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1.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(12)2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291444

RESUMO

Snakebites are more frequent in the Brazilian Amazon than in other parts of Brazil, representing a high cost for the health system since antivenoms are only available through medical prescription from central municipal hospitals in most cases. The need for a cold chain and physicians usually restricts access to the only effective treatment of a snakebite, the antivenom. The complex topography of the rivers contributes to delays in treatment, and consequently increases the risk of severe complications, chronic sequelae and death. Thus, decentralization of antivenom treatment to primary healthcare facilities in the interior would increase access by indigenous population groups to proper healthcare. To standardize and evaluate the decentralization to low complexity indigenous healthcare units, we suggest the (i) development and validation of standardized operational procedures, (ii) training of professionals in the validated protocol in a referral health unit, (iii) implementation of the protocol in an indigenous healthcare unit, (iv) assessment of perceptions towards and acceptability of the protocol, and (v) estimation of the impact of the protocol's implementation. We expect that antivenom decentralization would shorten the time between diagnosis and treatment and, as such, improve the prognosis of snakebites. As health cosmology among indigenous populations has an important role in maintaining their way of life, the introduction of a new therapeutic strategy to their customs must take into account the beliefs of these peoples. Thus, antivenom administration would be inserted as a crucial therapeutic tool in a world of diverse social, natural and supernatural representations. The information presented here also serves as a basis to advocate for support and promotion of health policy initiatives focused on evidence-based care in snakebite management.

2.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105644

RESUMO

Snake 'dry bites' are characterized by the absence of venom being injected into the victim during a snakebite incident. The dry bite mechanism and diagnosis are quite complex, and the lack of envenoming symptoms in these cases may be misinterpreted as a miraculous treatment or as proof that the bite from the perpetrating snake species is rather harmless. The circumstances of dry bites and their clinical diagnosis are not well-explored in the literature, which may lead to ambiguity amongst treating personnel about whether antivenom is indicated or not. Here, the epidemiology and recorded history of dry bites are reviewed, and the clinical knowledge on the dry bite phenomenon is presented and discussed. Finally, this review proposes a diagnostic and therapeutic protocol to assist medical care after snake dry bites, aiming to improve patient outcomes.

3.
Toxicon ; 187: 245-254, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991937

RESUMO

Scorpion envenomations are a major public health problem in Brazil, and most medically important cases are attributable to the Tityus genus. The objective of this study is to describe the clinical and epidemiological aspects of a series of 151 cases of confirmed scorpion stings, which were treated at the hospitals of two cities in the Western Brazilian Amazon, between June 2014 and December 2019. This study shows that the genus Tityus was the most prevalent. Tityus (Atreus) metuendus (Pocock, 1897) was responsible for the greatest number of cases (68.2%), followed by Tityus (Archaeotityus) silvestris (Pocock, 1897) (14.6%). Most of the envenomations involved males (53.6%), and analysis showed a slight predominance in the group from 40 to 49 years (22.5%). The most affected body regions were feet (49.0%) and hands (31.8%). The time elapsed between the accident and medical care was ≤6 h in 92.1% of cases. Regarding clinical severity, classes I (80.8%) and II (15.9%) predominated. However, there were five (3.3%) class III cases; four for T. metuendus and one for T. silvestris. The most frequent local and systemic manifestations were, respectively, pain (84.1%), paresthesia (34.4%) and mild edema (25.8%), and nausea (9.3%) and myoclonia (8.6%). The clinical manifestations were similar among the patients stung by the different species of scorpions. There were no differences between the manifestations of envenomation caused by T. metuendus, T. silvestris and T. raquelae. For victims of T. apiacas, a higher frequency of piloerection and myoclonia was observed, and was described by the affected patients as a 'sensation of receiving an electric shock' throughout the body. No deaths were registered. The species of greatest epidemiological importance in Manaus is T. metuendus, a species that leads to clinical pictures that do not differ substantially from those observed in other Brazilian regions. T. apiacas causes neurological manifestations that differed from other Tityus species. Our findings suggest that the available antivenoms have little effectiveness when used in the treatment of envenomations by some Amazonian scorpions.


Assuntos
Picadas de Escorpião/epidemiologia , Adulto , Animais , Antivenenos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Venenos de Escorpião , Escorpiões , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
Toxicon X ; 6: 100037, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32550592

RESUMO

Bothrops atrox snakes are mostly endemic of the Amazon rainforest and is certainly the South American pit viper responsible for most of the snakebites in the region. The composition of B. atrox venom is significantly known and has been used to trace the relevance of the venom phenotype for snake biology and for the impacts in the clinics of human patients involved in accidents by B. atrox. However, in spite of the wide distribution and the great medical relevance of B. atrox snakes, B. atrox taxonomy is not fully resolved and the impacts of the lack of taxonomic resolution on the studies focused on venom or envenoming are currently unknown. B. atrox venom presents different degrees of compositional variability and is generally coagulotoxic, inducing systemic hematological disturbances and local tissue damage in snakebite patients. Antivenoms are the effective therapy for attenuating the clinical signs. This review brings a comprehensive discussion of the literature concerning B. atrox snakes encompassing from snake taxonomy, diet and venom composition, towards clinical aspects of snakebite patients and efficacy of the antivenoms. This discussion is highly supported by the contributions that venomics and antivenomics added for the advancement of knowledge of B. atrox snakes, their venoms and the treatment of accidents they evoke.

5.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 58(4): 266-274, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264481

RESUMO

Introduction: Bothrops atrox snakebites are a major public health problem in the Amazon region and also cause hemostatic disorders. In this study, we assessed the recovery from hemostatic disorders in Bothrops snakebite patients after being given antivenom therapy.Methods: This is a prospective study of Bothrops snakebite patients (n = 100) treated at the Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado, Manaus, Brazilian Amazon, between January 2016 and December 2017. Blood samples were taken for the measurement of venom concentrations, platelets, clotting time and factors of patients on admission, 12, 24 and 48 h after antivenom therapy, and taken again on discharge. The presence of systemic bleeding was recorded during the follow-up.Results: On admission, systemic bleeding was observed in 14% of the patients. Thrombocytopenia was noted in 10% of the patients. A total of 54% of the patients presented unclottable blood with low levels of fibrinogen and alpha 2-antiplasmin, and high levels of fibrin/fibrinogen degradation product (FDP) and D-dimers. Unclottable blood and systemic bleeding were overcome in most patients 12 h after the antivenom therapy. Three patients developed systemic bleeding 48 h after antivenom therapy. Levels of fibrinogen and alpha 2-antiplasmin, FDP and D-dimer returned to normal around 48 h after the treatment or on discharge. The frequency of thrombocytopenia with high mean platelet volume increased in the first 24 h after antivenom therapy, and decreased on discharge. Bothrops venom levels in patients decreased 12 h after antivenom therapy and were not correlated with coagulation and fibrinolytic parameters. There were no deaths.Conclusion: Laboratorial parameters of coagulopathy returned to normal values within 48 h after the antivenom therapy until discharge. A few patients still presented bleeding signs within 48 h after beginning antivenom therapy. However, the Brazilian antivenom was able to overcome the hemostatic disorders in these cases of envenomation.


Assuntos
Antivenenos/administração & dosagem , Bothrops , Venenos de Crotalídeos/toxicidade , Transtornos Hemostáticos/etiologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Brasil , Venenos de Crotalídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(12): e0007935, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although more than 1.8 million people survive snakebite envenomation each year, their recovery is understudied. Obtaining long-term follow-up is challenging in both high- and low-resource settings. The Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS) is an easily administered, well-accepted patient-reported outcome that is validated for assessing limb recovery from snakebite envenomation. We studied whether the PSFS is valid and reliable when administered by telephone. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial. We analyzed the results of PSFS collected in-person on days 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 and by telephone on days 10, 17, and 24. We assessed the following scale psychometric properties: (a) content validity (ceiling and floor effects), (b) internal structure and consistency (Cronbach's alpha), and (c) temporal and external validity using Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). Temporal stability was assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficient and agreement between adjacent in-person and telephonic assessments with Cohen's kappa. Bland Altman analysis was used to assess differential bias in low and high score results. RESULTS: Data from 74 patients were available for analysis. Floor effects were seen in the early post-injury time points (median: 3 (IQR: 0, 5) at 3 days post-enrollment) and ceiling effects in the late time points (median: 9 (IQR: 8, 10). Internal consistency was good to excellent with both in-person (Cronbach α: 0.91 (95%CI 0.88, 0.95)) and telephone administration (0.81 (0.73, 0.89). Temporal stability was also good (ICC: 0.83 (0.72, 0.89) in-person, 0.80 (0.68, 0.88) telephone). A strong linear correlation was found between in-person and telephone administration (Spearman's ρ: 0.83 (CI: 0.78, 0.84), consistency was assessed as excellent (Cohen's κ 0.81 (CI: 0.78, 0.84), and Bland Altman analysis showed no systematic bias. CONCLUSIONS: Telephone administration of the PSFS provides valid, reliable, and consistent data for the assessment of recovery from snakebite envenomation.


Assuntos
Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Mordeduras de Serpentes/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 113(3): 449-663, 2019 10 10.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621787
8.
Bernoche, Claudia; Timerman, Sergio; Polastri, Thatiane Facholi; Giannetti, Natali Schiavo; Siqueira, Adailson Wagner da Silva; Piscopo, Agnaldo; Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Reis, Amélia Gorete Afonso da Costa; Tanaka, Ana Cristina Sayuri; Thomaz, Ana Maria; Quilici, Ana Paula; Catarino, Andrei Hilário; Ribeiro, Anna Christina de Lima; Barreto, Antonio Carlos Pereira; Azevedo, Antonio Fernando Barros de Filho; Pazin, Antonio Filho; Timerman, Ari; Scarpa, Bruna Romanelli; Timerman, Bruno; Tavares, Caio de Assis Moura; Martins, Cantidio Soares Lemos; Serrano, Carlos Vicente Junior; Malaque, Ceila Maria Sant'Ana; Pisani, Cristiano Faria; Batista, Daniel Valente; Leandro, Daniela Luana Fernandes; Szpilman, David; Gonçalves, Diego Manoel; Paiva, Edison Ferreira de; Osawa, Eduardo Atsushi; Lima, Eduardo Gomes; Adam, Eduardo Leal; Peixoto, Elaine; Evaristo, Eli Faria; Azeka, Estela; Silva, Fabio Bruno da; Wen, Fan Hui; Ferreira, Fatima Gil; Lima, Felipe Gallego; Fernandes, Felipe Lourenço; Ganem, Fernando; Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa Gomes; Tarasoutchi, Flavio; Souza, Germano Emilio Conceição; Feitosa, Gilson Soares Filho; Foronda, Gustavo; Guimarães, Helio Penna; Abud, Isabela Cristina Kirnew; Leite, Ivanhoé Stuart Lima; Linhares, Jaime Paula Pessoa Filho; Moraes, Junior João Batista de Moura Xavier; Falcão, João Luiz Alencar de Araripe; Ramires, Jose Antônio Franchini; Cavalini, José Fernando; Saraiva, José Francisco Kerr; Abrão, Karen Cristine; Pinto, Lecio Figueira; Bianchi, Leonardo Luís Torres; Lopes, Leonardo Nícolau Geisler Daud; Piegas, Leopoldo Soares; Kopel, Liliane; Godoy, Lucas Colombo; Tobase, Lucia; Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahão; Dallan, Luís Augusto Palma; Caneo, Luiz Fernando; Cardoso, Luiz Francisco; Canesin, Manoel Fernandes; Park, Marcelo; Rabelo, Marcia Maria Noya; Malachias, Marcus Vinícius Bolívar; Gonçalves, Maria Aparecida Batistão; Almeida, Maria Fernanda Branco de; Souza, Maria Francilene Silva; Favarato, Maria Helena Sampaio; Carrion, Maria Julia Machline; Gonzalez, Maria Margarita; Bortolotto, Maria Rita de Figueiredo Lemos; Macatrão-Costa, Milena Frota; Shimoda, Mônica Satsuki; Oliveira-Junior, Mucio Tavares de; Ikari, Nana Miura; Dutra, Oscar Pereira; Berwanger, Otávio; Pinheiro, Patricia Ana Paiva Corrêa; Reis, Patrícia Feitosa Frota dos; Cellia, Pedro Henrique Moraes; Santos Filho, Raul Dias dos; Gianotto-Oliveira, Renan; Kalil Filho, Roberto; Guinsburg, Ruth; Managini, Sandrigo; Lage, Silvia Helena Gelas; Yeu, So Pei; Franchi, Sonia Meiken; Shimoda-Sakano, Tania; Accorsi, Tarso Duenhas; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci; Guimarães, Vanessa; Sallai, Vanessa Santos; Ávila, Walkiria Samuel; Sako, Yara Kimiko.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(3): 449-663, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1038561
9.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0202361, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30118505

RESUMO

Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is the main systemic complication and cause of death in viperid envenomation. Although there are hypotheses for the development of AKI, the mechanisms involved are still not established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical-laboratorial-epidemiological factors associated with AKI in victims of Bothrops sp envenomation. This is an observational study carried out at the Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado. AKI was defined according to the guidelines of the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN). Among the 186 patients evaluated, AKI was observed in 24 (12.9%) after 48 hours of admission. Stage I was present in 17 (70.8%) patients, II in 3 (12.5%) and III in 4 (16.7%). Epidemiological characterization showed predominance of men, occurrence in rural areas, aged between 16-60 years, feet as the most affected anatomical region, and time to medical assistance less than 3 hours. Hypertension and diabetes were the comorbidities identified. Most of the accidents were classified as moderate, and clinical manifestations included severe pain, mild edema, local bleeding and headache. Laboratory results showed blood uncoagulability, hypofibrinogenemia, leukocytosis, increase of creatine kinase, and high lactate dehydrogenase levels. Multivariate analysis showed an association with high LDH levels [AOR = 1.01 (95% CI = 1.01-1.01, p<0.002)], local bleeding [AOR = 0.13 (95%CI = 0.027-0.59, p<0.009)], and the presence of comorbidities [AOR = 60.96 (95%CI = 9.69-383.30; p<0.000)]. Herein, laboratory markers such as high LDH levels along with local bleeding and comorbidities may aid in the diagnosis of AKI.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Bothrops , Venenos de Crotalídeos , Mordeduras de Serpentes/complicações , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Mordeduras de Serpentes/diagnóstico , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 11(7): e0005745, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28692641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Secondary bacterial infections from snakebites contribute to the high complication rates that can lead to permanent function loss and disabilities. Although common in endemic areas, routine empirical prophylactic use of antibiotics aiming to prevent secondary infection lacks a clearly defined policy. The aim of this work was to estimate the efficacy of amoxicillin clavulanate for reducing the secondary infection incidence in patients bitten by Bothrops snakes, and, secondarily, identify risk factors for secondary infections from snakebites in the Western Brazilian Amazon. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was an open-label, two-arm individually randomized superiority trial to prevent secondary infection from Bothrops snakebites. The antibiotic chosen for this clinical trial was oral amoxicillin clavulanate per seven days compared to no intervention. A total of 345 patients were assessed for eligibility in the study period. From this total, 187 accomplished the inclusion criteria and were randomized, 93 in the interventional group and 94 in the untreated control group. All randomized participants completed the 7 days follow-up period. Enzyme immunoassay confirmed Bothrops envenoming diagnosis in all participants. Primary outcome was defined as secondary infection (abscess and/or cellulitis) until day 7 after admission. Secondary infection incidence until 7 days after admission was 35.5% in the intervention group and 44.1% in the control group [RR = 0.80 (95%CI = 0.56 to 1.15; p = 0.235)]. Survival analysis demonstrated that the time from patient admission to the onset of secondary infection was not different between amoxicillin clavulanate treated and control group (Log-rank = 2.23; p = 0.789).Secondary infections incidence in 7 days of follow-up was independently associated to fibrinogen >400 mg/dL [AOR = 4.78 (95%CI = 2.17 to 10.55; p<0.001)], alanine transaminase >44 IU/L [AOR = 2.52 (95%CI = 1.06 to 5.98; p = 0.037)], C-reactive protein >6.5 mg/L [AOR = 2.98 (95%CI = 1.40 to 6.35; p = 0.005)], moderate pain [AOR = 24.30 (95%CI = 4.69 to 125.84; p<0.001)] and moderate snakebites [AOR = 2.43 (95%CI = 1.07 to 5.50; p = 0.034)]. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Preemptive amoxicillin clavulanate was not effective for preventing secondary infections from Bothrops snakebites. Laboratorial markers, such as high fibrinogen, alanine transaminase and C-reactive protein levels, and severity clinical grading of snakebites, may help to accurately diagnose secondary infections. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry (ReBec): RBR-3h33wy; UTN Number: U1111-1169-1005.


Assuntos
Amoxicilina/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Bothrops , Coinfecção/prevenção & controle , Mordeduras de Serpentes/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Brasil , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fibrinogênio/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor , Análise de Regressão , Mordeduras de Serpentes/complicações , Análise de Sobrevida , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 11(5): e0156386, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27227455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A better knowledge of the burden and risk factors associated with severity due to spider bites would lead to improved management with a reduction of sequelae usually seen for this neglected health problem, and would ensure proper use of antivenoms in remote localities in the Brazilian Amazon. The aim of this study was to analyze the profile of spider bites reported in the state of Amazonas in the Western Brazilian Amazon, and to investigate potential risk factors associated with severity of envenomation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a case-control study in order to identify factors associated with spider bite severity in the Western Brazilian Amazon from 2007 to 2014. Patients evolving to any severity criteria were considered cases and those with non-severe bites were included in the control group. All variables were retrieved from the official Brazilian reporting systems. Socioeconomical and environmental components were also included in a multivariable analysis in order to identify ecological determinants of incidence and severity. A total of 1,181 spider bites were recorded, resulting in an incidence of 4 cases per 100,000 person/year. Most of the spider bites occurred in males (65.8%). Bites mostly occurred in rural areas (59.5%). The most affected age group was between 16 and 45 years old (50.9%). A proportion of 39.7% of the bites were related to work activities. Antivenom was prescribed to 39% of the patients. Envenomings recorded from urban areas [Odds ratio (OR) = 0.40 (95%CI = 0.30-0.71; p<0.001)] and living in a municipality with a mean health system performance index (MHSPI >median [OR = 0.64 (95%CI = 0.39-0.75; p<0.001)] were independently associated with decreased risk of severity. Work related accidents [OR = 2.09 (95%CI = 1.49-2.94; p<0.001)], Indigenous status [OR = 2.15 (95%CI = 1.19-3.86; p = 0.011)] and living in a municipality located >300 km away from the state capital Manaus [OR = 1.90 (95%CI = 1.28-2.40; p<0.001)] were independently associated with a risk of severity. Living in a municipality located >300 km away from the state capital Manaus [OR = 1.53 (95%CI = 1.15-2.02; p = 0.003)] and living in a municipality with a MHSPI 300 km away from the state capital Manaus could be contributing factors to higher severity of spider envenomings in this area, as well as to antivenom underdosage.


Assuntos
Antivenenos/administração & dosagem , Assistência à Saúde , Gestão de Riscos , Picaduras de Aranhas/tratamento farmacológico , Picaduras de Aranhas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
12.
São Paulo; ; 2016. 20 p. il.
Tese | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-ESPECIALIZACAOSESPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: but-ib17505

RESUMO

O Instituto Butantan é uma das instituições brasileiras responsáveis pela produção de soros, vacinas e biofármacos para uso humano. Desenvolve estudos e pesquisas básicas em Biologia e Biomedicina relacionadas, direta ou indiretamente, à saúde pública. Para realização desses trabalhos utilizam-se espécies animais mediante aprovação do Comitê de Ética da Instituição. O Programa de Aprimoramento Profissional do Instituto é multidisciplinar e inclui entre outras áreas o Biotérios de mamíferos, artrópodes e serpentes. Minha intenção ao entrar nesse programa era aprender sobre as atividades realizadas em ambos os biotérios e procedimentos para manutenção das espécies de cada um. O biotério de mamíferos ou Biotério Central tem como principal objetivo a produção de animais padronizados sanitária e genéticamente. Atualmente são mantidas em suas instalações as espécies convencionais de laboratório (camundongos, ratos, hamsters, coelhos, cobaias) e primatas não humanos. O Laboratório de Herpetologia tem como finalidade a obtenção de veneno para produção do soro (Gênero Bothrops, Crotalus, Micrurus e Lanchesis). Além disso, desenvolve pesquisa sobre a biologia, reprodução, sistemática, evolução, entre outros estudos relacionados às espécies com e sem importância em saúde. O Laboratório de Artrópodes tem como objetivo a criação e manutenção de aranhas (Laxosceles gaucho e Phoneutria nigriventer) e escorpiões (Tityus serrulatus), entre outras espécies que não são de interesse em saúde para pesquisa e obtenção de veneno para produção de soros. As experiências nos três setores resultaram em conhecimento teórico e prático na criação e manejo dos animais, além de entedimento acerca dos cuidados no controle biológico e boas práticas de laboratório.

13.
PLoS One ; 10(6): e0128819, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26061734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scorpion stings are a major public health problem in Brazil, with an increasing number of registered cases every year. Affecting mostly vulnerable populations, the phenomenon is not well described and is considered a neglected disease. In Brazil, the use of anti-venom formulations is provided free of charge. The associate scorpion sting case is subject to compulsory reporting. This paper describes the epidemiology and identifies factors associated with severity of scorpions stings in the state of Amazonas, in the Western Brazilian Amazon. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study included all cases of scorpion stings in the state of Amazonas reported to the Brazilian Diseases Surveillance System from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2014. A case-control study was conducted to identify factors associated with scorpions sting severity. A total of 2,120 cases were reported during this period. The mean incidence rate in the Amazonas was 7.6 per 100,000 inhabitants/year. Scorpion stings showed a large spatial distribution in the state and represent a potential occupational health problem for rural populations. There was a positive correlation between the absolute number of cases and the altimetric river levels in the Central (p<0.001; Rs = 0.479 linear) and Southwest (p = 0.032; linear Rs = 0.261) regions of the state. Cases were mostly classified as mild (68.6%), followed by moderate (26.8%), and severe (4.6%). The overall lethality rate was 0.3%. Lethality rate among children ≤10 years was 1.3%. Age <10 years [OR = 2.58 (95%CI = 1.47-4.55; p = 0.001)], stings occurring in the rural area [OR = 1.97 (95%CI = 1.18-3.29; p = 0.033) and in the South region of the state [OR = 1.85 (95%CI = 1.17-2.93; p = 0.008)] were independently associated with the risk of developing severity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Scorpion stings show an extensive distribution in the Western Brazilian Amazon threatening especially rural populations, children ≤10 in particular. Thus, the mapping of scorpions fauna in different Amazon localities is essential and must be accompanied by the characterization of the main biological activities of the venoms. Urban and farming planning, in parallel with awareness of workers at risk for scorpion stings on the need for personal protective equipment use should be considered as public policies for preventing scorpionism.


Assuntos
População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Picadas de Escorpião/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Picadas de Escorpião/mortalidade
16.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 102(11): 1115-9, 2008 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18561967

RESUMO

The presence of human heterophilic antibodies against horse immunoglobulins (HHA-HI) was determined by ELISA in sera from healthy volunteers and from patients who received equine antivenom for therapy of snake bite envenoming. These patients were selected from two independent clinical studies: one in Colombia in which patients received antivenom constituted by whole IgG (n=25); and the other in Brazil where an antivenom constituted by F(ab')(2) fragments was administered (n=31). Results show that healthy volunteers have antibodies, mainly of the IgG class, able to react with whole equine IgG. Additionally, patients have IgG antibodies that react both with whole equine IgG and F(ab')(2) fragments. In both clinical studies, no significant differences were observed in the HHA-HI titres between the patients who presented early adverse (anaphylactoid) reactions and those who did not develop them. In addition, no variation in titre was observed in samples collected before and after antivenom administration. These results do not support the hypothesis that the incidence of early adverse reactions to antivenom administration correlates with the titre of HHA-HI in the serum of patients. Nevertheless, participation of these antibodies as part of a multifactorial pathogenic mechanism associated with these reactions cannot be ruled out.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia/imunologia , Anticorpos Heterófilos/imunologia , Antivenenos/imunologia , Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/imunologia , Venenos de Serpentes/imunologia , Animais , Antivenenos/efeitos adversos , Brasil , Colômbia , Costa Rica , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Cavalos/imunologia , Humanos , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/tratamento farmacológico , Estatística como Assunto
17.
Toxicon ; 49(1): 30-5, 2007 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17084428

RESUMO

A workshop on antivenom production in Central and South American public laboratories was performed at Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, Brazil, from June 12 to June 16, 2006, under the auspices of the program CYTED. The activity was attended by representatives of public laboratories from Costa Rica, Colombia, Perú, Bolivia, Brazil, and Uruguay. Representatives of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Brazilian Ministry of Health also participated in the workshop. The political, institutional and technological issues related with antivenom manufacture and distribution in these countries were discussed. Current problems on antivenom production and distribution were analyzed, and the need to strengthen collaborative links between countries was stressed, particularly regarding training programs, transfer of technology, and distribution of antivenoms, with the involvement of the Pan American Health Organization and the WHO. Future workshops on other relevant issues, such as quality control and regulatory policies, are being planned, together with collaborative research efforts between the laboratories.


Assuntos
Laboratórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Mordeduras de Serpentes/tratamento farmacológico , Venenos de Serpentes , Serpentes , Animais , América Central , Educação , América do Sul
19.
Cadernos de História da Ciência/Instituto Butantan ; 2(2 II Ciclo de Seminários. Era Vargas: contexto político e instituições de saúde): 77-103, jan.-jun. 2006.
Artigo em Português | HISA - História da Saúde | ID: his-13883

RESUMO

Faz parte do esforço dos pesquisadores do Laboratório Especial de História da Ciência do Instituto Butantan na identificação e sistematização dos processos de mudança institucional ocorridos entre as décadas de 20 e 40, período em que o Butantan passa por profundas transformações em suas atribuições, atendendo à demanda nacional e às novas políticas de saúde pública no estado de São Paulo.(AU)


Assuntos
Ciência/história , História da Medicina , Academias e Institutos/história , Brasil , Política de Saúde/história , Saúde Pública/história
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