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1.
Mol Neurodegener ; 15(1): 70, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213497

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The neurovascular unit (NVU) - the interaction between the neurons and the cerebrovasculature - is increasingly important to interrogate through human-based experimental models. Although advanced models of cerebral capillaries have been developed in the last decade, there is currently no in vitro 3-dimensional (3D) perfusible model of the human cortical arterial NVU. METHOD: We used a tissue-engineering technique to develop a scaffold-directed, perfusible, 3D human NVU that is cultured in native-like flow conditions that mimics the anatomy and physiology of cortical penetrating arteries. RESULTS: This system, composed of primary human vascular cells (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and astrocytes) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derived neurons, demonstrates a physiological multilayer organization of the involved cell types. It reproduces key characteristics of cortical neurons and astrocytes and enables formation of a selective and functional endothelial barrier. We provide proof-of-principle data showing that this in vitro human arterial NVU may be suitable to study neurovascular components of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), as endogenously produced phosphorylated tau and beta-amyloid accumulate in the model over time. Finally, neuronal and glial fluid biomarkers relevant to neurodegenerative diseases are measurable in our arterial NVU model. CONCLUSION: This model is a suitable research tool to investigate arterial NVU functions in healthy and disease states. Further, the design of the platform allows culture under native-like flow conditions for extended periods of time and yields sufficient tissue and media for downstream immunohistochemistry and biochemistry analyses.

2.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030307

RESUMO

Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) are characterized by the aging neurovascular unit being confronted with and failing to cope with biological insults due to systemic and cerebral vascular disease, proteinopathy including Alzheimer's biology, metabolic disease, or immune response, resulting in cognitive decline. This report summarizes the discussion and recommendations from a working group convened by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke to evaluate the state of the field in VCID research, identify research priorities, and foster collaborations. As discussed in this report, advances in understanding the biological mechanisms of VCID across the wide spectrum of pathologies, chronic systemic comorbidities, and other risk factors may lead to potential prevention and new treatment strategies to decrease the burden of dementia. Better understanding of the social determinants of health that affect risks for both vascular disease and VCID could provide insight into strategies to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in VCID.

3.
Blood Adv ; 4(20): 4981-4989, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057633

RESUMO

Studies on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) suggest a protective effect of anti-A antibodies against viral cell entry that may hold relevance for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether ABO blood groups are associated with different severities of COVID-19. We conducted a multicenter retrospective analysis and nested prospective observational substudy of critically ill patients with COVID-19. We collected data pertaining to age, sex, comorbidities, dates of symptom onset, hospital admission, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), standard laboratory parameters, and serum inflammatory cytokines. National (N = 398 671; P = .38) and provincial (n = 62 246; P = .60) ABO blood group distributions did not differ from our cohort (n = 95). A higher proportion of COVID-19 patients with blood group A or AB required mechanical ventilation (P = .02) and CRRT (P = .004) and had a longer ICU stay (P = .03) compared with patients with blood group O or B. Blood group A or AB also had an increased probability of requiring mechanical ventilation and CRRT after adjusting for age, sex, and presence of ≥1 comorbidity. Inflammatory cytokines did not differ between patients with blood group A or AB (n = 11) vs O or B (n = 14; P > .10 for all cytokines). Collectively, our data indicate that critically ill COVID-19 patients with blood group A or AB are at increased risk for requiring mechanical ventilation, CRRT, and prolonged ICU admission compared with patients with blood group O or B. Further work is needed to understand the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos/sangue , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
5.
Br J Haematol ; 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-614300

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) severity appears to parallel the host immune response, with a subset of patients developing COVID-19 cytokine storm syndrome (CSS).(1) Serum inflammatory cytokines are elevated in COVID-19,(2-5) and interleukin (IL)-6 appears to play a central role in COVID-19 related CSS.(6-8) Based on the success of IL-6 receptor blockade for chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy associated cytokine release syndrome (CAR T-cell CRS), similar strategies using tocilizumab are being investigated in COVID-19.

7.
Blood Rev ; : 100707, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-276757

RESUMO

A subset of patients with severe COVID-19 develop profound inflammation and multi-organ dysfunction consistent with a "Cytokine Storm Syndrome" (CSS). In this review we compare the clinical features, diagnosis, and pathogenesis of COVID-CSS with other hematological CSS, namely secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH), idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease (iMCD), and CAR-T cell therapy associated Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS). Novel therapeutics targeting cytokines or inhibiting cell signaling pathways have now become the mainstay of treatment in these CSS. We review the evidence for cytokine blockade and attenuation in these known CSS as well as the emerging literature and clinical trials pertaining to COVID-CSS. Established markers of inflammation as well as cytokine levels are compared and contrasted between these four entities in order to establish a foundation for future diagnostic criteria of COVID-CSS.

8.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1475(1): 3-14, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472577

RESUMO

For decades, Alzheimer's disease research has focused on amyloid as the primary pathogenic agent. This focus has driven the development of numerous amyloid-targeting therapies; however, with one possible exception, none of these therapies have been effective in preventing or delaying cognitive decline in patients, and there are no approved disease-modifying agents. It is becoming more apparent that alternative drug targets are needed to address this complex disease. An increased understanding of Alzheimer's disease pathology has highlighted the need to target the appropriate disease pathology at the appropriate time in the disease course. Preclinical and early clinical studies have focused on targets, including inflammation, tau, vascular health, and the microbiome. This report summarizes the presentations from a New York Academy of Sciences' one-day symposium entitled "Alzheimer's Disease Therapeutics: Alternatives to Amyloid," held on November 20, 2019.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Amiloide/antagonistas & inibidores , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/imunologia , Doença de Alzheimer/microbiologia , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Microbiota , Microglia/patologia , Regeneração Nervosa , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
9.
Mol Brain ; 13(1): 66, 2020 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366277

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD), the leading cause of dementia, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease. Apolipoprotein E (apoE), which carries lipids in the brain in the form of lipoproteins, plays an undisputed role in AD pathophysiology. A high-throughput phenotypic screen was conducted using a CCF-STTG1 human astrocytoma cell line to identify small molecules that could upregulate apoE secretion. AZ7235, a previously discovered Axl kinase inhibitor, was identified to have robust apoE activity in brain microglia, astrocytes and pericytes. AZ7235 also increased expression of ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1), which is involved in the lipidation and secretion of apoE. Moreover, AZ7235 did not exhibit Liver-X-Receptor (LXR) activity and stimulated apoE and ABCA1 expression in the absence of LXR. Target validation studies using AXL-/- CCF-STTG1 cells showed that Axl is required to mediate AZ7235 upregulation of apoE and ABCA1. Intriguingly, apoE expression and secretion was significantly attenuated in AXL-deficient CCF-STTG1 cells and reconstitution of Axl or kinase-dead Axl significantly restored apoE baseline levels, demonstrating that Axl also plays a role in maintaining apoE homeostasis in astrocytes independent of its kinase activity. Lastly, these effects may require human apoE regulatory sequences, as AZ7235 exhibited little stimulatory activity toward apoE and ABCA1 in primary murine glia derived from neonatal human APOE3 targeted-replacement mice. Collectively, we identified a small molecule that exhibits robust apoE and ABCA1 activity independent of the LXR pathway in human cells and elucidated a novel relationship between Axl and apoE homeostasis in human astrocytes.

10.
Blood Rev ; : 100707, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425294

RESUMO

A subset of patients with severe COVID-19 develop profound inflammation and multi-organ dysfunction consistent with a "Cytokine Storm Syndrome" (CSS). In this review we compare the clinical features, diagnosis, and pathogenesis of COVID-CSS with other hematological CSS, namely secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH), idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease (iMCD), and CAR-T cell therapy associated Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS). Novel therapeutics targeting cytokines or inhibiting cell signaling pathways have now become the mainstay of treatment in these CSS. We review the evidence for cytokine blockade and attenuation in these known CSS as well as the emerging literature and clinical trials pertaining to COVID-CSS. Established markers of inflammation as well as cytokine levels are compared and contrasted between these four entities in order to establish a foundation for future diagnostic criteria of COVID-CSS.

11.
Mol Neurodegener ; 15(1): 23, 2020 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several lines of evidence suggest that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) reduces Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk by decreasing vascular beta-amyloid (Aß) deposition and inflammation, however, the mechanisms by which HDL improve cerebrovascular functions relevant to AD remain poorly understood. METHODS: Here we use a human bioengineered model of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) to define several mechanisms by which HDL reduces Aß deposition within the vasculature and attenuates endothelial inflammation as measured by monocyte binding. RESULTS: We demonstrate that HDL reduces vascular Aß accumulation independently of its principal binding protein, scavenger receptor (SR)-BI, in contrast to the SR-BI-dependent mechanism by which HDL prevents Aß-induced vascular inflammation. We describe multiple novel mechanisms by which HDL acts to reduce CAA, namely: i) altering Aß binding to collagen-I, ii) forming a complex with Aß that maintains its solubility, iii) lowering collagen-I protein levels produced by smooth-muscle cells (SMC), and iv) attenuating Aß uptake into SMC that associates with reduced low density lipoprotein related protein 1 (LRP1) levels. Furthermore, we show that HDL particles enriched in apolipoprotein (apo)E appear to be the major drivers of these effects, providing new insights into the peripheral role of apoE in AD, in particular, the fraction of HDL that contains apoE. CONCLUSION: The findings in this study identify new mechanisms by which circulating HDL, particularly HDL particles enriched in apoE, may provide vascular resilience to Aß and shed new light on a potential role of peripherally-acting apoE in AD.

12.
Exp Neurol ; 324: 113116, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734317

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in modern societies. Diffuse axonal and vascular injury are nearly universal consequences of mechanical energy impacting the head and contribute to disability throughout the injury severity spectrum. CHIMERA (Closed Head Impact Model of Engineered Rotational Acceleration) is a non-surgical, impact-acceleration model of rodent TBI that reliably produces diffuse axonal injury characterized by white matter gliosis and axonal damage. At impact energies up to 0.7 joules, which result in mild TBI in mice, CHIMERA does not produce detectable vascular or grey matter injury. This study was designed to expand CHIMERA's capacity to induce more severe injuries, including vascular damage and grey matter gliosis. This was made possible by designing a physical interface positioned between the piston and animal's head to allow higher impact energies to be transmitted to the head without causing skull fracture. Here, we assessed interface-assisted single CHIMERA TBI at 2.5 joules in wild-type mice using a study design that spanned 6 h-60 d time points. Injured animals displayed robust acute neurological deficits, elevated plasma total tau and neurofilament-light levels, transiently increased proinflammatory cytokines in brain tissue, blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage and microstructural vascular abnormalities, and grey matter microgliosis. Memory deficits were evident at 30 d and resolved by 60 d. Intriguingly, white matter injury was not remarkable at acute time points but evolved over time, with white matter gliosis being most extensive at 60 d. Interface-assisted CHIMERA thus enables experimental modeling of distinct endophenotypes of TBI that include acute vascular and grey matter injury in addition to chronic evolution of white matter damage, similar to the natural history of human TBI.

13.
Neuron ; 103(3): 367-379, 2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394062

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one the most common human afflictions, contributing to long-term disability in survivors. Emerging data indicate that functional improvement or deterioration can occur years after TBI. In this regard, TBI is recognized as risk factor for late-life neurodegenerative disorders. TBI encompasses a heterogeneous disease process in which diverse injury subtypes and multiple molecular mechanisms overlap. To develop precision medicine approaches where specific pathobiological processes are targeted by mechanistically appropriate therapies, techniques to identify and measure these subtypes are needed. Traumatic microvascular injury is a common but relatively understudied TBI endophenotype. In this review, we describe evidence of microvascular dysfunction in human and animal TBI, explore the role of vascular dysfunction in neurodegenerative disease, and discuss potential opportunities for vascular-directed therapies in ameliorating TBI-related neurodegeneration. We discuss the therapeutic potential of vascular-directed therapies in TBI and the use and limitations of preclinical models to explore these therapies.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Microvasos/patologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/etiologia , Acoplamento Neurovascular , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Progressão da Doença , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Microcirculação , Micronutrientes/farmacocinética , Modelos Animais , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/prevenção & controle , Neuroimagem
14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9870, 2019 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285517

RESUMO

Advances in the understanding of Alzheimer's disease (AD) suggest that pathogenesis is not directly related to plaque burden, but rather to soluble toxic amyloid-beta oligomers (AßO). Therapeutic antibodies targeting Aß monomers and/or plaque have shown limited efficacy and dose-limiting adverse events in clinical trials. These findings suggest that antibodies capable of selectively neutralizing toxic AßO may achieve improved efficacy and safety. To this end, we generated monoclonal antibodies against a conformational Aß epitope predicted by computational modeling to be presented on toxic AßO but not monomers or fibrils. The resulting lead antibody, PMN310, showed the desired AßO-selective binding profile. In vitro, PMN310 inhibited AßO propagation and toxicity. In vivo, PMN310 prevented AßO-induced loss of memory formation and reduced synaptic loss and inflammation. A humanized version (huPMN310) compared favorably to other Aß-directed antibodies showing a lack of adverse event-associated binding to Aß deposits in AD brains, and greater selective binding to AßO-enriched AD brain fractions that contain synaptotoxic Aß species. Systemic administration of huPMN310 in mice resulted in brain exposure and kinetics comparable to those of other therapeutic human monoclonal antibodies. Greater selectivity for AßO and the potential to safely administer high doses of huPMN310 are expected to result in enhanced safety and therapeutic potency.

15.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 11(1): 44, 2019 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is defined by amyloid beta (Aß) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles and characterized by neurodegeneration and memory loss. The majority of AD patients also have Aß deposition in cerebral vessels known as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), microhemorrhages, and vascular co-morbidities, suggesting that cerebrovascular dysfunction contributes to AD etiology. Promoting cerebrovascular resilience may therefore be a promising therapeutic or preventative strategy for AD. Plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL) have several vasoprotective functions and are associated with reduced AD risk in some epidemiological studies and with reduced Aß deposition and Aß-induced inflammation in 3D engineered human cerebral vessels. In mice, deficiency of apoA-I, the primary protein component of HDL, increases CAA and cognitive dysfunction, whereas overexpression of apoA-I from its native promoter in liver and intestine has the opposite effect and lessens neuroinflammation. Similarly, acute peripheral administration of HDL reduces soluble Aß pools in the brain and some studies have observed reduced CAA as well. Here, we expand upon the known effects of plasma HDL in mouse models and in vitro 3D artery models to investigate the interaction of amyloid, astrocytes, and HDL on the cerebrovasculature in APP/PS1 mice. METHODS: APP/PS1 mice deficient or hemizygous for Apoa1 were aged to 12 months. Plasma lipids, amyloid plaque deposition, Aß protein levels, protein and mRNA markers of neuroinflammation, and astrogliosis were assessed using ELISA, qRT-PCR, and immunofluorescence. Contextual and cued fear conditioning were used to assess behavior. RESULTS: In APP/PS1 mice, complete apoA-I deficiency increased total and vascular Aß deposition in the cortex but not the hippocampus compared to APP/PS1 littermate controls hemizygous for apoA-I. Markers of both general and vascular neuroinflammation, including Il1b mRNA, ICAM-1 protein, PDGFRß protein, and GFAP protein, were elevated in apoA-I-deficient APP/PS1 mice. Additionally, apoA-I-deficient APP/PS1 mice had elevated levels of vascular-associated ICAM-1 in the cortex and hippocampus and vascular-associated GFAP in the cortex. A striking observation was that astrocytes associated with cerebral vessels laden with Aß or associated with Aß plaques showed increased reactivity in APP/PS1 mice lacking apoA-I. No behavioral changes were observed. CONCLUSIONS: ApoA-I-containing HDL can reduce amyloid pathology and astrocyte reactivity to parenchymal and vascular amyloid in APP/PS1 mice.

16.
Curr Opin Lipidol ; 30(3): 224-234, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946049

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review current knowledge regarding HDL and Alzheimer's disease, focusing on HDL's vasoprotective functions and potential as a biomarker and therapeutic target for the vascular contributions of Alzheimer's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Many epidemiological studies have observed that circulating HDL levels associate with decreased Alzheimer's disease risk. However, it is now understood that the functions of HDL may be more informative than levels of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). Animal model studies demonstrate that HDL protects against memory deficits, neuroinflammation, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). In-vitro studies using state-of-the-art 3D models of the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) confirm that HDL reduces vascular Aß accumulation and attenuates Aß-induced endothelial inflammation. Although HDL-based therapeutics have not been tested in clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease , several HDL formulations are in advanced phase clinical trials for coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis and could be leveraged toward Alzheimer's disease . SUMMARY: Evidence from human studies, animal models, and bioengineered arteries supports the hypothesis that HDL protects against cerebrovascular dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. Assays of HDL functions relevant to Alzheimer's disease may be desirable biomarkers of cerebrovascular health. HDL-based therapeutics may also be of interest for Alzheimer's disease, using stand-alone or combination therapy approaches.

17.
Exp Neurol ; 317: 87-99, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822421

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects at least 3 M people annually. In humans, repetitive mild TBI (rmTBI) can lead to increased impulsivity and may be associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy. To better understand the relationship between repetitive TBI (rTBI), impulsivity and neuropathology, we used CHIMERA (Closed-Head Injury Model of Engineered Rotational Acceleration) to deliver five TBIs to rats, which were continuously assessed for trait impulsivity using the delay discounting task and for neuropathology at endpoint. Compared to sham controls, rats with rTBI displayed progressive impairment in impulsive choice. Histological analyses revealed reduced dopaminergic innervation from the ventral tegmental area to the olfactory tubercle, consistent with altered impulsivity neurocircuitry. Consistent with diffuse axonal injury generated by CHIMERA, white matter inflammation, tau immunoreactivity and degeneration were observed in the optic tract and corpus callosum. Finally, pronounced grey matter microgliosis was observed in the olfactory tubercle. Our results provide insight into the mechanisms by which rTBI leads to post-traumatic psychiatric-like symptoms in a novel rat TBI platform.


Assuntos
Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/patologia , Traumatismos Cranianos Fechados/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , Tubérculo Olfatório/patologia , Substância Branca/patologia , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Animais , Axônios/patologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Corpo Caloso/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Gliose/patologia , Traumatismos Cranianos Fechados/psicologia , Masculino , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/etiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Fosforilação , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Recompensa , Tauopatias/patologia
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(3)2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678190

RESUMO

High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are known to have vasoprotective functions in peripheral arteries and many of these functions extend to brain-derived endothelial cells. Importantly, several novel brain-relevant HDL functions have been discovered using brain endothelial cells and in 3D bioengineered human arteries. The cerebrovascular benefits of HDL in healthy humans may partly explain epidemiological evidence suggesting a protective association of circulating HDL levels against Alzheimer's Disease (AD) risk. As several methods exist to prepare HDL from plasma, here we compared cerebrovascular functions relevant to AD using HDL isolated by density gradient ultracentrifugation relative to apoB-depleted plasma prepared by polyethylene-glycol precipitation, a common high-throughput method to evaluate HDL cholesterol efflux capacity in clinical biospecimens. We found that apoB-depleted plasma was functionally equivalent to HDL isolated by ultracentrifugation in terms of its ability to reduce vascular Aß accumulation, suppress TNFα-induced vascular inflammation and delay Aß fibrillization. However, only HDL isolated by ultracentrifugation was able to suppress Aß-induced vascular inflammation, improve Aß clearance, and induce endothelial nitric oxide production.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/sangue , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Apolipoproteínas B/deficiência , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Lipoproteínas HDL/metabolismo , Plasma/metabolismo , Adulto , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Bioengenharia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Angiopatia Amiloide Cerebral/sangue , Angiopatia Amiloide Cerebral/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 11(1): 6, 2019 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The annual incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the United States is over 2.5 million, with approximately 3-5 million people living with chronic sequelae. Compared with moderate-severe TBI, the long-term effects of mild TBI (mTBI) are less understood but important to address, particularly for contact sport athletes and military personnel who have high mTBI exposure. The purpose of this study was to determine the behavioural and neuropathological phenotypes induced by the Closed-Head Impact Model of Engineered Rotational Acceleration (CHIMERA) model of mTBI in both wild-type (WT) and APP/PS1 mice up to 8 months post-injury. METHODS: Male WT and APP/PS1 littermates were randomized to sham or repetitive mild TBI (rmTBI; 2 × 0.5 J impacts 24 h apart) groups at 5.7 months of age. Animals were assessed up to 8 months post-injury for acute neurological deficits using the loss of righting reflex (LRR) and Neurological Severity Score (NSS) tasks, and chronic behavioural changes using the passive avoidance (PA), Barnes maze (BM), elevated plus maze (EPM) and rotarod (RR) tasks. Neuropathological assessments included white matter damage; grey matter inflammation; and measures of Aß levels, deposition, and aducanumab binding activity. RESULTS: The very mild CHIMERA rmTBI conditions used here produced no significant acute neurological or motor deficits in WT and APP/PS1 mice, but they profoundly inhibited extinction of fear memory specifically in APP/PS1 mice over the 8-month assessment period. Spatial learning and memory were affected by both injury and genotype. Anxiety and risk-taking behaviour were affected by injury but not genotype. CHIMERA rmTBI induced chronic white matter microgliosis, axonal injury and astrogliosis independent of genotype in the optic tract but not the corpus callosum, and it altered microgliosis in APP/PS1 amygdala and hippocampus. Finally, rmTBI did not alter long-term tau, Aß or amyloid levels, but it increased aducanumab binding activity. CONCLUSIONS: CHIMERA is a useful model to investigate the chronic consequences of rmTBI, including behavioural abnormalities consistent with features of post-traumatic stress disorder and inflammation of both white and grey matter. The presence of human Aß greatly modified extinction of fear memory after rmTBI.


Assuntos
Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide , Concussão Encefálica/patologia , Concussão Encefálica/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Fenótipo , Presenilina-1 , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/genética , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Concussão Encefálica/genética , Doença Crônica , Medo/fisiologia , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Presenilina-1/genética
20.
Alzheimers Dement ; 15(1): 158-167, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642436

RESUMO

Increasing evidence recognizes Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a multifactorial and heterogeneous disease with multiple contributors to its pathophysiology, including vascular dysfunction. The recently updated AD Research Framework put forth by the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association describes a biomarker-based pathologic definition of AD focused on amyloid, tau, and neuronal injury. In response to this article, here we first discussed evidence that vascular dysfunction is an important early event in AD pathophysiology. Next, we examined various imaging sequences that could be easily implemented to evaluate different types of vascular dysfunction associated with, and/or contributing to, AD pathophysiology, including changes in blood-brain barrier integrity and cerebral blood flow. Vascular imaging biomarkers of small vessel disease of the brain, which is responsible for >50% of dementia worldwide, including AD, are already established, well characterized, and easy to recognize. We suggest that these vascular biomarkers should be incorporated into the AD Research Framework to gain a better understanding of AD pathophysiology and aid in treatment efforts.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores , Doenças Vasculares/fisiopatologia , Substância Branca/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Humanos , National Institute on Aging (U.S.) , Estados Unidos
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