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Ocul Surf ; 17(2): 241-249, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831252


PURPOSE: Dry eye disease (DED) is one of the most prevalent ocular surface disorders that presents clinically. Recently, the semifluorinated alkane (SFA) perfluorohexyloctane (NovaTears®; EvoTears®) entered the market for the management of evaporative DED, while perfluorobutylpentane has been used as a vehicle to enhance ocular drug delivery. This study evaluated the mechanisms by which SFAs might improve therapeutic outcomes in DED. METHODS: Interactions of both SFAs with the corneal surface were evaluated ex vivo using high-speed photography. The in vivo influence of SFAs on tear fluid dynamics was evaluated in healthy rabbit eyes observing changes in lipid layer grade, tear evaporation rate, tear volume and tear osmolarity. Furthermore, ocular tolerability was confirmed by clinical scoring and sodium fluorescein staining. RESULTS: Ex vivo studies demonstrated that both SFAs rapidly spread on the ocular surface with their contact angle on the cornea being virtually zero. A significant improvement in lipid layer grade was observed immediately after instillation of both SFAs in vivo, although the improvement was more sustained upon instillation of perfluorohexyloctane with a statistically significant difference compared to saline instillation evident from day five onwards. No significant changes in tear evaporation rate, volume or osmolarity, nor any signs of ocular irritation were observed after application of either SFA over the seven-day study period. CONCLUSION: Both SFAs showed excellent spreading on the ocular surface. Perfluorohexyloctane improved the lipid layer grade significantly after topical application supporting its potential to stabilise the tear film lipid layer and thus provide symptomatic relief in evaporative DED.

Córnea/patologia , Síndromes do Olho Seco/diagnóstico , Fluorocarbonos/administração & dosagem , Lágrimas/metabolismo , Animais , Córnea/efeitos dos fármacos , Córnea/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Síndromes do Olho Seco/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes do Olho Seco/metabolismo , Soluções Oftálmicas/administração & dosagem , Concentração Osmolar , Coelhos
Sci Rep ; 7: 40235, 2017 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28067331


The dynamics of transient current distributions in superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films were investigated during and immediately following an external field ramp, using high-speed (real-time) Magneto-Optical Imaging and calculation of dynamic current profiles. A number of qualitatively unique and previously unobserved features are seen in this novel analysis of the evolution of supercurrent during penetration. As magnetic field ramps up from zero, the dynamic current profile is characterized by strong peaks, the magnitude of which exceed the conventional critical current density (as determined from static current profiles). These peaks develop close to the sample edges, initially resembling screening currents but quickly growing in intensity as the external field increases. A discontinuity in field and current behaviour is newly observed, indicating a novel transition from increasing peak current toward relaxation behaviour. After this transition, the current peaks move toward the centre of the sample while reducing in intensity as magnetic vortices penetrate inward. This motion slows exponentially with time, with the current distribution in the long-time limit reducing to the expected Kim-model profile.

Sci Rep ; 5: 8677, 2015 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25728772


The glass-like vortex distribution in pulsed laser deposited YBa2Cu3O(7-x) thin films is observed by scanning superconducting quantum interference device microscopy and analysed for ordering after cooling in magnetic fields significantly smaller than the Earth's field. Autocorrelation calculations on this distribution show a weak short-range positional order, while Delaunay triangulation shows a near-complete lack of orientational order. The distribution of these vortices is finally characterised as an isotropic vortex glass. Abnormally closely spaced groups of vortices, which are statistically unlikely to occur, are observed above a threshold magnetic field. The origin of these groups is discussed, but will require further investigation.