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1.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(4): 1364-1369, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000486

RESUMO

A method using machine learning (ML) is proposed to describe metal growth for simulations, which retains the accuracy of ab initio density functional theory (DFT) and results in a thousands-fold reduction in the computational time. This method is based on atomic energy decomposition from DFT calculations. Compared with other ML methods, our energy decomposition approach can yield much more information with the same DFT calculations. This approach is employed for the amorphous sodium system, where only 1000 DFT molecular dynamics images are enough for training an accurate model. The DFT and neural network potential (NNP) are compared for the dynamics to show that similar structural properties are generated. Finally, metal growth experiments from liquid to solid in a small and larger system are carried out to demonstrate the ability of using NNP to simulate the real growth process.

2.
Small ; : e1906374, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077623

RESUMO

Critical to the development of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries technology are novel solid-state electrolytes with high ionic conductivity and robust stability under inorganic solid-electrolyte operating conditions. Herein, by using density functional theory and molecular dynamics, a mixed oxygen-sulfur-based Li-superionic conductor is screened out from the local chemical structure of ß-Li3 PS4 to discover novel Li14 P2 Ge2 S8 O8 (LPGSO) with high ionic conductivity and high stability under thermal, moist, and electrochemical conditions, which causes oxygenation at specific sites to improve the stability and selective sulfuration to provide an O-S mixed path by Li-S/O structure units with coordination number between 3 and 4 for fast Li-cooperative conduction. Furthermore, LPGSO exhibits a quasi-isotropic 3D Li-ion cooperative diffusion with a lesser migration barrier (≈0.19 eV) compared to its sulfide-analog Li14 P2 Ge2 S16 . The theoretical ionic conductivity of this conductor at room temperature is as high as ≈30.0 mS cm-1 , which is among the best in current solid-state electrolytes. Such an oxy-sulfide synergistic effect and Li-ion cooperative migration mechanism would enable the engineering of next-generation electrolyte materials with desirable safety and high ionic conductivity, for possible application in the near future.

3.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(1): 39-53, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710054

RESUMO

Titania is a widely used semiconductor due to its excellent optoelectronics and catalytic properties. Doping with other cations or anions by substitution of Ti or O is a common way to adjust the electronic structure of pristine TiO2. Here, using ab initio calculations at the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE06) level, the substitution energy, formation energy and electronic structures of anatase TiO2 doped with 40 kinds of elements including transition metals, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, p-block metals, and nonmetals have been studied systematically. It is found that doping with most of these elements can narrow down the band gap of TiO2, while in some doped systems, a recombination center induced by intermediate bands is also observed. Besides, for transition metal-doped TiO2 systems, the electron spin state analysis of dopants and the doping level investigation reveal that a relatively high spin structure tends to be formed in Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, Mo, Tc, Ru and Cd-doped TiO2, and the doping levels of 4d-orbital transition metals are generally higher than those of 3d-orbital transition metals.

4.
Small ; 15(47): e1904545, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588653

RESUMO

Aqueous Zn-MnO2 batteries using mild electrolyte show great potential in large-scale energy storage (LSES) application, due to high safety and low cost. However, structure collapse of manganese oxides upon cycling caused by the conversion mechanism (e.g., from tunnel to layer structures for α-, ß-, and γ-phases) is one of the most urgent issues plaguing its practical applications. Herein, to avoid the phase conversion issue and enhance battery performance, a structurally robust novel phase of manganese oxide MnO2 H0.16 (H2 O)0.27 (MON) nanosheet with thickness of ≈2.5 nm is designed and synthesized as a promising cathode material, in which a nanosheet structure combined with a novel H+ /Zn2+ synergistic intercalation mechanism is demonstrated and evidenced. Accordingly, a high-performance Zn/MON cell is achieved, showing a high energy density of ≈228.5 Wh kg-1 , impressive cyclability with capacity retention of 96% at 0.5 C after 300 cycles, as well as exhibiting rate performance of 115.1 mAh g-1 at current rate of 10 C. To the best current knowledge, this H+ /Zn2+ synergistic intercalation mechanism is first reported in an aqueous battery system, which opens a new opportunity for development of high-performance aqueous Zn ion batteries for LSES.

5.
Adv Mater ; 31(43): e1903483, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496017

RESUMO

Sodium-based layered oxides are among the leading cathode candidates for sodium-ion batteries, toward potential grid energy storage, having large specific capacity, good ionic conductivity, and feasible synthesis. Despite their excellent prospects, the performance of layered intercalation materials is affected by both a phase transition induced by the gliding of the transition metal slabs and air-exposure degradation within the Na layers. Here, this problem is significantly mitigated by selecting two ions with very different MO bond energies to construct a highly ordered Ni6 -ring superstructure within the transition metal layers in a model compound (NaNi2/3 Sb1/3 O2 ). By virtue of substitution of 1/3 nickel with antimony in NaNiO2 , the existence of these ordered Ni6 -rings with super-exchange interaction to form a symmetric atomic configuration and degenerate electronic orbital in layered oxides can not only largely enhance their air stability and thermal stability, but also increase the redox potential and simplify the phase-transition process during battery cycling. The findings reveal that the ordered Ni6 -ring superstructure is beneficial for constructing highly stable layered cathodes and calls for new paradigms for better design of layered materials.

6.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(19): 9883-9888, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038528

RESUMO

Solid state electrolytes (SSEs) based on two dimensional covalent organic frameworks (2D-COFs) with Li salts and solvents impregnated in their large pores have emerged as novel candidate materials for solid state lithium batteries. Here, using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation, we track the atomic-scale structural evolution during Li+ ion diffusion in a 2D-COF SSE composed of COF-5, LiClO4 and tetrahydrofuran (THF). Our simulation results show the transient dynamics of the Li+ diffusion events, the free rotation of ClO4- ions and the essential role of THFs in partitioning between the ions and the solid framework. We find clear evidence that Li+ ion diffusion adopts a one-dimensional (1D) liquid-like behavior with the coordination evolution driven by facile rotation and short-range diffusion of ClO4- ions and THFs. The fast Li+ diffusion pathway in the 1D tunnels of COFs may shed light on future design of high-performance COF based SSEs.

7.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(8): 4578-4583, 2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742142

RESUMO

In order to understand and improve the conductivity of LiFePO4, lots of attempts have been made both experimentally and theoretically. Here we performed hybrid density functional theory calculations to systematically investigate the electronic structures with polaronic redox behavior of polyanionic intercalation compounds similar to LiFePO4, such as in XMPO4 (X = Li, Na; M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni). It is proved that the replacement of Li ions does not eliminate the polaronic redox behavior of Fe ions during delithiation and hence does not lead to a significant improvement in electronic conductivity. By contrast, replacing Fe with Mn, Co or Ni can tune the polaronic redox behavior during delithiation by varying degrees. For Ni, the polaronic redox behavior has almost disappeared, and band gaps disappear during delithiation, indicating a better electronic conductivity. For Mn or Co, the polaronic redox behavior is still obvious with little improvement in the electronic conductivity. This study provides important clues to improve the electronic conductivity of LiFePO4-like cathode materials.

8.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(2): 281-285, 2018 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29284265

RESUMO

A major drawback of the widely successful density functional theory is its underestimation of the material band gap. Various methods have been proposed to correct its band gap predictions. Wannier Koopmans method (WKM) is recently developed for this purpose to predict the band gap of extended 3D bulk systems. While the WKM has also been shown to be successful for isolated molecules, it is still a question whether it will work for 2D materials that are in between the 0D molecules and 3D bulk systems. We apply the WKM to 16 commonly known well studied 2D materials and find that the WKM predicted band gaps are on par with their GW calculated results.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(34): 29273-29284, 2017 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28783298

RESUMO

Arsenene, arsenic analogue of graphene, as an emerging member of two-dimensional semiconductors (2DSCs), is quite promising in next-generation electronic and optoelectronic applications. The metal electrical contacts play a vital role in the charge transport and photoresponse processes of nanoscale 2DSC devices and even can mask the intrinsic properties of 2DSCs. Here, we present a first comprehensive study of the electrical contact properties of monolayer (ML) arsenene with different electrodes by using ab initio electronic calculations and quantum transport simulations. Schottky barrier is always formed with bulk metal contacts owing to the Fermi level pinning (pinning factor S = 0.33), with electron Schottky barrier height (SBH) of 0.12, 0.21, 0.25, 0.35, and 0.50 eV for Sc, Ti, Ag, Cu, and Au contacts and hole SBH of 0.75 and 0.78 eV for Pd and Pt contacts, respectively. However, by contact with 2D graphene, the Fermi level pinning effect can be reduced due to the suppression of metal-induced gap states. Remarkably, a barrier free hole injection is realized in ML arsenene device with graphene-Pt hybrid electrode, suggestive of a high device performance in such a ML arsenene device. Our study provides a theoretical foundation for the selection of favorable electrodes in future ML arsenene devices.

10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(8): 7125-7130, 2017 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28166623

RESUMO

N-doped graphene (NDG) was investigated for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and used as air-electrode catalyst for Zn-air batteries. Electrochemical results revealed a slightly lower kinetic activity but a much larger rate capability for the NDG than commercial 20% Pt/C catalyst. The maximum power density for a Zn-air cell with NDG air cathode reached up to 218 mW cm-2, which is nearly 1.5 times that of its counterpart with the Pt/C (155 mW cm-2). The equivalent diffusion coefficient (DE) of oxygen from electrolyte solution to the reactive sites of NDG was evaluated as about 1.5 times the liquid-phase diffusion coefficient (DL) of oxygen within bulk electrolyte solution. Combined with experiments and ab initio calculations, this seems counterintuitive reverse ORR of NDG versus Pt/C can be rationalized by a spontaneous adsorption and fast solid-state diffusion of O2 on ultralarge graphene surface of NDG to enhance effective ORR on N-doped-catalytic-centers and to achieve high-rate performance for Zn-air batteries.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(5): 4587-4596, 2017 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28098443

RESUMO

Non-noble metal catalysts with catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) comparable or even superior to that of Pt/C are extremely important for the wide application of metal-air batteries and fuel cells. Here, we develop a simple and controllable strategy to synthesize Fe-cluster embedded in Fe3C nanoparticles (designated as Fe3C(Fe)) encased in nitrogen-doped graphitic layers (NDGLs) with graphitic shells as a novel hybrid nanostructure as an effective ORR catalyst by directly pyrolyzing a mixture of Prussian blue (PB) and glucose. The pyrolysis temperature was found to be the key parameter for obtaining a stable Fe3C(Fe)@NDGL core-shell nanostructure with an optimized content of nitrogen. The optimized Fe3C(Fe)@NDGL catalyst showed high catalytic performance of ORR comparable to that of the Pt/C (20 wt %) catalyst and better stability than that of the Pt/C catalyst in alkaline electrolyte. According to the experimental results and first principle calculation, the high activity of the Fe3C(Fe)@NDGL catalyst can be ascribed to the synergistic effect of an adequate content of nitrogen doping in graphitic carbon shells and Fe-cluster pushing electrons to NDGL. A zinc-air battery utilizing the Fe3C(Fe)@NDGL catalyst demonstrated a maximum power density of 186 mW cm-2, which is slightly higher than that of a zinc-air battery utilizing the commercial Pt/C catalyst (167 mW cm-2), mostly because of the large surface area of the N-doped graphitic carbon shells. Theoretical calculation verified that O2 molecules can spontaneously adsorb on both pristine and nitrogen doped graphene surfaces and then quickly diffuse to the catalytically active nitrogen sites. Our catalyst can potentially become a promising replacement for Pt catalysts in metal-air batteries and fuel cells.

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