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1.
J Infect Dis ; 224(Supplement_3): S275-S284, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of vaccines, invasive bacterial diseases remain a public health concern and cause childhood morbidity and mortality. We investigated the characteristics of etiological agents causing bacterial meningitis in children <5 years in the years pre- (2010-2012) and post- (2014-2019) 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) introduction in Zambia. METHODS: Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), Haemophilus influenzae (Hi), and Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were identified by microbiological culture and/or real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: During the surveillance period, a total of 3811 children were admitted with suspected meningitis, 16% (598 of 3811) of which were probable cases. Bacterial meningitis was confirmed in 37% (221 of 598) of the probable cases. Spn pneumoniae, Hi, and Nm accounted for 67% (148 of 221), 14% (31 of 221), and 19% (42 of 221) of confirmed cases, respectively. Thirty-six percent of pneumococcal meningitis was caused by 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) serotypes, 16% 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and 39% by nonvaccine serotype (NVS). There was an association between the introduction of PCV10 vaccination and a decrease in both Spn meningitis and the proportion of PVC10 serotypes in the postvaccination period. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 47 Spn isolates revealed 34% (16 of 47) penicillin resistance. The 31 serotyped Hi accounted for 74% type b (Hib) and 10% type a (Hia). All 42 serogrouped Nm belonged to serogroup W. CONCLUSIONS: There was a decline in pneumococcal meningitis and proportion of PCV10 serotypes in the postvaccination period. However, the serotype replacement with non-PCV10 serotypes and penicillin resistance warrant continued surveillance to inform policy.

2.
J Infect Dis ; 224(Supplement_3): S161-S173, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) coordinates the Global Invasive Bacterial Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (IB-VPD) Surveillance Network to support vaccine introduction decisions and use. The network was established to strengthen surveillance and laboratory confirmation of meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis. METHODS: Sentinel hospitals report cases of children <5 years of age hospitalized for suspected meningitis. Laboratories report confirmatory testing results and strain characterization tested by polymerase chain reaction. In 2019, the network included 123 laboratories that follow validated, standardized testing and reporting strategies. RESULTS: From 2014 through 2019, >137 000 suspected meningitis cases were reported by 58 participating countries, with 44.6% (n = 61 386) reported from countries in the WHO African Region. More than half (56.6%, n = 77 873) were among children <1 year of age, and 4.0% (n = 4010) died among those with reported disease outcome. Among suspected meningitis cases, 8.6% (n = 11 798) were classified as probable bacterial meningitis. One of 3 bacterial pathogens was identified in 30.3% (n = 3576) of these cases, namely S. pneumoniae (n = 2177 [60.9%]), H. influenzae (n = 633 [17.7%]), and N. meningitidis (n = 766 [21.4%]). Among confirmed bacterial meningitis cases with outcome reported, 11.0% died; case fatality ratio varied by pathogen (S. pneumoniae, 12.2%; H. influenzae, 6.1%; N. meningitidis, 11.0%). Among the 277 children who died with confirmed bacterial meningitis, 189 (68.2%) had confirmed S. pneumoniae. The proportion of pneumococcal cases with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) serotypes decreased as the number of countries implementing PCV increased, from 77.8% (n = 273) to 47.5% (n = 248). Of 397 H. influenzae specimens serotyped, 49.1% (n = 195) were type b. Predominant N. meningitidis serogroups varied by region. CONCLUSIONS: This multitier, global surveillance network has supported countries in detecting and serotyping the 3 principal invasive bacterial pathogens that cause pediatric meningitis. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common bacterial pathogen detected globally despite the growing number of countries that have nationally introduced PCV. The large proportions of deaths due to S. pneumoniae reflect the high proportion of meningitis cases caused by this pathogen. This global network demonstrated a strong correlation between PCV introduction status and reduction in the proportion of pneumococcal meningitis infections caused by vaccine serotypes. Maintaining case-based, active surveillance with laboratory confirmation for prioritized vaccine-preventable diseases remains a critical component of the global agenda in public health.The World Health Organization (WHO)-coordinated Invasive Bacterial Vaccine-Preventable Disease (IB-VPD) Surveillance Network reported data from 2014 to 2019, contributing to the estimates of the disease burden and serotypes of pediatric meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis.

3.
J Infect Dis ; 224(Supplement_3): S194-S203, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As part of the global Invasive Bacterial Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Surveillance Network, 12 African countries referred cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples to South Africa's regional reference laboratory. We evaluated the utility of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in detecting and serotyping/grouping Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae (HNS). METHODS: From 2008 to 2017, CSF samples collected from children <5 years old with suspected meningitis underwent routine microbiology testing in-country, and 11 680 samples were submitted for HNS PCR at the regional reference laboratory. Unconditional logistic regression, with adjustment for geographic location, was performed to identify factors associated with PCR positivity. RESULTS: The overall HNS PCR positivity rate for all countries was 10% (1195 of 11 626 samples). In samples with both PCR and culture results, HNS PCR positivity was 11% (744 of 6747 samples), and HNS culture positivity was 3% (207 of 6747). Molecular serotype/serogroup was assigned in 75% of PCR-positive specimens (762 of 1016). Compared with PCR-negative CSF samples, PCR-positive samples were more often turbid (adjusted odds ratio, 6.80; 95% confidence interval, 5.67-8.17) and xanthochromic (1.72; 1.29-2.28), had elevated white blood cell counts (6.13; 4.71-7.99) and high protein concentrations (5.80; 4.34-7.75), and were more often HNS culture positive (32.70; 23.18-46.12). CONCLUSION: PCR increased detection of vaccine-preventable bacterial meningitis in countries where confirmation of suspected meningitis cases is impeded by limited culture capacity.

4.
J Infect Dis ; 224(Supplement_3): S285-S292, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 10-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the Extended Program on Immunization in Madagascar. We assessed the impact of PCV10 on the targeted pneumococcal serotypes among children < 5 years of age at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Mère Enfant Tsaralalàna. METHOD: Between 2012 and December 2018, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected and tested for S. pneumoniae by culture, and antigen tests. The Sentinel Site Laboratory (SSL) referred available CSF samples to the Regional Reference Laboratory (RRL) for real-time polymerase chain reaction confirmatory testing and serotyping. RESULTS: In total, 3616 CSF specimens were collected. The SSL referred 2716 to the RRL; 125 were positive for S. pneumoniae. At the RRL, 115 samples that tested positive for S. pneumoniae were serotyped; PCV10 serotypes accounted for 20%. Compared to the pre-PCV period, the proportion of S. pneumoniae detected declined from 22% to 6.6%, (P < .05), the proportion of PCV10 serotypes as the cause of pneumococcal meningitis cases declined by 26% following vaccine introduction. CONCLUSIONS: In our findings, PCV10 introduction resulted in a decline of meningitis caused by S. pneumoniae and PCV10 vaccine serotypes.

5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39(Suppl 1): 2, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548894

RESUMO

Introduction: intussusception is a condition in which one segment of the bowel prolapses into another causing obstruction. Information on the epidemiology of intussusception in sub-Saharan Africa is limited. We describe the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of children with intussusception in Ethiopia. Methods: active surveillance for children < 12 months of age with intussusception was conducted at six sentinel hospitals in Ethiopia. Limited socio-economic and clinical data were collected from enrolled children. Characteristics among children who died and children who survived were compared using the Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous variables and Chi-square tests for categorical variables. Results: total of 164 children < 12 months of age with intussusception were enrolled; 62% were male. The median age at symptom onset was 6 months with only 12 (7%) of cases occurring in the first 3 months of life. Intussusception was reduced by surgery in 90% of cases and 10% were reduced by enema; 13% of cases died. Compared to survivors, children who died had a significantly longer time to presentation to the first health care facility and to the treating health care facility (median 3 days versus 2 days, p = 0.02, respectively). Conclusion: the high mortality rate, late presentation of intussusception cases, and lack of modalities for non-surgical management at some facilities highlight the need for better management of intussusception cases in Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Enema/métodos , Intussuscepção/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Intussuscepção/mortalidade , Intussuscepção/terapia , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento , Conduta Expectante
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39(Suppl 1): 3, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548895

RESUMO

Introduction: prompt diagnosis and treatment are considered key to successful management of intussusception. We examined pre-treatment delay among intussusception cases in Zimbabwe and conducted an exploratory analysis of factors associated with intraoperative finding of gangrene. Methods: data were prospectively collected as part of the African Intussusception Network using a questionnaire administered on consecutive patients with intussusception managed at Harare Children´s Hospital. Delays were classified using the Three-Delays-Model: care-seeking delay (time from onset of symptoms to first presentation for health care), health-system delay (referral time from presentation to first facility to treatment facility) and treatment delay (time from presentation at treatment facility to treatment). Results: ninety-two patients were enrolled from August 2014 to December 2016. The mean care-seeking interval was 1.9 days, the mean health-system interval was 1.5 days, and the mean treatment interval was 1.1 days. Mean total time from symptom onset to treatment was 4.4 days. Being transferred from another institution added 1.4 days to the patient journey. Gangrene was found in 2 (25%) of children who received treatment within 1 day, 13 (41%) of children who received treatment 2-3 days, and 26 (50%) of children who received treatment more than 3 days after symptom onset (p = 0.34). Conclusion: significant care-seeking and health-system delays are encountered by intussusception patients in Zimbabwe. Our findings highlight the need to explore approaches to improve the early diagnosis of intussusception and prompt referral of patients for treatment.


Assuntos
Gangrena/epidemiologia , Intussuscepção/complicações , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Feminino , Gangrena/etiologia , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Intussuscepção/diagnóstico , Intussuscepção/terapia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Zimbábue
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): 1605-1608, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) among children worldwide. Prior to rotavirus vaccine introduction, over one third of AGE hospitalizations in Africa were due to rotavirus. We describe the impact of rotavirus vaccines using data from the African Rotavirus Surveillance Network (ARSN). METHODS: For descriptive analysis, we included all sites reporting to ARSN for any length of time between 2008 and 2018. For vaccine impact analysis, continuous surveillance throughout the year was required to minimize potential bias due to enrollment of partial seasons and sites had to report a minimum of 100 AGE cases per year. We report the proportion of rotavirus AGE cases by year relative to vaccine introduction, and the relative reduction in the proportion of rotavirus AGE cases reported following vaccine introduction. RESULTS: From 2008 to 2018, 97 366 prospectively enrolled hospitalized children <5 years of age met the case definition for AGE, and 34.1% tested positive for rotavirus. Among countries that had introduced rotavirus vaccine, the proportion of hospitalized AGE cases positive for rotavirus declined from 39.2% in the prevaccine period to 25.3% in the postvaccine period, a 35.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 33.7-37.3) decline. No declines were observed among countries that had not introduced the vaccine over the 11-year period. CONCLUSIONS: Rotavirus vaccine introduction led to large and consistent declines in the proportion of hospitalized AGE cases that are positive for rotavirus. To maximize the public health benefit of these vaccines, efforts to introduce rotavirus vaccines in the remaining countries in the region and to improve coverage should continue.


Assuntos
Infecções por Rotavirus , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Organização Mundial da Saúde
8.
Vaccine ; 39(23): 3111-3119, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958225

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the worldwide use of rotavirus vaccines initially in 2007 and 2009 applying a strict age restriction criterion due to the potential for age-related association with increased risk of intussusception in infants. The restriction was relaxed in the 2013 after detailed review of robust safety data generated in post-marketing surveillance studies. We assessed the status of the implementation of the 2013 recommendation to remove age restriction in the WHO African region (AFR). Of the approximately 75% (35/47) of countries that had introduced the vaccine by 2018, only 43% (15/35) removed age restriction, exclusively from South and East sub-region (78%, 14/18). Avoiding confusion at the health facilities and financial constraints particularly resources required for re-training the health workers, use of vaccine off-label were cited as the main reasons for not implementing the 2013 WHO recommendation on age restriction removal. The 2013 WHO recommendation has not been fully implemented by African countries, suggesting the need for technical advisory bodies to further guide the countries, continue monitoring the implementation status and impact on the rotavirus vaccine coverage and intussusception in the Africa region.


Assuntos
Intussuscepção , Infecções por Rotavirus , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , África , Humanos , Lactente , Intussuscepção/induzido quimicamente , Intussuscepção/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Organização Mundial da Saúde
9.
Vaccine ; 38(47): 7440-7444, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following a recommendation by the World Health Organization, Madagascar introduced rotavirus vaccine in 2014. Though national rotavirus vaccine coverage has remained <80%, rotavirus hospitalizations declined by 78%. Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, has provided financial support for rotavirus vaccine, however the Malagasy government has increasing responsibility for the financial cost. METHODS: In this evaluation, we describe the direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect cost of illness due to diarrhea among children <5 years old at a public pediatric referral hospital. A 3-part structured questionnaire was administered during and following the hospitalization and the child's hospital record was reviewed. RESULTS: In total, 96 children were included in this analysis. The median total cost of the illness was $156.00 (IQR: 104.00, 210.86) and the median direct medical cost was $107.22. Service delivery costs represented a median of 44% of the inpatient costs; medications and diagnostic tests represented a median of 28% and 20% of the total costs of the hospitalization, respectively. The median percentage of the total illness costs paid by the household was 67%. Among households with income of <$61/month, the median costs of the illness paid by the household were $78.55, representing a median of 168% of the household's monthly expenses. Among households earning >$303/month, the median costs paid by the household were $147.30, representing a median of 53% of the household's monthly expenses. Among all household income levels, caregivers commonly paid these bills from savings, borrowed money, and donations. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings will be useful in assessing the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine by decisionmakers. These results may also help hospital administrators and healthcare providers better understand the financial constraints of families.


Assuntos
Infecções por Rotavirus , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Madagáscar/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle
10.
Vaccine ; 38(43): 6735-6740, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873405

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diarrhoea is a leading killer of children <5 years old, accounting for 480,000 deaths in 2017. Zimbabwe introduced Rotarix into its vaccination program in 2014. In this evaluation, we estimate direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect costs attributable to a diarrhea hospitalization in Zimbabwe after rotavirus vaccine introduction. METHODS: Children <5 years old admitted to Harare Central Hospital from June 2018 to April 2019 with acute watery diarrhea were eligible for this evaluation. A 3-part structured questionnaire was used to collect data by interview from the child's family and by review of the medical record. A stool specimen was also collected and tested for rotavirus. Direct medical costs were the sum of medications, consumables, diagnostic tests, and service delivery costs. Direct non-medical costs were the sum of transportation, meals and lodging for caregivers. Indirect costs are the lost income for household members. RESULTS: A total of 202 children were enrolled with a median age of 12 months (IQR: 7-21) and 48 (24%) had malnutrition. Children were sick for a median of 2 days and most had received outpatient medical care prior to admission. The median monthly household income was higher for well-nourished children compared to malnourished children (p < 0.001). The median total cost of a diarrhea illness resulting in hospitalization was $293.74 (IQR: 188.42, 427.89). Direct medical costs, with a median of $251.74 (IQR: 155.42, 390.96), comprised the majority of the total cost. Among children who tested positive for rotavirus, the median total illness cost was $243.78 (IQR: 160.92, 323.84). The median direct medical costs were higher for malnourished than well-nourished children (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Direct medical costs are the primary determinant of diarrhea illness costs in Zimbabwe. The descriptive findings from this evaluation are an important first step in calculating the cost effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine.


Assuntos
Infecções por Rotavirus , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 1): 4, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373255

RESUMO

Introduction: Immunization program monitoring includes numerous activities, some of which include monitoring of vaccination coverage, surveillance performance and epidemiological patterns. The provision of timely, high quality and actionable feedback is an essential component of strengthening health systems. Within the African region of the WHO, various bulletins are produced and disseminated regularly to provide feedback on the performance of immunization programs and vaccine preventable disease control initiatives. Methods: The 2019 annual national immunization program managers' meeting for countries in the eastern and southern African subregion was held in Asmara from 18 - 20 March 2019. A survey questionnaire was administered to the participants representing the national programs and in-country partners across the 20 countries. Results: On average, the 75 respondents receive 1.8 e-mailed feedback bulletins monthly. Twenty-three (31%) respondents receive 3 or more written feedback bulletins per month, and 72% receive the bulletins regularly. On a scale of 1 - 5 (from lowest to highest), 87% participants rated the relevance of the bulletins they receive at 4 - 5. Only 19% of the respondents responded that the results are discussed within the national immunization program, and 14% stated that action points are generated based on the feedback received. Fifty-nine (79%) respondents want to receive more frequent feedback on routine immunization performance. Among the EPI program managers and the EPI program data managers, the access to these feedback bulletins was quite limited. Even though the primary objective of the bulletins is to initiate discussions and action based on the provided feedback, such discussions do not happen regularly at country level. The programmatic use and advocacy value of the bulletins is not optimal. Conclusion: We recommend integrating program feedback, regularly updating the distribution lists, the additional use of instant messaging platforms for distribution, as well as online posting of the bulletins for wider availability.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cobertura Vacinal , África Oriental/epidemiologia , África Austral/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/normas , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Nações Unidas , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Vacinal/métodos , Cobertura Vacinal/organização & administração , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 1): 8, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373259

RESUMO

Introduction: Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia have attained significant reduction in measles incidence between 2004 and 2013. The Ebola outbreak in 2014-2015 in West Africa caused significant disruption of the health service delivery in the three worst affected countries. The magnitude of the impact on the immunization program has not been well documented. Methods: We reviewed national routine immunization administrative coverage data as well as measles surveillance performance and measles epidemiology in the years before, during and after the EVD outbreak in Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone. Results: Both Liberia and Guinea experienced a sharp decline of more than 25% in the monthly number of children vaccinated against measles in 2014 and 2015 as compared to the previous years, while there was no reported decline in Sierra Leone. Guinea and Liberia experienced a decline in measles surveillance activity and performance indicators in 2014 and 2015. During this period, there was an increase in measles incidence and a decline in the mean age of measles cases reported in Liberia and Sierra Leone. Guinea started reporting high measles incidence in 2016. All three countries organized measles supplemental immunization activities by June 2015. Liberia achieved 99% administrative coverage, while Guinea and Sierra Leone attained 90.6% and 97.2% coverage respectively. There were no severe adverse events reported during these mass vaccination activities. The disruptive effect of the Ebola outbreak on immunization services was especially evident in Guinea and Liberia. Our review of the reported administrative vaccination coverage at national level does not show significant decline in measles first dose vaccination coverage in Sierra Leone as compared to other reports. This may be due to inaccuracies in coverage monitoring and data quality problems. The increases in measles transmission and incidence in these three countries can be explained by the rapid accumulation of susceptible children. Despite the organization of mass vaccination activities, measles incidence through 2017 has remained higher than the pre-Ebola period in all three countries. Conclusion: The Ebola outbreak in West Africa significantly affected measles vaccination coverage rates in two of the three worst affected countries, and led to persistent gaps in coverage, along with high measles incidence that was documented until two years after the end of the Ebola outbreak. Liberia and Sierra Leone have demonstrated coverage improvements after the end of the Ebola outbreak.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/organização & administração , Surtos de Doenças , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção à Saúde/normas , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Erradicação de Doenças/normas , Guiné/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/normas , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Lactente , Libéria/epidemiologia , Vacinação em Massa/organização & administração , Vacinação em Massa/normas , Vacinação em Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Estudos Retrospectivos , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Cobertura Vacinal/organização & administração , Cobertura Vacinal/normas
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(Suppl 2): S49-S57, 2019 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacterial meningitis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. We analyzed data from the World Health Organization's (WHO) Invasive Bacterial Vaccine-preventable Diseases Surveillance Network (2011-2016) to describe the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae meningitis within the WHO African Region. We also evaluated declines in vaccine-type pneumococcal meningitis following pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) introduction. METHODS: Reports of meningitis in children <5 years old from sentinel surveillance hospitals in 26 countries were classified as suspected, probable, or confirmed. Confirmed meningitis cases were analyzed by age group and subregion (South-East and West-Central). We described case fatality ratios (CFRs), pathogen distribution, and annual changes in serotype and serogroup, including changes in vaccine-type Spn meningitis following PCV introduction. RESULTS: Among 49 844 reported meningitis cases, 1670 (3.3%) were laboratory-confirmed. Spn (1007/1670 [60.3%]) was the most commonly detected pathogen; vaccine-type Spn meningitis cases declined over time. CFR was the highest for Spn meningitis: 12.9% (46/357) in the South-East subregion and 30.9% (89/288) in the West-Central subregion. Meningitis caused by N. meningitidis was more common in West-Central than South-East Africa (321/954 [33.6%] vs 110/716 [15.4%]; P < .0001). Haemophilus influenzae (232/1670 [13.9%]) was the least prevalent organism. CONCLUSIONS: Spn was the most common cause of pediatric bacterial meningitis in the African region even after reported cases declined following PCV introduction. Sustaining robust surveillance is essential to monitor changes in pathogen distribution and to inform and guide vaccination policies.


Assuntos
Meningites Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Doenças Preveníveis por Vacina/epidemiologia , Doenças Preveníveis por Vacina/microbiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde , África Oriental/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Haemophilus influenzae tipo b/classificação , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Meningites Bacterianas/mortalidade , Mortalidade , Neisseria meningitidis/classificação , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Prevalência , Sorogrupo , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/classificação , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Conjugadas/administração & dosagem
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(Suppl 2): S72-S80, 2019 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of pneumonia and meningitis in children aged <5 years. Zimbabwe introduced 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in 2012 using a 3-dose infant schedule with no booster dose or catch-up campaign. We evaluated the impact of PCV13 on pediatric pneumonia and meningitis. METHODS: We examined annual changes in the proportion of hospitalizations due to pneumonia and meningitis among children aged <5 years at Harare Central Hospital (HCH) pre-PCV13 (January 2010-June 2012) and post-PCV13 (July 2013-December 2016) using a negative binomial regression model, adjusting for seasonality. We also evaluated post-PCV13 changes in serotype distribution among children with confirmed pneumococcal meningitis at HCH and acute respiratory infection (ARI) trends using Ministry of Health outpatient data. RESULTS: Pneumonia hospitalizations among children aged <5 years steadily declined pre-PCV13; no significant change in annual decline was observed post-PCV13. Post-PCV13 introduction, meningitis hospitalization decreased 30% annually (95% confidence interval [CI], -42, -14) among children aged 12-59 months, and no change was observed among children aged 0-11 months. Pneumococcal meningitis caused by PCV13 serotypes decreased from 100% in 2011 to 50% in 2016. Annual severe and moderate outpatient ARI decreased by 30% (95% CI, -33, -26) and 7% (95% CI, -11, -2), respectively, post-PCV13 introduction. CONCLUSIONS: We observed declines in pediatric meningitis hospitalizations, PCV13-type pneumococcal meningitis, and severe and moderate ARI outpatient visits post-PCV13 introduction. Low specificity of discharge codes, changes in referral patterns, and improvements in human immunodeficiency virus care may have contributed to the lack of additional declines in pneumonia hospitalizations post-PCV13 introduction.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Meningite Pneumocócica/epidemiologia , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Hospitais Pediátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Meningite Pneumocócica/prevenção & controle , Modelos Estatísticos , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/prevenção & controle , Sorogrupo , Streptococcus pneumoniae/classificação , Vacinas Conjugadas/administração & dosagem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(Suppl 2): S121-S125, 2019 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced in Madagascar in 2012. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of PCV10 on bacterial meningitis in hospitalized children <5 years of age. METHODS: During 2010-2017, data from the hospital admission logbook were recorded for bacterial meningitis and pneumonia hospitalizations in children <5 years of age. Between April 2011 and December 2017, 3312 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected from children who fulfilled the World Health Organization case definition of suspected bacterial meningitis were analyzed at the sentinel site laboratory (SSL) by microscopy, culture, and antigen detection tests. A total of 2065 CSF samples were referred to the regional reference laboratory for real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. 2010-2011 was defined as the prevaccine period, 2012 as vaccine introduction year, and 2013-2017 the postvaccine period. The number of cases, causative agent, and pneumonia hospitalizations were compared before and after PCV10 introduction. RESULTS: In the prevaccine period, bacterial meningitis and pneumonia hospitalizations accounted for 4.5% and 24.5% of all hospitalizations while there were 2.6% and 19%, respectively, in the postvaccine period (P < .001). In samples tested at the SSL, 154 were positive with 80% Streptococcus pneumoniae and 20% other bacteria. Pneumococcal meningitis diagnosed by RT-PCR declined from 14% in 2012 to 3% in 2017. Also, 14% of children with pneumococcal meningitis died. CONCLUSIONS: Following PCV10 introduction, pneumococcal meningitis, bacterial meningitis, and pneumonia hospitalizations declined. Surveillance should continue to monitor the impact of PCV10.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Meningites Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Madagáscar/epidemiologia , Masculino , Meningites Bacterianas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Meningites Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/epidemiologia
16.
Lancet Glob Health ; 7(7): e893-e903, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus vaccine use in national immunisation programmes has led to declines in hospital admissions for rotavirus gastroenteritis among children; however, the global impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction has not been described using primary data. We describe the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on admissions for acute rotavirus gastroenteritis in primarily low-income and middle-income countries, using 9 years of data from the WHO-coordinated Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network (GRSN). METHODS: Between Jan 1, 2008, and Dec 31, 2016, children younger than 5 years of age who were admitted to hospital with acute gastroenteritis were prospectively enrolled in GRSN sites. We included sites that enrolled children and collected stool specimens monthly and tested at least 100 specimens annually in the impact analysis, with a separate analysis taking into account site continuity. We compared proportions of acute gastroenteritis cases positive for rotavirus in the pre-vaccine and post-vaccine periods and calculated mean proportion changes for WHO regions, with 95% CIs; these findings were then compared with interrupted time series analyses. We did further sensitivity analyses to account for rotavirus vaccination coverage levels and sites that collected specimens for at least 11 months per year and tested at least 80 specimens per year. We also analysed the age distribution of rotavirus-positive cases before and after vaccine introduction. FINDINGS: 403 140 children younger than 5 years of age admitted to hospital with acute gastroenteritis from 349 sites in 82 countries were enrolled over the study period, of whom 132 736 (32·9%) were positive for rotavirus. We included 305 789 children from 198 sites in 69 countries in the impact analysis. In countries that had not introduced rotavirus vaccine in their national immunisation programmes, rotavirus was detected in 38·0% (95% CI 4·8-73·4) of admissions for acute gastroenteritis annually whereas in those that have introduced the vaccine, rotavirus was detected in 23·0% (0·7-57·7) of admissions for acute gastroenteritis, showing a 39·6% (35·4-43·8) relative decline following introduction. Interrupted time series analyses confirmed these findings. Reductions by WHO regions ranged from 26·4% (15·0-37·8) in the Eastern Mediterranean Region to 55·2% (43·0-67·4) in the European Region and were sustained in nine countries (contributing up to 31 sites) for 6-10 years. The age distribution of children with rotavirus gastroenteritis shifted towards older children after rotavirus vaccine introduction. INTERPRETATION: A significant and sustained reduction in the proportion of hospital admissions for acute gastroenteritis due to rotavirus was seen among children younger than 5 years in GRSN sites following rotavirus vaccine introduction. These findings highlight the need to incorporate rotavirus vaccines into immunisation programmes in countries that have not yet introduced them and underline the importance of high-quality surveillance. FUNDING: The GRSN receives funding from Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. No specific funding was provided for this Article.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/tendências , Internacionalidade , Vigilância da População , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Rotavirus
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(8): 1339-1344, 2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is a leading cause of mortality among children <5 years old. We evaluated monovalent rotavirus vaccine effectiveness (VE) under conditions of routine use at 2 surveillance sites in Harare, Zimbabwe, after vaccine introduction in May 2014. METHODS: Children aged <5 years hospitalized or treated in the accident and emergency department (A&E) for acute watery diarrhea were enrolled for routine surveillance. Copies of vaccination cards were collected to document vaccination status. Among children age-eligible to receive rotavirus vaccine, we estimated VE, calculated as 1 - odds ratio, using a test-negative case-control design. RESULTS: We included 903 rotavirus-positive cases and 2685 rotavirus-negative controls in the analysis; 99% had verified vaccination status. Rotavirus-positive children had more severe diarrhea than rotavirus-negative children; 61% of cases and 46% of controls had a Vesikari score ≥11 (P < .01). Among cases and controls, 31% and 37%, respectively, were stunted for their age (P < .01). Among children 6-11 months old, adjusted 2-dose VE against hospitalization or treatment in A&E due to rotavirus of any severity was 61% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21%-81%) and 68% (95% CI, 13%-88%) against severe rotavirus disease. Stratified by nutritional status, adjusted VE was 45% (95% CI, -148% to 88%) among stunted infants and 71% (95% CI, 29%-88%) among infants with a normal height for age. CONCLUSIONS: Monovalent rotavirus vaccine is effective in preventing hospitalizations due to severe rotavirus diarrhea among infants in Zimbabwe, providing additional evidence for countries considering rotavirus vaccine introduction that live, oral rotavirus vaccines are effective in high-child-mortality settings.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Rotavirus/imunologia , Vacinação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
18.
Vaccine ; 36(46): 7043-7047, 2018 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30301641

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A monovalent rotavirus vaccine was introduced in the Ethiopian Expanded Program on Immunization from November 2013. We compared impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on rotavirus associated acute diarrhea hospitalizations and genotypic characteristics of rotavirus strains pre-and post-vaccine introduction. METHODS: Sentinel surveillance for diarrhea among children <5 years of age was conducted at 3 hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 2011 to 2017. Stool specimens were collected from enrolled children and tested using an antigen capture enzyme immunoassay. Rotavirus positive samples (156 from pre- and 141 from post-vaccination periods) were further characterized by rotavirus genotyping methods to identify the predominant G and P types circulating during the surveillance era. RESULTS: A total of 788 children were enrolled during the pre- (July 2011-June 2013) and 815 children during the post-vaccination (July 2014-June 2017) periods. The proportion of diarrhea hospitalizations due to rotavirus among children <5 years of age declined by 17% from 24% (188/788) in the pre-vaccine period and to 20% (161/185) in post-vaccine introduction era. Similarly, a reduction of 18% in proportion of diarrhea hospitalizations due to rotavirus in children <12 months of age in the post (27%) vs pre-vaccine (33%) periods was observed. Seasonal peaks of rotavirus declined following rotavirus vaccine introduction. The most prevalent circulating strains were G12P[8] in 2011 (36%) and in 2012 (27%), G2P[4] (35%) in 2013, G9P[8] (19%) in 2014, G3P[6] and G2P[4] (19% each) in 2015, and G3P[8] (29%) in 2016. DISCUSSION: Following rotavirus vaccine introduction in Ethiopia, a reduction in rotavirus associated hospitalizations was seen in all age groups with the greatest burden in children <12 months of age. A wide variety of rotavirus strains circulated in the pre- and post-vaccine introduction periods.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/genética , Pré-Escolar , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/virologia , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia
19.
N Engl J Med ; 378(16): 1521-1528, 2018 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29669224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postlicensure evaluations have identified an association between rotavirus vaccination and intussusception in several high- and middle-income countries. We assessed the association between monovalent human rotavirus vaccine and intussusception in lower-income sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS: Using active surveillance, we enrolled patients from seven countries (Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe) who had intussusception that met international (Brighton Collaboration level 1) criteria. Rotavirus vaccination status was confirmed by review of the vaccine card or clinic records. The risk of intussusception within 1 to 7 days and 8 to 21 days after vaccination among infants 28 to 245 days of age was assessed by means of the self-controlled case-series method. RESULTS: Data on 717 infants who had intussusception and confirmed vaccination status were analyzed. One case occurred in the 1 to 7 days after dose 1, and 6 cases occurred in the 8 to 21 days after dose 1. Five cases and 16 cases occurred in the 1 to 7 days and 8 to 21 days, respectively, after dose 2. The risk of intussusception in the 1 to 7 days after dose 1 was not higher than the background risk of intussusception (relative incidence [i.e., the incidence during the risk window vs. all other times], 0.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], <0.001 to 1.16); findings were similar for the 1 to 7 days after dose 2 (relative incidence, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.16 to 1.87). In addition, the risk of intussusception in the 8 to 21 days or 1 to 21 days after either dose was not found to be higher than the background risk. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of intussusception after administration of monovalent human rotavirus vaccine was not higher than the background risk of intussusception in seven lower-income sub-Saharan African countries. (Funded by the GAVI Alliance through the CDC Foundation.).


Assuntos
Intussuscepção/etiologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/efeitos adversos , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Incidência , Lactente , Intussuscepção/epidemiologia , Intussuscepção/mortalidade , Intussuscepção/terapia , Masculino , Risco , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Tempo para o Tratamento , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos
20.
Vaccine ; 36(47): 7248-7255, 2018 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29628149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sentinel surveillance for diarrhoea is important to monitor changes in rotavirus epidemiological trends and circulating genotypes among children under 5 years before and after vaccine introduction. The Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Care introduced rotavirus vaccine in national immunization program in May 2014. METHODS: Active hospital-based surveillance for diarrhoea was conducted at 3 sentinel sites from 2008 to 2016. Children aged less than 5 years, who presented with acute gastroenteritis as a primary illness and who were admitted to a hospital ward or treated at the emergency unit, were enrolled and had a stool specimen collected and tested for rotavirus by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Genotyping of positive stools was performed using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and genotyping assays. Pre-vaccine introduction, 10% of all positive stool specimens were genotyped and all adequate positive stools were genotyped post-vaccine introduction. RESULTS: During the pre-vaccine period, a total of 6491 acute gastroenteritis stools were collected, of which 3016 (46%) tested positive for rotavirus and 312 (10%) of the rotavirus positive stools were genotyped. During the post-vaccine period, a total of 3750 acute gastroenteritis stools were collected, of which 937 (25%) tested positive for rotavirus and 784 (84%) were genotyped. During the pre-vaccine introduction the most frequent genotype was G9P[8] (21%) followed by G2P[4] (12%), G1P[8] (6%), G2P[6] (5%), G12P[6] (4%), G9P[6] (3%) and G8P[4] (3%). G1P[8] (30%) was most dominant two years after vaccine introduction followed by G9P[6] (20%), G2P[4] (15%), G9P[8] (11%) and G1P[6] (4%). CONCLUSION: The decline in positivity rate is an indication of early vaccine impact. Diversity of circulating strains underscores the importance of continued monitoring and strain surveillance after vaccine introduction.


Assuntos
Diarreia/virologia , Genótipo , Programas de Imunização , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/uso terapêutico , Rotavirus/genética , Doença Aguda/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/virologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Lactente , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Vacinas Atenuadas/uso terapêutico , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
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