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2.
Thromb Res ; 182: 12-19, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434018

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have expanded the options for antithrombotic therapy. DOAC-related major bleeds are associated with favorable outcomes compared to warfarin in clinical trials and routine practice. However, it is unclear whether management of DOAC-associated major bleeding incurs higher resource utilization and costs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We screened medical records of patients ≥ 66 years with atrial fibrillation admitted to one of five tertiary care hospitals in Ontario, Canada with a hemorrhage. We abstracted bleeds involving DOACs or warfarin and linked them to administrative databases to capture length of hospital stay, blood product use, procedural interventions, intensive care unit (ICU) utilization and related direct medical costs. To control for confounders, multivariate logistic and linear regressions were used for binary and linear outcomes respectively. RESULTS: Among 19,061 records screened, 1978 (10.4%) cases involving 1632 patients met criteria of oral anticoagulant-associated bleeding. Baseline characteristics between DOAC and warfarin groups were similar. Blood product costs were higher for DOACs (all comparisons DOACs vs. warfarin, $1456 vs. $1109, mean difference $347, 95% CI $185 to $509), but length of stay and ICU use were similar. Mean direct medical costs did not differ ($9217 vs. $10,790, adjusted relative ratio 0.94, 95% CI 0.84-1.05). CONCLUSIONS: Prior to introduction of DOAC-specific reversal agents, resource utilization and medical costs were comparable between DOAC- and warfarin-associated major bleeds, despite marginally higher blood product costs incurred by the former. Resource intensity associated with anticoagulant-related bleeding remains high, and our data provide measures for cost-effectiveness evaluation of emerging DOAC antidotes.

3.
J Thromb Haemost ; 17(12): 2141-2151, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear if direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) is efficacious and safe for prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in ambulatory patients with cancer. METHODS: We performed a systematic review using EMBASE, MEDLINE, and CENTRAL. Inclusion criteria included adult ambulatory patients with cancer, prophylactic use of DOAC, and randomized controlled trials. Exclusion criteria included pediatric patients, inpatient or postoperative setting, therapeutic indication of DOAC, or non-phase III randomized controlled trial. Two authors screened/reviewed articles and abstracted the data. Meta-analysis was performed using random-effects model. Efficacy outcome included overall and symptomatic VTE incidence during the first 6 months. Safety outcomes included major bleeding and clinically relevant non-major bleeding (CRNMB) incidence during the on-treatment period. Subgroup analysis was performed for intermediate- and high-risk Khorana score. RESULTS: A total of 202 records were identified and 28 full-text articles were assessed. Two studies with 1415 participants were included for meta-analysis. For DOAC vs placebo, the relative risks for overall and symptomatic VTE incidence by 6 months were 0.56 (0.35-0.89) and 0.58 (0.29-1.13), respectively. The relative risks for major bleeding and CRNMB while on-treatment were 1.96 (0.80-4.82) and 1.28 (0.74-2.20), respectively. Patients with high-risk Khorana score (3+) derived the largest absolute risk reduction of VTE. CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose DOAC reduces the rate of overall VTE in higher risk cancer patients starting systemic chemotherapy. It may reduce the rate of symptomatic VTE but increase the likelihood of bleeding.

4.
Haematologica ; 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273089

RESUMO

In patients with cancer-associated venous thromboembolism, knowledge on the estimated rate of recurrent events is important for clinical decision regarding anticoagulant therapy. The Ottawa score is a clinical prediction rule designed for this purpose, stratifying patients according to their risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism during the first 6 months of anticoagulation. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies validating either the Ottawa score in its original or modified version. Two investigators independently reviewed the relevant articles published from 06/01/2012 to 12/15/2018 and indexed in MEDLINE and EMBASE. Nine eligible studies were identified including 14,963 patients. The original score classified 49.3% of the patients as high-risk, with a sensitivity of 0.7 (95% confidence interval 0.6-0.8), a 6-month pooled rate of recurrent venous thromboembolism of 18.6% (95% confidence interval 13.9-23.9). In the low-risk group, recurrence rate was 7.3% (95% confidence interval 3.4-12.5). The modified score classified 19.8% of the patients at low-risk, with a sensitivity of 0.9 (95% confidence interval 0.4-1.0) and a 6-month pooled rate of recurrent venous thromboembolism of 2.2% (95% confidence interval 1.6-2.9). In the high-risk group, recurrence rate was 10.1% (95% confidence interval 6.4-14.6). Limitations of our analysis included type and dosing of anticoagulant therapy. We conclude that new therapeutic strategies are needed in patients at high-risk for recurrent cancer-associated venous thromboembolism. Low-risk patients, as per the modified score, could be good candidates to oral anticoagulation (PROSPERO CRD42018099506).

9.
N Engl J Med ; 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30511879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with active cancer have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism, which results in substantial morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditures. The Khorana score (range, 0 to 6, with higher scores indicating a higher risk of venous thromboembolism) has been validated to identify patients with cancer at elevated risk for this complication and may help select those who could benefit from thromboprophylaxis. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial assessing the efficacy and safety of apixaban (2.5 mg twice daily) for thromboprophylaxis in ambulatory patients with cancer who were at intermediate-to-high risk for venous thromboembolism (Khorana score, ≥2) and were initiating chemotherapy. The primary efficacy outcome was objectively documented venous thromboembolism over a follow-up period of 180 days. The main safety outcome was a major bleeding episode. RESULTS: Of the 574 patients who underwent randomization, 563 were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. Venous thromboembolism occurred in 12 of 288 patients (4.2%) in the apixaban group and in 28 of 275 patients (10.2%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26 to 0.65; P<0.001). In the modified intention-to-treat analysis, major bleeding occurred in 10 patients (3.5%) in the apixaban group and in 5 patients (1.8%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.01 to 3.95; P=0.046). During the treatment period, major bleeding occurred in 6 patients (2.1%) in the apixaban group and in 3 patients (1.1%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.89; 95% CI, 0.39 to 9.24). CONCLUSIONS: Apixaban therapy resulted in a significantly lower rate of venous thromboembolism than did placebo among intermediate-to-high-risk ambulatory patients with cancer who were starting chemotherapy. The rate of major bleeding episodes was higher with apixaban than with placebo. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and Bristol-Myers Squibb-Pfizer Alliance; AVERT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02048865 .).

10.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 2(4): 670-677, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349885

RESUMO

Introduction: Risk factors for exercise limitation after acute pulmonary embolism (PE) are unknown. As a planned sub-study of the prospective, multicenter ELOPE (Evaluation of Long-term Outcomes after PE) Study, we aimed to describe the results of serial imaging by computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and perfusion scan during 1 year after a first episode of acute pulmonary embolism, and to assess the association between imaging parameters and exercise limitation at 1 year. Methods: In a prospective cohort study, 100 patients were recruited between June 2010 and February 2013 at five Canadian university-affiliated hospitals. CT pulmonary angiography was performed at baseline and 12 months, perfusion scan at 6 and 12 months, and cardio-pulmonary exercise testing at 1 and 12 months. Imaging parameters included: on CT pulmonary angiography, CT obstruction index (CTO) (% clot burden in the pulmonary vasculature), and on perfusion scan, pulmonary vascular obstruction (PVO) (% perfusion defect). Abnormal cardio-pulmonary exercise test (primary outcome) was defined as percent of predicted peak oxygen uptake (VO2) <80%. Results: Mean (median; SD) CT obstruction index was 28.1% (27.5%; 18.3%) at baseline, 1.2% (0%; 4.3%) at 12 months. Mean (median; SD) pulmonary vascular obstruction was 6.0% (0%; 9.6%) at 6 months, 5.6% (0%; 9.8%) at 12 months. Eighty-six patients had exercise testing at 12 months, and 46.5% had VO2 < 80% predicted. Mean (median; SD) CT obstruction index at 1 year was similar in patients with percent-predicted VO2 peak <80% vs >80% on 1-year cardio-pulmonary exercise testing (1.4% [0%; 5.7%] vs 1.0% [0%; 2.4%]; P = .70). Mean (SD) pulmonary vascular obstruction at 6 and at 12 months was similar in patients with percent-predicted VO2 peak <80% vs >80% (6 months: 5.9% [0%; 10.4%] vs 6.2% [4.5%; 9.0%]; P = .91; 12 months: 5.1% [0%; 10.2%] vs 6.0% [0%; 9.7%]; P = .71). Conclusions: Imaging findings after pulmonary embolism did not predict exercise limitation. Residual thrombus does not appear to explain long-term functional limitation after pulmonary embolism.

11.
JAMA ; 320(15): 1583-1594, 2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30326130

RESUMO

Importance: Venous thromboembolism (VTE), comprising deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is a common and potentially fatal disease. Objective: To summarize the advances in diagnosis and treatment of VTE of the past 5 years. Evidence Review: A systematic search was conducted in EMBASE Classic, EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, and other nonindexed citations using broad terms for diagnosis and treatment of VTE to find systematic reviews and meta-analyses, randomized trials, and prospective cohort studies published between January 1, 2013, and July 31, 2018. The 10th edition of the American College of Chest Physicians Antithrombotic Therapy Guidelines was screened to identify additional studies. Screening of titles, abstracts, and, subsequently, full-text articles was performed in duplicate, as well as data extraction and risk-of-bias assessment of the included articles. Findings: Thirty-two articles were included in this review. The application of an age-adjusted D-dimer threshold in patients with suspected PE has increased the number of patients in whom imaging can be withheld. The Pulmonary Embolism Rule-Out Criteria safely exclude PE when the pretest probability is low. The introduction of direct oral anticoagulants has allowed for a simplified treatment of VTE with a lower risk of bleeding regardless of etiology or extent of the VTE (except for massive PE) and has made extended secondary prevention more acceptable. Thrombolysis is best reserved for patients with massive PE or those with DVT and threatened limb loss. Insertion of inferior vena cava filters should be avoided unless anticoagulation is absolutely contraindicated in patients with recent acute VTE. Graduated compression stockings are no longer recommended to treat DVT but may be used when acute or chronic symptoms are present. Anticoagulation may no longer be indicated for patients with isolated distal DVT at low risk of recurrence. Conclusions and Relevance: Over the past 5 years, substantial progress has been made in VTE management, allowing for diagnostic and therapeutic strategies tailored to individual patient characteristics, preferences, and values.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/terapia , Administração Oral , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Humanos , Trombólise Mecânica , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/terapia
12.
Chest ; 2018 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Using data from the Reduced-Dose Rivaroxaban in the Long-Term Prevention of Recurrent Symptomatic Venous Thromboembolism (EINSTEIN-CHOICE) trial, this study assessed cost impact of continued anticoagulation therapy with rivaroxaban vs aspirin. METHODS: Total health-care costs (2016 USD) associated with rivaroxaban and aspirin were calculated as the sum of clinical event costs and drug costs from a US managed care perspective. Clinical event costs were calculated by multiplying event rate by cost of care. One-year Kaplan-Meier clinical event rates for recurrent pulmonary embolism, recurrent DVT, all-cause mortality, and bleeding were obtained from EINSTEIN-CHOICE. Cost of care was determined by literature review. Drug costs were the product of drug price (wholesale acquisition cost) and treatment duration. A one-way sensitivity analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Rivaroxaban users had lower per patient per month (PPPM) clinical event costs compared with aspirin users ($123, $243, and $381 for rivaroxaban 10 mg, rivaroxaban 20 mg, and aspirin, respectively). However, vs aspirin, PPPM total health-care costs were $24 higher for patients treated with rivaroxaban 10 mg ($143 higher for rivaroxaban 20 mg) due to higher cost of rivaroxaban. With a 15% discount for rivaroxaban 10 mg, the lower cost of clinical events for the rivaroxaban-treated patients more than fully offset the higher drug costs, and yielded a $19 lower total health-care cost. CONCLUSIONS: Continued therapy with rivaroxaban 10 and 20 mg vs aspirin was associated with lower clinical event costs but higher total health-care costs; with a 15% drug discount rivaroxaban 10 mg had lower total health-care costs than aspirin.

13.
Thromb Res ; 168: 121-129, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30064683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Full- or lower-dose anticoagulant therapy or aspirin can be used for extended therapy in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE), but information on their relative benefit-risk profiles is limited. METHODS: Data from the EINSTEIN-CHOICE trial were used to compare the benefit-risk profiles of extended treatment with rivaroxaban (20 or 10 mg once daily) and aspirin (100 mg once daily) in VTE patients who had completed 6 to 12 months of anticoagulation therapy. One-year cumulative incidences of recurrent VTE and major bleeding were estimated and benefits and risks were calculated by determining the between group differences in a hypothetical population of 10,000 VTE patients treated for 1 year. FINDINGS: A total of 1107 patients were treated with 20 mg of rivaroxaban, 1127 with 10 mg of rivaroxaban, and 1131 with aspirin. The cumulative incidences of recurrent VTE in the rivaroxaban 20-mg, rivaroxaban 10-mg and aspirin groups were 1.9%, 1.6%, and 5.0%, respectively, whereas the cumulative incidences of major bleeding were 0.7%, 0.4% and 0.5%, respectively. The incidences of the combined outcome of recurrent VTE and major bleeding were 2.8% and 3.4% lower in the rivaroxaban 20-mg and 10-mg groups than in the aspirin group. For 10,000 patients treated for 1 year, there would be 284 (95% confidence interval [CI] 106 to 462) and 339 (95% CI 165 to 512) fewer events with rivaroxaban 20 mg or 10 mg than with aspirin. INTERPRETATION: Compared with aspirin, extended anticoagulation with once daily rivaroxaban reduces recurrent VTE with a favourable benefit-risk profile. FUNDING: Bayer AG.


Assuntos
Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Aspirina/farmacologia , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/farmacologia , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/patologia
14.
Blood ; 132(17): 1842-1850, 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30042098

RESUMO

Many hemostatic factors are associated with age and age-related diseases; however, much remains unknown about the biological mechanisms linking aging and hemostatic factors. DNA methylation is a novel means by which to assess epigenetic aging, which is a measure of age and the aging processes as determined by altered epigenetic states. We used a meta-analysis approach to examine the association between measures of epigenetic aging and hemostatic factors, as well as a clotting time measure. For fibrinogen, we performed European and African ancestry-specific meta-analyses which were then combined via a random effects meta-analysis. For all other measures we could not estimate ancestry-specific effects and used a single fixed effects meta-analysis. We found that 1-year higher extrinsic epigenetic age as compared with chronological age was associated with higher fibrinogen (0.004 g/L/y; 95% confidence interval, 0.001-0.007; P = .01) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1; 0.13 U/mL/y; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.20; P = 6.6 × 10-5) concentrations, as well as lower activated partial thromboplastin time, a measure of clotting time. We replicated PAI-1 associations using an independent cohort. To further elucidate potential functional mechanisms, we associated epigenetic aging with expression levels of the PAI-1 protein encoding gene (SERPINE1) and the 3 fibrinogen subunit-encoding genes (FGA, FGG, and FGB) in both peripheral blood and aorta intima-media samples. We observed associations between accelerated epigenetic aging and transcription of FGG in both tissues. Collectively, our results indicate that accelerated epigenetic aging is associated with a procoagulation hemostatic profile, and that epigenetic aging may regulate hemostasis in part via gene transcription.

15.
Thromb Res ; 164 Suppl 1: S124-S129, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29703470

RESUMO

Patients with active cancer have a heightened risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). This risk is further increased by the initiation of chemotherapy. Although previous studies have suggested that the use of parenteral thromboprophylaxis in all ambulatory cancer patients receiving chemotherapy significantly decreases the rate of VTE, current clinical practice guidelines do not recommend routine use of thromboprophylaxis in this patient population. A major criticism of these studies has been the inclusion of patients at lower risk for VTE, which may have diluted the potential beneficial effect of the parenteral thromboprophylaxis. It is therefore imperative to appropriately risk stratify ambulatory cancer patients using a validated scoring system (e.g. Khorana risk score) in order to identify those most likely to benefit from thromboprophylaxis. Direct oral anticoagulants, such as apixaban, may offer a convenient and safe option for thromboprophylaxis. As such, AVERT will randomize 574 ambulatory cancer patients receiving chemotherapy who are at high-risk for VTE (as defined by a Khorana score of ≥2) to Apixaban 2.5 mg BID versus placebo. The primary study outcome will be the first episode of objectively documented symptomatic or incidental VTE (deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism) within the first 6 months (180 days ±â€¯3) following initiation of the blinded study drug for both intervention and placebo groups. The secondary safety outcomes include major bleeding, clinically relevant non-major bleeding, and overall survival rates. This study will hopefully offer evidence regarding the benefit of apixaban in ambulatory patients at high risk for VTE receiving chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Inibidores do Fator Xa/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Piridonas/farmacologia
16.
Blood Adv ; 2(7): 788-796, 2018 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29632234

RESUMO

The optimal duration of anticoagulation for venous thromboembolism (VTE) is uncertain. In this prespecified analysis, we used data from 2 randomized trials, which compared once-daily rivaroxaban (20 mg or 10 mg) with aspirin (100 mg) or placebo for extended VTE treatment to estimate the risk of recurrence according to baseline risk factor profiles. Index VTE events were centrally classified as unprovoked, or provoked by major transient or persistent, or minor transient or persistent risk factors, and rates of recurrence at 1 year were calculated. A total of 2832 patients received rivaroxaban; 1131 received aspirin, and 590 received placebo. With unprovoked VTE, rates of recurrence in the 1173 patients given rivaroxaban, the 468 given aspirin, and the 243 given placebo were 2.0%, 5.9%, and 10.0%, respectively. There were no recurrences in patients with VTE provoked by major transient risk factors. With VTE provoked by minor persistent risk factors, recurrence rates in the 1184 patients given rivaroxaban, the 466 given aspirin, and the 248 given placebo were 2.4%, 4.5%, and 10.7%, respectively. For patients with minor transient risk factors, recurrence rates were 0.4% in the 268 patients given rivaroxaban, 4.2% in the 121 given aspirin, and 7.1% in the 56 given placebo. Recurrence rates in patients with VTE provoked by minor persistent or minor transient risk factors were not significantly lower than that with unprovoked VTE (hazard ratio [HR], 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56-1.16; and HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.32-1.30, respectively). Therefore, such patients may also benefit from extended anticoagulation therapy.

17.
N Engl J Med ; 378(8): 699-707, 2018 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29466159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical trials and meta-analyses have suggested that aspirin may be effective for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (proximal deep-vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism) after total hip or total knee arthroplasty, but comparisons with direct oral anticoagulants are lacking for prophylaxis beyond hospital discharge. METHODS: We performed a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial involving patients who were undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty. All the patients received once-daily oral rivaroxaban (10 mg) until postoperative day 5 and then were randomly assigned to continue rivaroxaban or switch to aspirin (81 mg daily) for an additional 9 days after total knee arthroplasty or for 30 days after total hip arthroplasty. Patients were followed for 90 days for symptomatic venous thromboembolism (the primary effectiveness outcome) and bleeding complications, including major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding (the primary safety outcome). RESULTS: A total of 3424 patients (1804 undergoing total hip arthroplasty and 1620 undergoing total knee arthroplasty) were enrolled in the trial. Venous thromboembolism occurred in 11 of 1707 patients (0.64%) in the aspirin group and in 12 of 1717 patients (0.70%) in the rivaroxaban group (difference, 0.06 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.55 to 0.66; P<0.001 for noninferiority and P=0.84 for superiority). Major bleeding complications occurred in 8 patients (0.47%) in the aspirin group and in 5 (0.29%) in the rivaroxaban group (difference, 0.18 percentage points; 95% CI, -0.65 to 0.29; P=0.42). Clinically important bleeding occurred in 22 patients (1.29%) in the aspirin group and in 17 (0.99%) in the rivaroxaban group (difference, 0.30 percentage points; 95% CI, -1.07 to 0.47; P=0.43). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients who received 5 days of rivaroxaban prophylaxis after total hip or total knee arthroplasty, extended prophylaxis with aspirin was not significantly different from rivaroxaban in the prevention of symptomatic venous thromboembolism. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01720108 .).


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Artroplastia do Joelho , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos
18.
J Med Econ ; 21(6): 587-594, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29469638

RESUMO

AIMS: The EINSTEIN-Extension trial (EINSTEIN-EXT) found that continued treatment with rivaroxaban for an additional 6 or 12 months (vs placebo) after 6-12 months of initial anticoagulation significantly reduced the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) with a small non-significant increased risk of major bleeding (none fatal or in critical site). This study aimed to compare total healthcare cost between rivaroxaban and placebo, based on the EINSTEIN-EXT event rates. METHODS: Total healthcare cost was calculated as the sum of treatment and clinical event costs from a US managed care perspective. Treatment duration and event rates were obtained from the EINSTEIN-EXT study. Adjustment on treatment duration was made by assuming a 10% non-adherence rate. Drug costs were based on wholesale acquisition costs. Cost estimates for clinical events (i.e. recurrent deep vein thrombosis [DVT], recurrent pulmonary embolism, major bleeding, clinically relevant non-major bleeding) were determined from the literature. Results were examined over a ±20% range of each cost component and over 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of event rate differences in deterministic (one-way) and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA). RESULTS: Total healthcare cost was $1,454 lower for rivaroxaban-treated (vs placebo-treated) patients in the base-case, with a lower clinical event cost fully offsetting drug cost. The cost savings of recurrent DVT alone (-$3,102) was greater than drug cost ($2,723). Total healthcare cost remained lower for rivaroxaban in the majority (73%) of PSA (cost difference [95% CI] = -$1,454 [-$2,396, $1,231]). LIMITATIONS: This study was conducted over the 1-year observation period of the EINSTEIN-EXT trial, which limited "real-world" applicability and examination of long-term economic impact. Assumptions on drug and clinical event costs were US-based and, thus, not applicable to other healthcare systems. CONCLUSIONS: Total healthcare costs were estimated to be lower for patients continuing rivaroxaban therapy compared to those receiving placebo in VTE patients who had completed 6-12 months of VTE treatment.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econométricos , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/economia , Fatores de Tempo , Tromboembolia Venosa/economia
19.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 44(4): 341-347, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29329472

RESUMO

Small studies have suggested differences in demographics and outcomes between left- and right-sided deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and also unilateral versus bilateral DVT. We investigated the clinical presentation and outcomes of patients with DVT based on thrombus sidedness. The authors used the data from the Registro Informatizado Enfermedad TromboEmbólica (RIETE) database (2001-2016) to identify patients with symptomatic proximal lower-extremity DVT. Main outcomes included cumulative 90-day symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) and 1-year mortality. Overall, 30,445 patients were included. The majority of DVTs occurred in the left leg (16,421 left-sided, 12,643 right-sided, and 1,390 bilateral; p < 0.001 for chi-squared test comparing all three groups). Comorbidities were relatively similar in those with left-sided and right-sided DVT. Compared with those with left-sided DVT, patients with right-sided DVT had higher relative frequency of PE (26% versus 23%, p < 0.001) and 1-year mortality (odds ratio [OR]: 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-1.18). This difference in mortality did not persist after multivariable adjustment (OR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.93-1.1). Patients with bilateral DVT had a greater burden of comorbidities such as heart failure, and recent surgery compared with those with unilateral DVT (p < 0.001), and higher relative frequency of PE (48%), and 1-year mortality (24.1%). Worse outcomes in patients with bilateral DVT were attenuated but persisted after multivariable adjustment for demographics and risk factors (OR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.43-1.87). Patients with bilateral DVT had worse outcomes during and after discontinuation of anticoagulation. There is a left-sided preponderance for proximal lower-extremity DVT. Compared with those with left-sided DVT, patients with right-sided DVT have slightly higher rates of PE. Bilateral DVT is associated with markedly worse short-term and 1-year outcomes.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Sistema de Registros , Trombose Venosa , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose Venosa/mortalidade , Trombose Venosa/patologia
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