Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 58
Filtrar
1.
Hum Reprod ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957795

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Do children conceived after ICSI have similar school performance as children born after IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER: Children born after ICSI have similar school performance compared to children born after IVF. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Studies concerning the cognitive skills of children born after ICSI have shown diverging results. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This nationwide, register-based cohort study included all singleton children born after ICSI (n = 6953), IVF (n = 11 713) or spontaneous conception (SC) (n = 2 022 995), in Sweden between 1985 and 2006. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Singleton children born after ICSI were identified in national IVF registers, cross-linked with the Medical Birth Register (MBR), the National Patient Register (NPR) and the Swedish Cause of Death Register (CDR) for characteristics and medical outcomes. Data on school performance, parental education and other parental characteristics were obtained through cross-linking to the National School Registry and to Statistics Sweden. The main control group, which consisted of children born after IVF, was identified in the national IVF registries while the second control group, consisting of children born after SC, was identified from the MBR. Simple and multivariable linear regression was used for analysis of continuous variables, and logistic regression was used for the analysis of binary outcomes. Adjustments were made for sex, year of birth, maternal smoking during pregnancy, parental age, parity, parental region of birth, parental level of education and frozen embryo transfer. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: In the adjusted analyses, there was no significant difference between ICSI and IVF children for total score (adjusted odds ratios (AORs) 1.03; 95% CI -0.22 to 2.28; P = 0.11), specific subjects, qualifying for secondary school (AOR 1.02; 95% CI 0.82-1.26; P = 0.87) or poor school performance (AOR 0.92; 95% CI 0.75-1.14; P = 0.47). In the third grade, children born after ICSI had a significantly lower chance of passing all of the subtests in Mathematics (AOR 0.89; 0.83-0.96; P = 0.002) and Swedish (AOR 0.92; 0.85-0.99; P = 0.02) compared to children born after SC. When cross-linking children with missing data on school performances (2.1% for ICSI, 2.0% for IVF and 2.3% for SC) with the Cerebral Palsy Follow-up Register (CPUP) for cerebral palsy, 2.7% of ICSI children, 5.7% of IVF children and 1.7% of SC children without registered education were found. When cross-linking children with missing data on school performances with the NPR for mental retardation, 29.9% of ICSI children, 32.6% of IVF children and 35.0% of SC children with missing data were registered under such a diagnosis. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The main limitation was that test scores were missing in a small percentage in both ICSI and IVF children. Although we were able to cross-link this subpopulation with the CPUP and the NPR, these diagnoses only partly explained the missing scores. Other limitations were unmeasured and unknown possible confounders, such as information about infertility diagnoses and indication for ICSI, were not available. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: These findings are important to most countries where IVF and ICSI are used since there may be differences in choice of procedure. In recent years, there has been an increasing trend towards using ICSI not only for treatment of male infertility but also when the sperm quality is normal. Our results indicate that the school performance of children born after ICSI is reassuring. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): Financial support was received through Sahlgrenska University Hospital (ALFGBG - 70 940), Hjalmar Svensson Research Foundation and Nordforsk, project number 71 450. None of the authors declare any conflict of interest. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.

3.
BMJ ; 367: l6131, 2019 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748223

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if induction of labour at 41 weeks improves perinatal and maternal outcomes in women with a low risk pregnancy compared with expectant management and induction of labour at 42 weeks. DESIGN: Multicentre, open label, randomised controlled superiority trial. SETTING: 14 hospitals in Sweden, 2016-18. PARTICIPANTS: 2760 women with a low risk uncomplicated singleton pregnancy randomised (1:1) by the Swedish Pregnancy Register. 1381 women were assigned to the induction group and 1379 were assigned to the expectant management group. INTERVENTIONS: Induction of labour at 41 weeks and expectant management and induction of labour at 42 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was a composite perinatal outcome including one or more of stillbirth, neonatal mortality, Apgar score less than 7 at five minutes, pH less than 7.00 or metabolic acidosis (pH <7.05 and base deficit >12 mmol/L) in the umbilical artery, hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy, intracranial haemorrhage, convulsions, meconium aspiration syndrome, mechanical ventilation within 72 hours, or obstetric brachial plexus injury. Primary analysis was by intention to treat. RESULTS: The study was stopped early owing to a significantly higher rate of perinatal mortality in the expectant management group. The composite primary perinatal outcome did not differ between the groups: 2.4% (33/1381) in the induction group and 2.2% (31/1379) in the expectant management group (relative risk 1.06, 95% confidence interval 0.65 to 1.73; P=0.90). No perinatal deaths occurred in the induction group but six (five stillbirths and one early neonatal death) occurred in the expectant management group (P=0.03). The proportion of caesarean delivery, instrumental vaginal delivery, or any major maternal morbidity did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study comparing induction of labour at 41 weeks with expectant management and induction at 42 weeks does not show any significant difference in the primary composite adverse perinatal outcome. However, a reduction of the secondary outcome perinatal mortality is observed without increasing adverse maternal outcomes. Although these results should be interpreted cautiously, induction of labour ought to be offered to women no later than at 41 weeks and could be one (of few) interventions that reduces the rate of stillbirths. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN26113652.


Assuntos
Idade Gestacional , Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Conduta Expectante/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/etiologia , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia , Nascimento a Termo
4.
Hum Reprod ; 34(11): 2282-2289, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687765

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Is transfer of vitrified blastocysts associated with higher perinatal and maternal risks compared with slow-frozen cleavage stage embryos and fresh blastocysts? SUMMARY ANSWER: Transfer of vitrified blastocysts is associated with a higher risk of preterm birth (PTB) when compared with slow-frozen cleavage stage embryos and with a higher risk of a large baby, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDPs) and postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) but a lower risk of placenta previa when compared with fresh blastocysts. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Transfer of frozen-thawed embryos (FETs) plays a central role in modern fertility treatment, limiting the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and multiple pregnancies. Following FET, several studies report a lower risk of PTB, low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA) yet a higher risk of fetal macrosomia and large for gestational age (LGA) compared with fresh embryos. In recent years, the introduction of new freezing techniques has increased treatment success. The slow-freeze technique combined with cleavage stage transfer has been replaced by vitrification and blastocyst transfer. Only few studies have compared perinatal and maternal outcomes after vitrification and slow-freeze and mainly in cleavage stage embryos, with most studies indicating similar outcomes in the two groups. Studies on perinatal and maternal outcomes following vitrified blastocysts are limited. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This registry-based cohort study includes singletons born after frozen-thawed and fresh transfers following the introduction of vitrification in Sweden and Denmark, in 2002 and 2009, respectively. The study includes 3650 children born after transfer of vitrified blastocysts, 8123 children born after transfer of slow-frozen cleavage stage embryos and 4469 children born after transfer of fresh blastocysts during 2002-2015. Perinatal and maternal outcomes in singletons born after vitrified blastocyst transfer were compared with singletons born after slow-frozen cleavage stage transfer and singletons born after fresh blastocyst transfer. Main outcomes included PTB, LBW, macrosomia, HDP and placenta previa. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Data were obtained from the CoNARTaS (Committee of Nordic ART and Safety) group. Based on national registries in Sweden, Finland, Denmark and Norway, the CoNARTaS cohort includes all children born after ART treatment in public and private clinics 1984-2015. Outcomes were assessed with logistic multivariable regression analysis, adjusting for the country and year of birth, maternal age, body mass index, parity, smoking, parental educational level, fertilisation method (IVF/ICSI), single embryo transfer, number of gestational sacs and the child's sex. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: A higher risk of PTB (<37 weeks) was noted in the vitrified blastocyst group compared with the slow-frozen cleavage stage group (adjusted odds ratio, aOR [95% CI], 1.33 [1.09-1.62]). No significant differences were observed for LBW (<2500 g), SGA, macrosomia (≥4500 g) and LGA when comparing the vitrified blastocyst with the slow-frozen cleavage stage group. For maternal outcomes, no significant difference was seen in the risk of HDP, placenta previa, placental abruption and PPH in the vitrified blastocyst versus the slow frozen cleavage stage group, although the precision was limited.When comparing vitrified and fresh blastocysts, we found higher risks of macrosomia (≥4500 g) aOR 1.77 [1.35-2.31] and LGA aOR 1.48 [1.18-1.84]. Further, the risks of HDP aOR 1.47 [1.19-1.81] and PPH aOR 1.68 [1.39-2.03] were higher in singletons born after vitrified compared with fresh blastocyst transfer while the risks of SGA aOR 0.58 [0.44-0.78] and placenta previa aOR 0.35 [0.25-0.48] were lower. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Since vitrification was introduced simultaneously with blastocyst transfer in Sweden and Denmark, it was not possible to explore the effect of vitrification per se in this study. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The results from the change of strategy to vitrification of blastocysts are reassuring, indicating that the freezing technique per se has no major influence on the perinatal and maternal outcomes. The higher risk of PTB may be related to the extended embryo culture rather than vitrification. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): The study is part of the ReproUnion Collaborative study, co-financed by the European Union, Interreg V ÖKS. The study was also financed by grants from the Swedish state under the agreement between the Swedish government and the county councils, the ALF agreement (LUA/ALF 70940), Hjalmar Svensson Research Foundation and NordForsk (project 71 450). There are no conflicts of interest to declare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN11780826.

6.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 398, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal criteria to diagnose gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) remain contested. The Swedish National Board of Health introduced the 2013 WHO criteria in 2015 as a recommendation for initiation of treatment for hyperglycaemia during pregnancy. With variation in GDM screening and diagnostic practice across the country, it was agreed that the shift to new guidelines should be in a scientific and structured way. The aim of the Changing Diagnostic Criteria for Gestational Diabetes (CDC4G) in Sweden ( www.cdc4g.se/en ) is to evaluate the clinical and health economic impacts of changing diagnostic criteria for GDM in Sweden and to create a prospective cohort to compare the many long-term outcomes in mother and baby under the old and new diagnostic approaches. METHODS: This is a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial, comparing pregnancy outcomes before and after the switch in GDM criteria across 11 centres in a randomised manner. The trial includes all pregnant women screened for GDM across the participating centres during January-December 2018, approximately two thirds of all pregnancies in Sweden in a year. Women with pre-existing diabetes will be excluded. Data will be collected through the national Swedish Pregnancy register and for follow up studies other health registers will be included. DISCUSSION: The stepped wedge RCT was chosen to be the best study design for evaluating the shift from old to new diagnostic criteria of GDM in Sweden. The national quality registers provide data on the whole pregnant population and gives a possibility for follow up studies of both mother and child. The health economic analysis from the study will give a solid evidence base for future changes in order to improve immediate pregnancy, as well as long term, outcomes for mother and child. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CDC4G is listed on the ISRCTN registry with study ID ISRCTN41918550 (15/12/2017).

7.
Fertil Steril ; 111(6): 1036-1046, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155113

RESUMO

This review summarizes the impact of parental age on children's health outcomes beyond the perinatal period. In the last decades, delayed parenthood with both men and women has become a public health issue. For women, in particular, the size of this delay is substantial. For a few medical conditions, older parental age has a pronounced effect on child morbidity. For most other outcomes, a more modest effect is evident. Although these effects might be limited on an individual level, they have a substantial impact at the level of population health.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Idade Materna , Idade Paterna , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Materna , Paridade , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
8.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 221(2): 126.e1-126.e18, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frozen embryo transfer is associated with better perinatal outcome regarding preterm birth and low birthweight, yet higher risk of large for gestational age and macrosomia compared to fresh transfer. Further, higher rates of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are noted after frozen embryo transfer. Whether these differences are due to the protocol used in frozen cycles remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the obstetric outcome after frozen embryo transfer depending on protocol used. Comparison was also made for frozen vs fresh transfer and for frozen transfer vs spontaneous conception. STUDY DESIGN: A population-based retrospective registry study including all singletons born after frozen embryo transfer in Sweden from 2005 to 2015. The in vitro fertilization register was cross-linked with the Medical Birth Register, the Register of Birth Defects, the National Patient Register, the Swedish Neonatal Quality Register, and the Prescribed Drug Register. Singletons after frozen embryo transfer were compared depending on the presence of a corpus luteum in the actual cycle. All frozen transfer singletons were also compared with fresh transfer and spontaneous conception singletons. Primary outcomes were preterm birth (<37 w), low birthweight (<2500 g), hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, and postpartum hemorrhage (>1000 mL). Crude and adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were calculated and adjustment made for relevant confounders. RESULTS: A total of 9726 singletons were born after frozen embryo transfer (natural cycles, n = 6297; stimulated cycles, n = 1983; programmed cycles, n = 1446), 24,365 after fresh transfer, and 1,127,566 after spontaneous conception. No significant differences were noticed for preterm birth and low birthweight between the different protocols used in frozen embryo transfer. Compared to natural and stimulated frozen cycles, programmed frozen cycles were associated with a higher risk of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.43-2.21 and adjusted odds ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-2,10, respectively) and postpartum hemorrhage (adjusted odds ratio, 2.63; 95% confidence interval, 2.20-3.13 and adjusted odds ratio, 2.87; 95% confidence interval, 2.29-2.60, respectively). Moreover, higher risks for postterm birth (adjusted odds ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-2.01 and adjusted odds ratio, 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.47-2.68) and macrosomia (adjusted odds ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-2.09 and adjusted odds ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.90) were detected. There were no significant differences in any outcomes between stimulated and natural cycles. Frozen cycles in general compared to fresh cycles and compared to spontaneous conceptions showed neonatal and maternal outcomes in agreement with earlier studies. CONCLUSION: No significant difference could be seen regarding preterm birth and low birthweight between the different protocols. However, higher rates of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, postpartum hemorrhage, postterm birth, and macrosomia were detected in programmed cycles. Stimulated cycles had outcomes similar to natural cycles. These findings are important in view of the increasing use of frozen cycles and the new policy of freeze-all cycles in in vitro fertilization. The results suggest a link between the absence of corpus luteum and adverse obstetric outcomes.


Assuntos
Criopreservação , Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Gravidez Prolongada/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suécia/epidemiologia
9.
Hum Reprod Update ; 25(2): 137-158, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753453

RESUMO

Worldwide, more than 7 million children have now been born after ART: these delivery rates are steadily rising and now comprise 2-6% of births in the European countries. To achieve higher pregnancy rates, the transfer of two or more embryos was previously the gold standard in ART. However, recently the practise has moved towards a single embryo transfer policy to avoid multiple births. The positive consequences of the declining multiple birth rates after ART are decreasing perinatal risks and overall improved health for the ART progeny. In this review we summarize the risks for short- and long-term health in ART singletons and discuss if the increased health risks are associated with intrinsic maternal or paternal factors related to subfertility or to the ART treatments per se. Although the risks are modest, singletons born after ART are more likely to have adverse perinatal outcomes compared to spontaneously conceived (SC) singletons dependent on the ART method. Fresh embryo transfer is associated with a higher risk of small for gestational age babies (SGA), low birthweight and preterm birth (PTB), while frozen embryo transfer is associated with large-for-gestational age babies and pre-eclampsia. ICSI may be associated with a higher risk of birth defects and transferral of the poor semen quality to male progeny, while oocyte donation is associated with increased risk of SGA and pre-eclampsia. Concerning long-term health risks, the current evidence is limited but suggests an increased risk of altered blood pressure and cardiovascular function in ART children. The data that are available for malignancies seem reassuring, while results on neurodevelopmental health are more equivocal with a possible association between ART and cerebral palsy. The laboratory techniques used in ART may also play a role, as different embryo culture media give rise to different birthweights and growth patterns in children, while culture to blastocyst stage is associated with PTB. In addition, children born after ART have altered epigenetic profiles, and these alterations may be one of the key areas to explore to improve our understanding of adverse child outcomes after ART. A major challenge for research into adverse perinatal outcomes is the difficulty in separating the contribution of infertility per se from the ART treatment (i.e. 'the chicken or the egg'?). Choosing and having access to the appropriate control groups for the ART children in order to eliminate the influence of subfertility per se (thereby exploring the pure association between ART and child outcomes) is in itself challenging. However, studies including children of subfertile couples or of couples treated with milder fertility treatments, such as IUI, as controls show that perinatal risks in these cohorts are lower than for ART children but still higher than for SC indicating that both subfertility and ART influence the future outcome. Sibling studies, where a mother gave birth to both an ART and a SC child, support this theory as ART singletons had slightly poorer outcomes. The conclusion we can reach from the well designed studies aimed at disentangling the influence on child health of parental and ART factors is that both the chicken and the egg matter.

10.
Women Birth ; 32(4): 356-363, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341003

RESUMO

PROBLEM: Delayed labour progress is common in nulliparous women, often leading to caesarean section despite augmentation of labour with synthetic oxytocin. BACKGROUND: High- or low-dose oxytocin can be used for augmentation of delayed labour, but evidence for promoting high-dose is weak. Aim To ascertain the effect on caesarean section rate of high-dose versus low-dose oxytocin for augmentation of delayed labour in nulliparous women. Methods Multicentre parallel double-blind randomised controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01587625) in six labour wards in Sweden. Healthy nulliparous women at term with singleton cephalic fetal presentation, spontaneous labour onset, confirmed delay in labour and ruptured membranes (n=1351) were randomised to labour augmentation with either high-dose (6.6 mU/minute) or low-dose (3.3 mU/minute) oxytocin infusion. FINDINGS: 1295 women were included in intention-to-treat analysis (high-dose n=647; low-dose n=648). Caesarean section rates did not differ between groups (12.4% and 12.3%, 95% Confidence Interval -3.7 to 3.8). Women with high-dose oxytocin had: shorter labours (-23.4min); more uterine tachysystole (43.2% versus 33.5%); similar rates of instrumental vaginal births, with more due to fetal distress (43.8% versus 22.7%) and fewer due to failure to progress (39.6% versus 58.8%). There were no differences in neonatal outcomes. DISCUSSION: Our study could not confirm results of two systematic reviews indicating, with weak evidence, that use of high-dose oxytocin was associated with lower frequency of caesarean section. CONCLUSION: We found no advantages for routine use of high-dose oxytocin in the management of delay in labour. Low-dose oxytocin regimen is recommended to avoid unnecessary events of tachysystole and fetal distress.


Assuntos
Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Sofrimento Fetal/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Apresentação no Trabalho de Parto , Gravidez , Suécia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Hum Reprod ; 33(10): 1939-1947, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30124838

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Is there an association between the number of oocytes retrieved for IVF, and perinatal and obstetric outcomes? SUMMARY ANSWER: No significant association was found between the number of oocytes retrieved and perinatal outcomes, while an association was found for placenta praevia and male gender. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous studies have shown that between 6 and 15 oocytes retrieved is optimal for the live birth rate in fresh cycles. In a recent study, we showed that the cumulative live birth rate, including fresh and all cryopreservation cycles following one OPU, increases by the number of oocytes retrieved, up to approximately 20 oocytes. However, there was also an increase in serious side effects such as severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). A few studies, with contradictory results, have investigated whether the number of oocytes retrieved might also be associated with negative obstetric and perinatal outcomes. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A retrospective population-based registry study including all singleton babies born after fresh IVF cycles from 2002 to 2015 (n = 27 359) in Sweden. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Data on treatment characteristics from the Medical Birth/IVF Registry and the Swedish National Quality Registry of Assisted Reproduction, including all fresh IVF cycles performed in public or private infertility clinics during the study period and resulting in singleton deliveries, were cross-linked to the Medical Birth Registry and the National Patient Registry for maternal and neonatal outcome. Data on educational level, ethnicity and paternal age were obtained through cross-linking to Statistics Sweden. Oocyte donation cycles were excluded. Main perinatal outcome variables were preterm birth (PTB <37 gestational weeks), very PTB (<32 gestational weeks), small for gestational age (SGA: <2 SD), peri/neonatal death and major birth defects. Main obstetric outcome variables were hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and placenta praevia. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to explore the association between the number of oocytes retrieved and outcome variables. Adjustments were performed for maternal age, parity, smoking, BMI, cause of infertility, maternal educational level, maternal country of birth, treatment period, embryo stage, fertilization method (IVF/ICSI), number of embryos transferred, OHSS and vanishing twin. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The number of oocytes retrieved was analyzed as a continuous variable as well as categorized as <10, 10-14, 15-19 and >20 oocytes. A number of between four and nine oocytes was used as a reference. Single embryo transfer was performed in 20 910 (76.4%) of the cycles. Blastocyst transfer was performed in 3478 (12.7%) and cleavage stage embryo transfer was performed in 23 881 (87.3%) of the cycles. No significant association was observed between the number of oocytes retrieved (continuous variable) and PTB (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.002, 95% CI 0.994-1.011), very PTB (AOR 1.013, 95% CI 0.994-1.032), SGA (AOR 0.998, 95% CI 0.988-1.009), peri/neonatal death (AOR 1.008, 95% CI 0.975-1.043) or major birth defects (AOR 1.009, 95% CI 0.998-1.020). Concerning obstetric outcomes, a significant association was found for placenta praevia (AOR 1.021, 95% CI 1.005-1.037) while no association was found for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (AOR 0.991, 95% CI 0.981-1.001). Furthermore, a significant association was detected between the number of oocytes retrieved and the secondary outcome variable gender distribution, with a higher rate of males after >20 oocytes (AOR 1.126, 95% CI 1.014-1.249). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: As in all observational studies, unknown confounders may affect outcomes. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: These results are reassuring, indicating that there is no association between adverse neonatal outcomes and the number of oocytes retrieved. The association between the number of oocytes and placenta praevia was significant, though weak. The finding of an association with gender should be interpreted with caution. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): Financial support was received through Sahlgrenska University Hospital (ALFGBG-70 940) and the Hjalmar Svensson Research Foundation. None of the authors declares any conflict of interest.


Assuntos
Transferência Embrionária/estatística & dados numéricos , Fertilização In Vitro/efeitos adversos , Recuperação de Oócitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Placenta Prévia/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Recuperação de Oócitos/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Hiperestimulação Ovariana/epidemiologia , Indução da Ovulação/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade Perinatal , Placenta Prévia/etiologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Hum Reprod ; 33(10): 1948-1959, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30165380

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Is school performance in children conceived after assisted reproductive technology (ART) comparable to those conceived after spontaneous conception (SC)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Singleton children born after ART performed better in the crude analysis than singleton children born after SC although after adjustment, small differences were observed in total scores in favour of SC children. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: While it is well known that ART children, also singletons, have an adverse perinatal outcome, studies on cognitive skills in ART children are inconsistent and only few studies have been published on school performances. Although these studies indicate good school performances in ART children many studies suffer from low participation rate and few participants. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This retrospective population-based cohort study included all singleton children in Sweden, born after ART (n = 8323) or SC (n = 1 499 667), between 1985 and 2001. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Singleton children born after ART, identified in national IVF registries, were cross-linked with the Medical Birth Registry (MBR), the National Patient Registry (NPR) and the Swedish Cause of Death Registry (CDR) for characteristics and medical outcomes. Data on school performances, parental education and other parental characteristics was obtained through cross-linking to the National School Register and to Statistics Sweden. The control group was identified from the MBR and consisted of all singletons born after SC during the same time period. The primary outcome was school performance after 9 years at primary school and based on a mean total score of 16 subjects (0-320). The secondary outcomes were the mean school grade in specific subjects (mathematics, Swedish, English, physical education), 'qualified to enter secondary school' (i.e. approved in mathematics, Swedish and English) and 'poor school performance' (total score <160). Since the distribution of school grades was skewed, percentiles were used. Simple and multivariable linear regression was used for analysis of percentiles and logistic regression was used for the corresponding analysis of binary outcomes. Adjustments were made for child gender and year of birth, maternal age, parity, maternal smoking, paternal age, parental region of birth, parental education and socioeconomic class. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Data on 1 507 990 singletons in the ninth grade and registered by the Swedish School Authority were included. In the crude analysis, mean total scores were significantly higher for ART children (mean total score 230.2 (SD 57.2), corresponding to mean percentiles 60.2 (SD 27.7)), than for their SC counterparts (mean total score of 209.7 (SD 63.9), corresponding to mean percentiles 50.2 (SD 29.0)). However, after adjustments for several confounders, SC children had a significant advantage (adjusted mean difference [percentiles] -0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.31 to -0.12; P = 0.018). When analysing boys and girls together, no significant difference between children born after ART and children born after SC was found in mathematics, Swedish, English or physical education. Neither was there any significant difference between ART children and SC children in qualifying for secondary school (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.05; 95% CI 0.95-1.17, P = 0.35) or in poor school performance (AOR 0.98; 95% CI, 0.89-1.09, P = 0.73). When cross-linking children with missing data on school performances (2.7% for ART and 2.8% for SC) with the NPR for mental disability, 35% of ART and 34% of SC children with missing data, were registered under such a diagnosis. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The main limitation was that test scores were missing in a small percentage in both ART and SC children. Although we were able to crosslink this subpopulation with the NPR using codes for mental disability, such diagnosis only partly explained the missing scores. Other limitations are residual confounding caused by unknown confounders. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The findings are generally reassuring and indicate, in the crude analysis, that school performances of ART children compared to children born after SC are better. After adjustment small differences were observed in total scores in favour of SC children. There were no significant differences, when analysing boys and girls together in specific subjects, in secondary school qualification or poor school performance. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): Financial support was received through Sahlgrenska University Hospital (ALFGBG-70 940), Hjalmar Svensson Research Foundation and Nordforsk, project number 71450. None the authors declare any conflict of interest.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 97(7): 816-823, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29572867

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Children born after assisted reproductive technology, particularly singletons, have been shown to have an increased risk of congenital malformations compared with children born after spontaneous conception. We wished to study whether there has been a change in the past 20 years in the risk of major congenital malformations in children conceived after assisted reproductive technology compared with children spontaneously conceived. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Population-based cohort study including 90 201 assisted reproductive technology children and 482 552 children spontaneously conceived, born in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Both singletons and twins born after in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmatic sperm injection and frozen embryo transfer were included. Data on children were taken from when the national Nordic assisted reproductive technology registries were established until 2007. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the risks and adjusted odds ratios for congenital malformations in four time periods: 1988-1992, 1993-1997, 1998-2002 and 2003-2007. Only major malformations were included. RESULTS: The absolute risk for singletons of being born with a major malformation was 3.4% among assisted reproductive technology children vs. 2.9% among children spontaneously conceived during the study period. The relative risk of being born with a major congenital malformation between all assisted reproductive technology children and children spontaneously conceived remained similar through all four time periods (p = 0.39). However, we found that over time the number of children diagnosed with a major malformation increased in both groups across all four time periods. CONCLUSION: When comparing children conceived after assisted reproductive technology and spontaneously conceived, the relative risk of being born with a major congenital malformation did not change during the study period.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/etiologia , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/efeitos adversos , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Nascimento Vivo , Noruega/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
14.
Hum Reprod Update ; 24(3): 320-389, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29471389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal factors, including increasing childbearing age and various life-style factors, are associated with poorer short- and long-term outcomes for children, whereas knowledge of paternal parameters is limited. Recently, increasing paternal age has been associated with adverse obstetric outcomes, birth defects, autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia in children. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of this systematic review is to describe the influence of paternal factors on adverse short- and long-term child outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases up to January 2017 were searched. Paternal factors examined included paternal age and life-style factors such as body mass index (BMI), adiposity and cigarette smoking. The outcome variables assessed were short-term outcomes such as preterm birth, low birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), stillbirth, birth defects and chromosomal anomalies. Long-term outcome variables included mortality, cancers, psychiatric diseases/disorders and metabolic diseases. The systematic review follows PRISMA guidelines. Relevant meta-analyses were performed. OUTCOMES: The search included 14 371 articles out of which 238 met the inclusion criteria, and 81 were included in quantitative synthesis (meta-analyses). Paternal age and paternal life-style factors have an association with adverse outcome in offspring. This is particularly evident for psychiatric disorders such as autism, autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but an association is also found with stillbirth, any birth defects, orofacial clefts and trisomy 21. Paternal height, but not BMI, is associated with birth weight in offspring while paternal BMI is associated with BMI, weight and/or body fat in childhood. Paternal smoking is found to be associated with an increase in SGA, birth defects such as congenital heart defects, and orofacial clefts, cancers, brain tumours and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. These associations are significant although moderate in size, with most pooled estimates between 1.05 and 1.5, and none exceeding 2.0. WIDER IMPLICATIONS: Although the increased risks of adverse outcome in offspring associated with paternal factors and identified in this report represent serious health effects, the magnitude of these effects seems modest.


Assuntos
Pai , Resultado da Gravidez , Peso ao Nascer , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro
15.
Int J Cardiol ; 243: 197-203, 2017 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28539207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing prevalence of women with congenital heart defects reaching childbearing age. In western countries women tend to give birth at a higher age compared to some decades ago. We evaluated the CARdiac disease in PREGnancy (CARPREG) and modified World Health Organization (mWHO) risk classifications for cardiac complications during pregnancies in women with congenital heart defects and analyzed the impact of age on risk of obstetric and fetal outcome. METHODS: A single-center observational study of cardiac, obstetric, and neonatal complications with data from cardiac and obstetric records of pregnancies in women with congenital heart disease. Outcomes of 496 pregnancies in 232 women, including induced abortion, miscarriage, stillbirth, and live birth were analyzed regarding complications, maternal age, mode of delivery, and two risk classifications: CARPREG and mWHO. RESULTS: There were 28 induced abortions, 59 fetal loss, 409 deliveries with 412 neonates. Cardiac (14%), obstetric (14%), and neonatal (15%) complications were noted, including one maternal death and five stillbirths. The rate of cesarean section was 19%. Age above 35years was of borderline importance for cardiac complications (p=0.054) and was not a significant additional risk factor for obstetric or neonatal complications. Both risk classifications had moderate clinical utility, with area under the curve (AUC) 0.71 for CARPREG and 0.65 for mWHO on cardiac complications. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy complications in women with congenital heart disease are common but severe complications are rare. Advanced maternal age does not seem to affect complication rate. Existing risk classification systems are insufficient in predicting complications.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Idade Materna , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Fertil Steril ; 106(5): 1142-1149.e14, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27399261

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of maternal age on assisted reproductive technology (ART) and spontaneous conception (SC) pregnancies regarding maternal and neonatal complications. DESIGN: Nordic retrospective population-based cohort study. Data from national ART registries were cross-linked with national medical birth registries. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): A total of 300,085 singleton deliveries: 39,919 after ART and 260,166 after SC. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP), placenta previa, cesarean delivery, preterm birth (PTB; <37 weeks), low birth weight (LBW; <2,500 g), small for gestational age (SGA), and perinatal mortality (≥28 weeks). Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) were calculated. Associations between maternal age and outcomes were analyzed. RESULT(S): The risk of placenta previa (AOR 4.11-6.05), cesarean delivery (AOR 1.18-1.50), PTB (AOR 1.23-2.19), and LBW (AOR 1.44-2.35) was significantly higher in ART than in SC pregnancies for most maternal ages. In both ART and SC pregnancies, the risk of HDP, placenta previa, cesarean delivery, PTB, LBW, and SGA changed significantly with age. The AORs for adverse neonatal outcomes at advanced maternal age (>35 years) showed a greater increase in SC than in ART. The change in risk with age did not differ between ART and SC for maternal outcomes at advanced maternal age. CONCLUSION(S): Having singleton conceptions after ART results in higher maternal and neonatal outcome risks overall, but the impact of age seems to be more pronounced in couples conceiving spontaneously.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Infertilidade/terapia , Idade Materna , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Cesárea , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Infertilidade/diagnóstico , Infertilidade/fisiopatologia , Nascimento Vivo , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 95(8): 879-86, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27060438

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown an increased risk of obstetric complications in pregnancies after oocyte donation (OD). The present study includes all singletons born after OD over 10 years in Sweden. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective population-based cohort study. Data from all Swedish in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics between 2003 and 2012 were collected. Data were cross-linked with the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. The study included 388 OD singletons, 26 696 IVF/ICSI singletons and 999 804 spontaneously conceived (SC) singletons. An adjusted odds ratio (aOR) was calculated with adjustment for relevant confounders. RESULTS: Singleton OD pregnancies had a significantly increased risk of preeclampsia compared with IVF (aOR 3.05; 95% CI 2.23-4.16) and SC (aOR 2.84; 95% CI 2.10-3.84), and increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage (>1000 mL) compared with IVF (aOR 2.66; 95% CI 2.04-3.49) and SC (aOR 2.87; 95% CI 2.20-3.71), a higher risk of preterm birth (<37 weeks) compared with IVF (aOR 1.79; 95% CI 1.30-2.46) and SC (aOR 1.58; 95% CI 1.15-2.16) and a higher risk of low birthweight (<2500 g) compared with IVF (aOR 1.67; 95% CI 1.15-2.42) and SC (aOR 1.46; 95% CI 1.01-2.11). The rate of large-for-gestational age was significantly increased in singletons born after OD with frozen cycles than with fresh cycles (odds ratio 5.29, 95% CI 1.30-21.54). CONCLUSIONS: Singleton pregnancies conceived after OD are associated with increased maternal and perinatal risks compared with IVF/ICSI pregnancies using the woman's own oocytes and with SC.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Doação de Oócitos/efeitos adversos , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Razão de Chances , Doação de Oócitos/métodos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Suécia
18.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 214(3): 378.e1-378.e10, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26928152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown a higher risk of birth defects and preterm birth (PTB) in singletons born after blastocyst transfer as compared to singletons born after cleavage-stage transfer. Few studies have investigated the maternal outcomes. OBJECTIVE: We sought to analyze the neonatal and maternal outcome after blastocyst transfer (day 5-6) compared to transfer of cleavage-stage embryos (day 2-3) and spontaneous conception. STUDY DESIGN: This was a population-based retrospective registry study including all singleton deliveries after blastocyst transfer in Sweden from 2002 through 2013. The in vitro fertilization register was cross-linked with the Swedish Medical Birth Register, the Register of Birth Defects, and the National Patient Register. Deliveries after blastocyst transfer were compared with deliveries after cleavage-stage transfer and deliveries after spontaneous conception. Outcome measures included birth defects, PTB, low birthweight, small for gestational age, large for gestational age, perinatal mortality, placenta previa, placental abruption, and preeclampsia. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Adjustment was made for year of birth of child, maternal age, parity, smoking, body mass index, years of involuntary childlessness, and child's sex and, for cleavage stage, also for number of oocytes retrieved, number of embryos transferred, and fresh/frozen embryo transfer. RESULTS: There were 4819 singletons born after blastocyst transfer, 25,747 after cleavage-stage transfer, and 1,196,394 after spontaneous conception. Singletons born after blastocyst transfer had no increased risk of birth defects compared to singletons born after cleavage-stage transfer (AOR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.79-1.13) or spontaneous conception (AOR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.92-1.28). Perinatal mortality was higher in the blastocyst vs the cleavage-stage group (AOR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.14-2.29). When comparing singletons born after blastocyst transfer to singletons born after spontaneous conception, a higher risk of PTB (<37 weeks) was seen (AOR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.05-1.31). Singletons born after blastocyst transfer had a lower rate of low birthweight (AOR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.71-0.97) as compared to cleavage-stage transfer. The rate of being small for gestational age was lower in singletons born after blastocyst transfer as compared to both cleavage-stage and spontaneous conception (AOR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.88 and AOR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.57-0.87, respectively). The risk of placenta previa and placental abruption was higher in pregnancies after blastocyst transfer as compared to pregnancies after cleavage-stage (AOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.70-2.55 and AOR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.15-2.29, respectively) and spontaneous conception (AOR, 6.38; 95% CI, 5.31-7.66 and AOR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.70-3.13, respectively). CONCLUSION: No increased risk of birth defects was found in singletons born after blastocyst transfer. Perinatal mortality and risk of placental complications were higher in the blastocyst group as compared to the cleavage-stage group, observations that need further investigations.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Descolamento Prematuro da Placenta/epidemiologia , Adulto , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Mortalidade Perinatal , Placenta Prévia/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 16: 49, 2016 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26951777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational data shows that postterm pregnancy (≥42 gestational weeks, GW) and late term pregnancy (≥41 GW), as compared to term pregnancy, is associated with an increased risk for adverse outcome for the mother and infant. Standard care in many countries is induction of labour at 42 GW. There is insufficient scientific support that induction of labour at 41 GW, as compared with expectant management and induction at 42 GW will reduce perinatal mortality and morbidity without an increase in operative deliveries, negative delivery experiences or higher costs. Large randomised studies are needed since important outcomes; such as perinatal mortality and hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy are rare events. METHODS/DESIGN: A total of 10 038 healthy women ≥18 years old with a normal live singleton pregnancy in cephalic presentation at 41 GW estimated with a first or second trimester ultrasound, who is able to understand oral and written information will be randomised to labour induction at 41 GW (early induction) or expectant management and induction at 42 GW (late induction). Women will be recruited at university clinics and county hospitals in Sweden comprising more than 65 000 deliveries per year. Primary outcome will be a composite of stillbirth, neonatal mortality and severe neonatal morbidity. Secondary outcomes will be other adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes, mode of delivery, women's experience, cost effectiveness and infant morbidity up to 3 months of age. Data on background variables, obstetric and neonatal outcomes will be obtained from the Swedish Pregnancy Register and the Swedish Neonatal Quality Register. Data on women's experiences will be collected by questionnaires after randomisation and 3 months after delivery. Primary analysis will be intention to treat. The statistician will be blinded to group and intervention. DISCUSSION: It is important to investigate if an intervention at 41 GW is superior to standard care in order to reduce death and lifelong disability for the children. The pregnant population, >41 GW, constitutes 15-20% of all pregnancies and the results of the study will thus have a great impact. The use of registries for randomisation and collection of outcome data represents a unique and new study design. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered in Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN26113652 the 30(th) of March 2015 (DOI 10.1186/ISRCTN26113652 ).


Assuntos
Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Trabalho de Parto , Gravidez Prolongada , Adulto , Protocolos Clínicos , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/etiologia , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Natimorto , Suécia , Nascimento a Termo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 95(1): 10-5, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26458360

RESUMO

Epigenetic modification controls gene activity without changes in the DNA sequence. The genome undergoes several phases of epigenetic programming during gametogenesis and early embryo development, coinciding with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) treatments. Imprinting disorders have been associated with ART techniques, but disentangling the influence of the ART procedures per se from the effect of the reproductive disease of the parents is a challenge. Epidemiological human studies have shown altered birthweight profiles in ART compared with spontaneously conceived singletons. Conception with cryopreserved/thawed embryos results in a higher risk of large-for-gestational-age babies, which may be due to epigenetic modification. Further animal studies have shown altered gene expression profiles in offspring conceived by ART related to altered glucose metabolism. It is controversial whether human adolescents conceived by ART have altered lipid and glucose profiles and thereby a higher long-term risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. This commentary describes the basic concepts of epigenetics and gives a short overview of the existing literature on the association between imprinting disorders, epigenetic modification and ART.


Assuntos
Epigenômica , Impressão Genômica/genética , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA