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J Immunol ; 207(5): 1239-1249, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389623


HIV-1 infection substantially increases the risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). Mechanisms such as defects in the Th1 response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in HIV-infected persons have been widely reported. However, Th1-independent mechanisms also contribute to protection against TB. To identify a broader spectrum of defects in TB immunity during HIV infection, we examined IL-17A and IL-22 production in response to mycobacterial Ags in peripheral blood of persons with latent TB infection and HIV coinfection. Upon stimulating with mycobacterial Ags, we observed a distinct CD4+ Th lineage producing IL-22 in the absence of IL-17A and IFN-γ. Mycobacteria-specific Th22 cells were present at high frequencies in blood and contributed up to 50% to the CD4+ T cell response to mycobacteria, comparable in magnitude to the IFN-γ Th1 response (median 0.91% and 0.55%, respectively). Phenotypic characterization of Th22 cells revealed that their memory differentiation was similar to M. tuberculosis-specific Th1 cells (i.e., predominantly early differentiated CD45RO+CD27+ phenotype). Moreover, CCR6 and CXCR3 expression profiles of Th22 cells were similar to Th17 cells, whereas their CCR4 and CCR10 expression patterns displayed an intermediate phenotype between Th1 and Th17 cells. Strikingly, mycobacterial IL-22 responses were 3-fold lower in HIV-infected persons compared with uninfected persons, and the magnitude of responses correlated inversely with HIV viral load. These data provide important insights into mycobacteria-specific Th subsets in humans and suggest a potential role for IL-22 in protection against TB during HIV infection. Further studies are needed to fully elucidate the role of IL-22 in protective TB immunity.

Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/fisiologia , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Tuberculose Latente/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Coinfecção , Feminino , Soropositividade para HIV , Humanos , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Masculino , África do Sul , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 589940, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33868324


Background: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has swept the world and poses a significant global threat to lives and livelihoods, with 115 million confirmed cases and at least 2.5 million deaths from Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the first year of the pandemic. Developing tools to measure seroprevalence and understand protective immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is a priority. We aimed to develop a serological assay using plant-derived recombinant viral proteins, which represent important tools in less-resourced settings. Methods: We established an indirect ELISA using the S1 and receptor-binding domain (RBD) portions of the spike protein from SARS-CoV-2, expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. We measured antibody responses in sera from South African patients (n = 77) who had tested positive by PCR for SARS-CoV-2. Samples were taken a median of 6 weeks after the diagnosis, and the majority of participants had mild and moderate COVID-19 disease. In addition, we tested the reactivity of pre-pandemic plasma (n = 58) and compared the performance of our in-house ELISA with a commercial assay. We also determined whether our assay could detect SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and IgA in saliva. Results: We demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulins are readily detectable using recombinant plant-derived viral proteins, in patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR. Reactivity to S1 and RBD was detected in 51 (66%) and 48 (62%) of participants, respectively. Notably, we detected 100% of samples identified as having S1-specific antibodies by a validated, high sensitivity commercial ELISA, and optical density (OD) values were strongly and significantly correlated between the two assays. For the pre-pandemic plasma, 1/58 (1.7%) of samples were positive, indicating a high specificity for SARS-CoV-2 in our ELISA. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG correlated significantly with IgA and IgM responses. Endpoint titers of S1- and RBD-specific immunoglobulins ranged from 1:50 to 1:3,200. S1-specific IgG and IgA were found in saliva samples from convalescent volunteers. Conclusion: We demonstrate that recombinant SARS-CoV-2 proteins produced in plants enable robust detection of SARS-CoV-2 humoral responses. This assay can be used for seroepidemiological studies and to measure the strength and durability of antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in infected patients in our setting.

Microbiome ; 6(1): 124, 2018 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981583


BACKGROUND: Early life microbiota is an important determinant of immune and metabolic development and may have lasting consequences. The maternal gut microbiota during pregnancy or breastfeeding is important for defining infant gut microbiota. We hypothesized that maternal gut microbiota during pregnancy and breastfeeding is a critical determinant of infant immunity. To test this, pregnant BALB/c dams were fed vancomycin for 5 days prior to delivery (gestation; Mg), 14 days postpartum during nursing (Mn), or during gestation and nursing (Mgn), or no vancomycin (Mc). We analyzed adaptive immunity and gut microbiota in dams and pups at various times after delivery. RESULTS: In addition to direct alterations to maternal gut microbial composition, pup gut microbiota displayed lower α-diversity and distinct community clusters according to timing of maternal vancomycin. Vancomycin was undetectable in maternal and offspring sera, therefore the observed changes in the microbiota of stomach contents (as a proxy for breastmilk) and pup gut signify an indirect mechanism through which maternal intestinal microbiota influences extra-intestinal and neonatal commensal colonization. These effects on microbiota influenced both maternal and offspring immunity. Maternal immunity was altered, as demonstrated by significantly higher levels of both total IgG and IgM in Mgn and Mn breastmilk when compared to Mc. In pups, lymphocyte numbers in the spleens of Pg and Pn were significantly increased compared to Pc. This increase in cellularity was in part attributable to elevated numbers of both CD4+ T cells and B cells, most notable Follicular B cells. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that perturbations to maternal gut microbiota dictate neonatal adaptive immunity.

Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Animais Recém-Nascidos/imunologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Aleitamento Materno , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Gravidez , Vancomicina/farmacologia