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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770188

RESUMO

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the leading form of gender-based violence globally and increases during times of conflict and displacement. To reduce IPV and encourage help-seeking, a two-phase community-based intervention was co-designed with Rohingya in Malaysia and Syrians in Lebanon. Three day workshops, utilizing a social norms-based mental health-integrated approach, were implemented for women and men in each country (n = 148). Pre- to post-measures indicated reductions in beliefs about acceptability of violence and rigid gender norms, and improvements in mental health, functioning, coping, and self-efficacy for women and men following workshop participation. Workshop participation was also associated with increased help-seeking intent, for both mental health and IPV (victims and perpetrators). Workshops included community design of poster campaigns to address IPV, which were then tested in each setting using a randomized controlled trial in Malaysia (n = 240) and a matched cluster comparison in Lebanon (n = 260). Women in both settings found IPV less acceptable in the poster condition. Help-seeking preferences were also influenced by the poster for women and men in both countries. This participatory intervention research can provide a roadmap for use in other settings, emphasizing the value of community-generated solutions to IPV among displaced populations.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Refugiados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Normas Sociais , Síria
2.
Confl Health ; 14(1): 71, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292413

RESUMO

Major knowledge gaps remain concerning the most effective ways to address mental health and psychosocial needs of populations affected by humanitarian crises. The Research for Health in Humanitarian Crisis (R2HC) program aims to strengthen humanitarian health practice and policy through research. As a significant portion of R2HC's research has focused on mental health and psychosocial support interventions, the program has been interested in strengthening a community of practice in this field. Following a meeting between grantees, we set out to provide an overview of the R2HC portfolio, and draw lessons learned. In this paper, we discuss the mental health and psychosocial support-focused research projects funded by R2HC; review the implications of initial findings from this research portfolio; and highlight four remaining knowledge gaps in this field. Between 2014 and 2019, R2HC funded 18 academic-practitioner partnerships focused on mental health and psychosocial support, comprising 38% of the overall portfolio (18 of 48 projects) at a value of approximately 7.2 million GBP. All projects have focused on evaluating the impact of interventions. In line with consensus-based recommendations to consider a wide range of mental health and psychosocial needs in humanitarian settings, research projects have evaluated diverse interventions. Findings so far have both challenged and confirmed widely-held assumptions about the effectiveness of mental health and psychosocial interventions in humanitarian settings. They point to the importance of building effective, sustained, and diverse partnerships between scholars, humanitarian practitioners, and funders, to ensure long-term program improvements and appropriate evidence-informed decision making. Further research needs to fill knowledge gaps regarding how to: scale-up interventions that have been found to be effective (e.g., questions related to integration across sectors, adaptation of interventions across different contexts, and optimal care systems); address neglected mental health conditions and populations (e.g., elderly, people with disabilities, sexual minorities, people with severe, pre-existing mental disorders); build on available local resources and supports (e.g., how to build on traditional, religious healing and community-wide social support practices); and ensure equity, quality, fidelity, and sustainability for interventions in real-world contexts (e.g., answering questions about how interventions from controlled studies can be transferred to more representative humanitarian contexts).

3.
Toxicol Ind Health ; 36(9): 689-702, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241763

RESUMO

In Spring/Summer 2020, most individuals living in the United States experienced several months of social distancing and stay-at-home orders because of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Clinicians, restaurant cooks, cashiers, transit operators, and other essential workers (EWs), however, continued to work outside the home during this time in order to keep others alive and maintain a functioning society. In the United States, EWs are often low-income persons of color who are more likely to face socioeconomic vulnerabilities, systemic racism, and health inequities. To assess the various impacts of COVID-19 on EWs, an online survey was distributed to a representative sample of individuals residing in six states during May/June 2020. The sample included 990 individuals who identified as EWs and 736 nonessential workers (NWs). We assessed differences between EW and NW respondents according to three categories related to health equity and social determinants of health: (1) demographics (e.g. race/ethnicity); (2) COVID-19 exposure risk pathways (e.g. ability to social distance); and (3) COVID-19 risk perceptions (e.g. perceived risk of contracting COVID-19). EWs were more likely to be Black or Hispanic than NWs and also had lower incomes and education levels on average. Unsurprisingly, EWs were substantially more likely to report working outside the home and less likely to report social distancing and wearing masks indoors as compared to NWs. EWs also perceived a slightly greater risk of contracting COVID-19. These findings, which we discuss in the context of persistent structural inequalities, systemic racism, and health inequities within the United States, highlight ways in which COVID-19 exacerbates existing socioeconomic vulnerabilities faced by EWs.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Equidade em Saúde , Indústrias/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/psicologia , Comércio , Culinária , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
4.
JMIR Form Res ; 4(10): e22043, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had numerous worldwide effects. In the United States, there have been 8.3 million cases and nearly 222,000 deaths as of October 21, 2020. Based on previous studies of mental health during outbreaks, the mental health of the population will be negatively affected in the aftermath of this pandemic. The long-term nature of this pandemic may lead to unforeseen mental health outcomes and/or unexpected relationships between demographic factors and mental health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This research focused on assessing the mental health status of adults in the United States during the early weeks of an unfolding pandemic. METHODS: Data was collected from English-speaking adults from early April to early June 2020 using an online survey. The final convenience sample included 1083 US residents. The 71-item survey consisted of demographic questions, mental health and well-being measures, a coping mechanisms checklist, and questions about COVID-19-specific concerns. Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression was used to explore associations among demographic variables and mental health outcomes. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine associations among demographic variables, COVID-19-specific concerns, and mental health and well-being outcomes. RESULTS: Approximately 50% (536/1076) of the US sample was aged ≥45 years. Most of the sample was White (1013/1054, 96%), non-Hispanic (985/1058, 93%), and female (884/1073, 82%). Participants reported high rates of depression (295/1034, 29%), anxiety (342/1007, 34%), and stress (773/1058, 73%). Older individuals were less likely to report depressive symptomology (OR 0.78, P<.001) and anxiety symptomology (OR 0.72, P<.001); in addition, they had lower stress scores (-0.15 points, SE 0.01, P<.001) and increased well-being scores (1.86 points, SE 0.22, P<.001). Individuals who were no longer working due to COVID-19 were 2.25 times more likely to report symptoms of depression (P=.02), had a 0.51-point increase in stress (SE 0.17, P=.02), and a 3.9-point decrease in well-being scores (SE 1.49, P=.009) compared to individuals who were working remotely before and after COVID-19. Individuals who had partial or no insurance coverage were 2-3 times more likely to report depressive symptomology compared to individuals with full coverage (P=.02 and P=.01, respectively). Individuals who were on Medicare/Medicaid and individuals with no coverage were 1.97 and 4.48 times more likely to report moderate or severe anxiety, respectively (P=.03 and P=.01, respectively). Financial and food access concerns were significantly and positively related to depression, anxiety, and stress (all P<.05), and significantly negatively related to well-being (both P<.001). Economy, illness, and death concerns were significantly positively related to overall stress scores (all P<.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that many US residents are experiencing high stress, depressive, and anxiety symptomatology, especially those who are underinsured, uninsured, or unemployed. Longitudinal investigation of these variables is recommended. Health practitioners may provide opportunities to allay concerns or offer coping techniques to individuals in need of mental health care. These messages should be shared in person and through practice websites and social media.

5.
Confl Health ; 14: 60, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843894

RESUMO

Background: Almost 900,000 Rohingya refugees currently reside in refugee camps in Southeastern Bangladesh. Prior to fleeing Myanmar, Rohingya experienced years of systematic human rights violations, in addition to other historical and more recent traumatic events such as the burning of their villages and murder of family members, friends and neighbors. Currently, many Rohingya struggle to meet basic needs in refugee camps in Bangladesh and face mental health-related concerns that appear linked to such challenges. The purpose of this study is to describe systematic human rights violations, traumatic events, daily stressors, and mental health symptoms and to examine relationships between these factors. Methods: Cross-sectional data was collected from a representative sample of 495 Rohingya refugee adults residing in camps in Bangladesh in July and August of 2018. Results: Respondents reported high levels of systematic human rights violations in Myanmar, including restrictions related to expressing thoughts, meeting in groups, travel, religious practices, education, marriage, childbirth, healthcare, and more. Events experienced in Myanmar included exposure to gunfire (99%), destruction of their homes (93%), witnessing dead bodies (92%), torture (56%), forced labor (49%), sexual assault (33%), and other events. More than half (61%) of participants endorsed mental health symptom levels typically indicative of PTSD, and more than two thirds (84%) endorsed levels indicative of emotional distress (symptoms of anxiety and depression). Historic systematic human rights violations, traumatic events, and daily stressors were associated with symptoms of posttraumatic stress, as well as depression and anxiety. Respondents reported numerous stressors associated with current life in the camps in Bangladesh as well as previous stressors, such as harassment, encountered in Myanmar. Conclusions: Findings underscore the impact of systematic human rights violations, targeted violence, and daily stressors on the mental health of Rohingya in Bangladesh. Those working with Rohingya should consider the role of such factors in contributing to poor mental health. This research has the potential to inform interventions targeting such elements. Future research should examine the relationships between mental health and human rights violations over time.

6.
Psychol Med ; 50(2): 342-352, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the frequency of natural hazards in Haiti, disaster risk reduction is crucial. However, evidence suggests that many people exposed to prior disasters do not engage in disaster preparedness, even when they receive training and have adequate resources. This may be partially explained by a link between mental health symptoms and preparedness; however, these components are typically not integrated in intervention. METHODS: The current study assesses effectiveness of an integrated mental health and disaster preparedness intervention. This group-based model was tested in three earthquake-exposed and flood-prone communities (N = 480), across three time points, using a randomized controlled trial design. The 3-day community-based intervention was culturally-adapted, facilitated by trained Haitian lay mental health workers, and focused on enhancing disaster preparedness, reducing mental health symptoms, and fostering community cohesion. RESULTS: Consistent with hypotheses, the intervention increased disaster preparedness, reduced symptoms associated with depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and functional impairment, and increased peer-based help-giving and help-seeking. Mediation models indicated support for the underlying theoretical model, such that the effect of the intervention on preparedness was mediated by mental health, and that effects on mental health were likewise mediated by preparedness. CONCLUSIONS: The community-based mental health-integrated disaster preparedness intervention is effective in improving mental health and preparedness among community members in Haiti vulnerable to natural hazards. This brief intervention has the potential to be scaled up for use with other communities vulnerable to earthquakes, seasonal flooding, and other natural hazards.


Assuntos
Defesa Civil/métodos , Terremotos , Inundações , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Desastres Naturais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Haiti , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 18(1): 296, 2018 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30223822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On 25th April 2015, Nepal experienced a 7.8 magnitude earthquake, followed by countless aftershocks. Nearly 9000 people were killed and over 600,000 homes destroyed. Given the high frequency of earthquake and other natural hazards in Nepal, disaster preparedness is crucial. However, evidence suggests that some people exposed to prior disasters do not engage in risk reduction, even when they receive training and have adequate resources. Mental health symptoms, including those associated with prior disaster exposure, may influence engagement in preparedness. Perceived preparedness for future disasters may in turn influence mental health. Social cohesion may influence both mental health and preparedness. METHODS: We developed and tested a hybrid mental health and disaster preparedness intervention in two earthquake-affected communities in Nepal (N = 240), about 2.5 months after the April 25th, 2015 earthquake. The 3-day intervention was culturally adapted, facilitated by trained Nepalese clinicians and focused on enhancing disaster preparedness, mental health, and community cohesion. Communities were selected based on earthquake impacts and matched on demographic variables. The intervention was administered initially to one community, followed by the other receiving the intervention shortly thereafter. Survey data was collected across three time points. Focus groups were also conducted to examine intervention impact. RESULTS: At pre-intervention baseline, greater depression symptoms and lower social cohesion were associated with less disaster preparedness. Depression and PTSD were associated with lower social cohesion. Participation in the intervention increased disaster preparedness, decreased depression- and PTSD-related symptoms, and increased social cohesion. Mediation models indicated that the effect of intervention on depression was partially explained by preparedness. The effect of the intervention on disaster preparedness was partially explained by social cohesion, and the effect of intervention on depression and on PTSD was also partially explained by social cohesion. Data from focus groups illuminate participant perspectives on components of the intervention associated with preparedness, mental health and social cohesion. CONCLUSIONS: This mental health integrated disaster preparedness intervention is effective in enhancing resilience among earthquake-affected communities in Nepal. This brief, cost-effective group intervention has the potential to be scaled up for use with other communities vulnerable to earthquakes and other natural hazards. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials Registry-India, National Institute of Medical Statistics. Registration number: CTRI/2018/02/011688. http://ctri.nic.in/Clinicaltrials/login.php Retrospectively registered February 5th, 2018. First participant enrolled July 2015.


Assuntos
Defesa Civil/métodos , Terremotos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Desastres Naturais , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Análise por Conglomerados , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal , Meio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Transcult Psychiatry ; 54(3): 304-331, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28540768

RESUMO

The Rohingya of Myanmar are a severely persecuted minority who form one of the largest groups of stateless people; thousands of them reside in refugee camps in southeastern Bangladesh. There has been little research into the mental health consequences of persecution, war, and other historical trauma endured by the Rohingya; nor has the role of daily environmental stressors associated with continued displacement, statelessness, and life in the refugee camps, been thoroughly researched. This cross-sectional study examined: trauma history, daily environmental stressors, and mental health outcomes for 148 Rohingya adults residing in Kutupalong and Nayapara refugee camps in Bangladesh. Results indicated high levels of mental health concerns: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, somatic complaints, and associated functional impairment. Participants also endorsed local idioms of distress, including somatic complaints and concerns associated with spirit possession. The study also found very high levels of daily environmental stressors associated with life in the camps, including problems with food, lack of freedom of movement, and concerns regarding safety. Regression and associated mediation analyses indicated that, while there was a direct effect of trauma exposure on mental health outcomes (PTSD symptoms), daily environmental stressors partially mediated this relationship. Depression symptoms were associated with daily stressors, but not prior trauma exposure. These findings indicate that daily stressors play a pivotal role in mental health outcomes of populations affected by collective violence and statelessness. It is, therefore, important to consider the role and effects of environmental stressors associated with life in refugee camps on the mental health and psychosocial well-being of stateless populations such as the Rohingya, living in protracted humanitarian environments.


Assuntos
Depressão/etnologia , Trauma Psicológico/etnologia , Refugiados/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etnologia , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mianmar/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Interpers Violence ; 29(13): 2509-2523, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24518667

RESUMO

Researchers using the Social Reactions Questionnaire (SRQ; Ullman, 2000) have documented links between women's perceptions of social reactions following sexual assault and trauma-related distress (e.g., self-blame, problem drinking, and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] symptoms). The SRQ has been used primarily with female sexual assault victims with instructions to think about reactions from other people told about the assault. Research has generally relied on cross-sectional methods and assumed that social reactions lead to trauma-related outcomes. Reliance on cross-sectional methods has impeded testing assumptions about directionality (e.g., trauma-related distress might increase negative social reactions from others). Furthermore, links between victims' reports of negative social reactions and distress might reflect an overall negative reporting bias. The current study examined women's perceptions of social reactions for an incident of intimate partner abuse (IPA) reported to law enforcement. At a baseline interview (within approximately 28 days of the IPA incident), we assessed demographic factors, characteristics of the IPA, and social support as well as depression and PTSD symptom severity. One year later, PTSD symptom severity consistently predicted women's reports of negative social reactions from others, though not positive social reactions. This research advances understanding of social reactions and points to the role that PTSD symptom severity may have in contributing to social reactions, not only being a consequence of social reactions.

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