28684635

RESUMO

Molecular mechanisms remain unknown for most type 2 diabetes genome-wide association study identified loci. Variants associated with type 2 diabetes and fasting glucose levels reside in introns of ADCY5, a gene that encodes adenylate cyclase 5. Adenylate cyclase 5 catalyzes the production of cyclic AMP, which is a second messenger molecule involved in cell signaling and pancreatic ß-cell insulin secretion. We demonstrated that type 2 diabetes risk alleles are associated with decreased ADCY5 expression in human islets and examined candidate variants for regulatory function. rs11708067 overlaps a predicted enhancer region in pancreatic islets. The type 2 diabetes risk rs11708067-A allele showed fewer H3K27ac ChIP-seq reads in human islets, lower transcriptional activity in reporter assays in rodent ß-cells (rat 832/13 and mouse MIN6), and increased nuclear protein binding compared with the rs11708067-G allele. Homozygous deletion of the orthologous enhancer region in 832/13 cells resulted in a 64% reduction in expression level of Adcy5, but not adjacent gene Sec22a, and a 39% reduction in insulin secretion. Together, these data suggest that rs11708067-A risk allele contributes to type 2 diabetes by disrupting an islet enhancer, which results in reduced ADCY5 expression and impaired insulin secretion.


Assuntos
Adenilil Ciclases/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Adenilil Ciclases/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Secreção de Insulina
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(9): 2301-2306, 2017 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28193859

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >100 independent SNPs that modulate the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and related traits. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of most of these SNPs remain elusive. Here, we examined genomic, epigenomic, and transcriptomic profiles in human pancreatic islets to understand the links between genetic variation, chromatin landscape, and gene expression in the context of T2D. We first integrated genome and transcriptome variation across 112 islet samples to produce dense cis-expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTL) maps. Additional integration with chromatin-state maps for islets and other diverse tissue types revealed that cis-eQTLs for islet-specific genes are specifically and significantly enriched in islet stretch enhancers. High-resolution chromatin accessibility profiling using assay for transposase-accessible chromatin sequencing (ATAC-seq) in two islet samples enabled us to identify specific transcription factor (TF) footprints embedded in active regulatory elements, which are highly enriched for islet cis-eQTL. Aggregate allelic bias signatures in TF footprints enabled us de novo to reconstruct TF binding affinities genetically, which support the high-quality nature of the TF footprint predictions. Interestingly, we found that T2D GWAS loci were strikingly and specifically enriched in islet Regulatory Factor X (RFX) footprints. Remarkably, within and across independent loci, T2D risk alleles that overlap with RFX footprints uniformly disrupt the RFX motifs at high-information content positions. Together, these results suggest that common regulatory variations have shaped islet TF footprints and the transcriptome and that a confluent RFX regulatory grammar plays a significant role in the genetic component of T2D predisposition.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Transcriptoma , Alelos , Sequência de Bases , Sítios de Ligação , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Epigênese Genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Impressão Genômica , Humanos , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ligação Proteica , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Fator Regulador X/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Fator Regulador X/metabolismo
9.
Nat Commun ; 7: 11764, 2016 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27353450

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) results from the combined effects of genetic and environmental factors on multiple tissues over time. Of the >100 variants associated with T2D and related traits in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), >90% occur in non-coding regions, suggesting a strong regulatory component to T2D risk. Here to understand how T2D status, metabolic traits and genetic variation influence gene expression, we analyse skeletal muscle biopsies from 271 well-phenotyped Finnish participants with glucose tolerance ranging from normal to newly diagnosed T2D. We perform high-depth strand-specific mRNA-sequencing and dense genotyping. Computational integration of these data with epigenome data, including ATAC-seq on skeletal muscle, and transcriptome data across diverse tissues reveals that the tissue-specific genetic regulatory architecture of skeletal muscle is highly enriched in muscle stretch/super enhancers, including some that overlap T2D GWAS variants. In one such example, T2D risk alleles residing in a muscle stretch/super enhancer are linked to increased expression and alternative splicing of muscle-specific isoforms of ANK1.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Alelos , Epigenômica , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA Mensageiro , Análise de Sequência de RNA
10.
Bioinformatics ; 30(17): i393-400, 2014 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25161225

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Functional enrichment testing facilitates the interpretation of Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) data in terms of pathways and other biological contexts. Previous methods developed and used to test for key gene sets affected in ChIP-seq experiments treat peaks as points, and are based on the number of peaks associated with a gene or a binary score for each gene. These approaches work well for transcription factors, but histone modifications often occur over broad domains, and across multiple genes. RESULTS: To incorporate the unique properties of broad domains into functional enrichment testing, we developed Broad-Enrich, a method that uses the proportion of each gene's locus covered by a peak. We show that our method has a well-calibrated false-positive rate, performing well with ChIP-seq data having broad domains compared with alternative approaches. We illustrate Broad-Enrich with 55 ENCODE ChIP-seq datasets using different methods to define gene loci. Broad-Enrich can also be applied to other datasets consisting of broad genomic domains such as copy number variations. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: http://broad-enrich.med.umich.edu for Web version and R package. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Histonas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Loci Gênicos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
11.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 42(13): e105, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24878920

RESUMO

Gene set enrichment testing can enhance the biological interpretation of ChIP-seq data. Here, we develop a method, ChIP-Enrich, for this analysis which empirically adjusts for gene locus length (the length of the gene body and its surrounding non-coding sequence). Adjustment for gene locus length is necessary because it is often positively associated with the presence of one or more peaks and because many biologically defined gene sets have an excess of genes with longer or shorter gene locus lengths. Unlike alternative methods, ChIP-Enrich can account for the wide range of gene locus length-to-peak presence relationships (observed in ENCODE ChIP-seq data sets). We show that ChIP-Enrich has a well-calibrated type I error rate using permuted ENCODE ChIP-seq data sets; in contrast, two commonly used gene set enrichment methods, Fisher's exact test and the binomial test implemented in Genomic Regions Enrichment of Annotations Tool (GREAT), can have highly inflated type I error rates and biases in ranking. We identify DNA-binding proteins, including CTCF, JunD and glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα), that show different enrichment patterns for peaks closer to versus further from transcription start sites. We also identify known and potential new biological functions of GRα. ChIP-Enrich is available as a web interface (http://chip-enrich.med.umich.edu) and Bioconductor package.


Assuntos
Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina/métodos , Genes , Loci Gênicos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/análise , Modelos Logísticos , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/análise
12.
Nat Genet ; 44(9): 991-1005, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22885924

RESUMO

Through genome-wide association meta-analyses of up to 133,010 individuals of European ancestry without diabetes, including individuals newly genotyped using the Metabochip, we have increased the number of confirmed loci influencing glycemic traits to 53, of which 33 also increase type 2 diabetes risk (q < 0.05). Loci influencing fasting insulin concentration showed association with lipid levels and fat distribution, suggesting impact on insulin resistance. Gene-based analyses identified further biologically plausible loci, suggesting that additional loci beyond those reaching genome-wide significance are likely to represent real associations. This conclusion is supported by an excess of directionally consistent and nominally significant signals between discovery and follow-up studies. Functional analysis of these newly discovered loci will further improve our understanding of glycemic control.


Assuntos
Glicemia/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adulto , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Jejum/sangue , Jejum/metabolismo , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Concentração Osmolar , Locos de Características Quantitativas/fisiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 7(1): e29202, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22238593

RESUMO

African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 965 African-American cases with T2DM and end-stage renal disease (T2DM-ESRD) and 1029 population-based controls. The most significant SNPs (n = 550 independent loci) were genotyped in a replication cohort and 122 SNPs (n = 98 independent loci) were further tested through genotyping three additional validation cohorts followed by meta-analysis in all five cohorts totaling 3,132 cases and 3,317 controls. Twelve SNPs had evidence of association in the GWAS (P<0.0071), were directionally consistent in the Replication cohort and were associated with T2DM in subjects without nephropathy (P<0.05). Meta-analysis in all cases and controls revealed a single SNP reaching genome-wide significance (P<2.5×10(-8)). SNP rs7560163 (P = 7.0×10(-9), OR (95% CI) = 0.75 (0.67-0.84)) is located intergenically between RND3 and RBM43. Four additional loci (rs7542900, rs4659485, rs2722769 and rs7107217) were associated with T2DM (P<0.05) and reached more nominal levels of significance (P<2.5×10(-5)) in the overall analysis and may represent novel loci that contribute to T2DM. We have identified novel T2DM-susceptibility variants in the African-American population. Notably, T2DM risk was associated with the major allele and implies an interesting genetic architecture in this population. These results suggest that multiple loci underlie T2DM susceptibility in the African-American population and that these loci are distinct from those identified in other ethnic populations.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos de Validação como Assunto
14.
Bioinformatics ; 26(18): 2336-7, 2010 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20634204

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed hundreds of loci associated with common human genetic diseases and traits. We have developed a web-based plotting tool that provides fast visual display of GWAS results in a publication-ready format. LocusZoom visually displays regional information such as the strength and extent of the association signal relative to genomic position, local linkage disequilibrium (LD) and recombination patterns and the positions of genes in the region. AVAILABILITY: LocusZoom can be accessed from a web interface at http://csg.sph.umich.edu/locuszoom. Users may generate a single plot using a web form, or many plots using batch mode. The software utilizes LD information from HapMap Phase II (CEU, YRI and JPT+CHB) or 1000 Genomes (CEU) and gene information from the UCSC browser, and will accept SNP identifiers in dbSNP or 1000 Genomes format. Single plots are generated in approximately 20 s. Source code and associated databases are available for download and local installation, and full documentation is available online.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Software , Gráficos por Computador , Humanos , Internet
15.
Nat Genet ; 42(7): 579-89, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20581827

RESUMO

By combining genome-wide association data from 8,130 individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 38,987 controls of European descent and following up previously unidentified meta-analysis signals in a further 34,412 cases and 59,925 controls, we identified 12 new T2D association signals with combined P<5x10(-8). These include a second independent signal at the KCNQ1 locus; the first report, to our knowledge, of an X-chromosomal association (near DUSP9); and a further instance of overlap between loci implicated in monogenic and multifactorial forms of diabetes (at HNF1A). The identified loci affect both beta-cell function and insulin action, and, overall, T2D association signals show evidence of enrichment for genes involved in cell cycle regulation. We also show that a high proportion of T2D susceptibility loci harbor independent association signals influencing apparently unrelated complex traits.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Fosfatases de Especificidade Dupla/genética , Jejum/sangue , Dosagem de Genes , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Heterogeneidade Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Humanos , Canal de Potássio KCNQ1/genética , Metanálise como Assunto , Fosfatases da Proteína Quinase Ativada por Mitógeno/genética
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