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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e054903, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489299

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: People living with HIV (PLHIV) in the USA, particularly women, have a higher prevalence of food insecurity than the general population. Cigarette smoking among PLHIV is common (42%), and PLHIV are 6-13 times more likely to die from lung cancer than AIDS-related causes. This study sought to investigate the associations between food security status and smoking status and severity among a cohort of predominantly low-income women of colour living with and without HIV in the USA. DESIGN: Women enrolled in an ongoing longitudinal cohort study from 2013 to 2015. SETTING: Nine participating sites across the USA. PARTICIPANTS: 2553 participants enrolled in the Food Insecurity Sub-Study of the Women's Interagency HIV Study, a multisite cohort study of US women living with HIV and demographically similar HIV-seronegative women. OUTCOMES: Current cigarette smoking status and intensity were self-reported. We used cross-sectional and longitudinal logistic and Tobit regressions to assess associations of food security status and changes in food security status with smoking status and intensity. RESULTS: The median age was 48. Most respondents were African-American/black (72%) and living with HIV (71%). Over half had annual incomes ≤US$12 000 (52%). Food insecurity (44%) and cigarette smoking (42%) were prevalent. In analyses adjusting for common sociodemographic characteristics, all categories of food insecurity were associated with greater odds of current smoking compared with food-secure women. Changes in food insecurity were also associated with increased odds of smoking. Any food insecurity was associated with higher smoking intensity. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity over time was associated with smoking in this cohort of predominantly low-income women of colour living with or at risk of HIV. Integrating alleviation of food insecurity into smoking cessation programmes may be an effective method to reduce the smoking prevalence and disproportionate lung cancer mortality rate particularly among PLHIV.


Assuntos
Insegurança Alimentar , Infecções por HIV , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(5): e112-e119, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on antiretroviral therapy, but its relationship with immune dysregulation, a hallmark of HIV infection and comorbidity, is unknown. METHODS: In 241 women participating in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were characterized by flow cytometry to identify cell subsets, comprising surface markers of activation (%CD38+HLADR+), senescence (%CD57+CD28-), exhaustion (%PD-1+), and co-stimulation (%CD57- CD28+) on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Mixed-effects linear regression models were used to assess the relationships of food insecurity with immune outcomes, accounting for repeated measures at ≤3 study visits and adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors. RESULTS: At the baseline study visit, 71% of participants identified as non-Hispanic Black, 75% were virally suppressed, and 43% experienced food insecurity. Food insecurity was associated with increased activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, increased senescence of CD8+ T cells, and decreased co-stimulation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (all P < .05), adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, substance use, smoking, HIV viral load, and CD4 count. In stratified analyses, the association of food insecurity with CD4+ T-cell activation was more pronounced in women with uncontrolled HIV (viral load >40 copies/mL and CD4 <500 cells/mm3) but remained statistically significant in those with controlled HIV. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity may contribute to the persistent immune activation and senescence in women with HIV on antiretroviral therapy, independently of HIV control. Reducing food insecurity may be important for decreasing non-AIDS-related disease risk in this population.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Feminino , Insegurança Alimentar , HIV , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Ativação Linfocitária , Carga Viral
3.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e113, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248873

RESUMO

AIMS: Psychotropic prescription rates continue to increase in the United States (USA). Few studies have investigated whether social-structural factors may play a role in psychotropic medication use independent of mental illness. Food insecurity is prevalent among people living with HIV in the USA and has been associated with poor mental health. We investigated whether food insecurity was associated with psychotropic medication use independent of the symptoms of depression and anxiety among women living with HIV in the USA. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a nationwide cohort study. Food security (FS) was the primary explanatory variable, measured using the Household Food Security Survey Module. First, we used multivariable linear regressions to test whether FS was associated with symptoms of depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression [CESD] score), generalised anxiety disorder (GAD-7 score) and mental health-related quality of life (MOS-HIV Mental Health Summary score; MHS). Next, we examined associations of FS with the use of any psychotropic medications, including antidepressants, sedatives and antipsychotics, using multivariable logistic regressions adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education and alcohol and substance use. In separate models, we additionally adjusted for symptoms of depression (CESD score) and anxiety (GAD-7 score). RESULTS: Of the 905 women in the sample, two-thirds were African-American. Lower FS (i.e. worse food insecurity) was associated with greater symptoms of depression and anxiety in a dose-response relationship. For the psychotropic medication outcomes, marginal and low FS were associated with 2.06 (p < 0.001; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36-3.13) and 1.99 (p < 0.01; 95% CI = 1.26-3.15) times higher odds of any psychotropic medication use, respectively, before adjusting for depression and anxiety. The association of very low FS with any psychotropic medication use was not statistically significant. A similar pattern was found for antidepressant and sedative use. After additionally adjusting for CESD and GAD-7 scores, marginal FS remained associated with 1.93 (p < 0.05; 95% CI = 1.16-3.19) times higher odds of any psychotropic medication use. Very low FS, conversely, was significantly associated with lower odds of antidepressant use (adjusted odds ratio = 0.42; p < 0.05; 95% CI = 0.19-0.96). CONCLUSIONS: Marginal FS was associated with higher odds of using psychotropic medications independent of depression and anxiety, while very low FS was associated with lower odds. These complex findings may indicate that people experiencing very low FS face barriers to accessing mental health services, while those experiencing marginal FS who do access services are more likely to be prescribed psychotropic medications for distress arising from social and structural factors.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pobreza , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
AIDS Behav ; 24(1): 151-164, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049811

RESUMO

Receiving regular HIV care is crucial for maintaining good health among persons with HIV. However, racial and gender disparities in HIV care receipt exist. Discrimination and its impact may vary by race/ethnicity and gender, contributing to disparities. Data from 1578 women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study ascertained from 10/1/2012 to 9/30/2016 were used to: (1) estimate the relationship between discrimination and missing any scheduled HIV care appointments and (2) assess whether this relationship is effect measure modified by race/ethnicity. Self-reported measures captured discrimination and the primary outcome of missing any HIV care appointments in the last 6 months. Log-binomial models accounting for measured sources of confounding and selection bias were fit. For the primary outcome analyses, women experiencing discrimination typically had a higher prevalence of missing an HIV care appointment. Moreover, there was no statistically significant evidence for effect measure modification by race/ethnicity. Interventions to minimize discrimination or its impact may improve HIV care engagement among women.


Assuntos
Discriminação Psicológica , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Estigma Social , Saúde da Mulher/etnologia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Agendamento de Consultas , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos de Coortes , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Participação do Paciente , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(6): 1517-1523, 2020 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity is a well-established determinant of suboptimal, self-reported antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, but few studies have investigated this association using objective adherence measures. We examined the association of food insecurity with levels of ART concentrations in hair among women living with human immunodeficiency virus (WLHIV) in the United States. METHODS: We analyzed longitudinal data collected semiannually from 2013 through 2015 from the Women's Interagency HIV Study, a multisite, prospective, cohort study of WLHIV and controls not living with HIV. Our sample comprised 1944 person-visits from 677 WLHIV. Food insecurity was measured using the US Household Food Security Survey Module. ART concentrations in hair, an objective and validated measure of drug adherence and exposure, were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection for regimens that included darunavir, atazanavir, raltegravir, or dolutegravir. We conducted multiple 3-level linear regressions that accounted for repeated measures and the ART medication(s) taken at each visit, adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: At baseline, 67% of participants were virally suppressed and 35% reported food insecurity. In the base multivariable model, each 3-point increase in food insecurity was associated with 0.94-fold lower ART concentration in hair (95% confidence interval, 0.89 to 0.99). This effect remained unchanged after adjusting for self-reported adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity was associated with lower ART concentrations in hair, suggesting that food insecurity may be associated with suboptimal ART adherence and/or drug absorption. Interventions seeking to improve ART adherence among WLHIV should consider and address the role of food insecurity.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Insegurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , HIV , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
J Nutr ; 149(8): 1393-1403, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity, which disproportionately affects marginalized women in the United States, is associated with depressive symptoms. Few studies have examined relations of food insecurity with other mental health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of food insecurity with symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), stress, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a prospective cohort study of women with or at risk of HIV in the United States. METHODS: Participants were 2553 women with or at risk of HIV, predominantly African American/black (71.6%). Structured questionnaires were conducted during April 2013-March 2016 every 6 mo. Food security (FS) was the primary predictor, measured using the Household Food Security Survey Module. We measured longitudinal outcomes for GAD (GAD-7 score and a binary GAD-7 screener for moderate-to-severe GAD). Only cross-sectional data were available for outcomes measuring perceived stress (PSS-10 score) and PTSD (PCL-C score and a binary PCL-C screener for PTSD). We examined associations of FS with the outcomes through use of multivariable linear and logistic regression, including lagged associations with GAD outcomes. RESULTS: After adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related factors including HIV serostatus, current marginal, low, and very low FS were associated with increasingly higher GAD-7 scores, and with 1.41 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.80; P < 0.01), 2.03 (95% CI: 1.59, 2.61; P < 0.001), and 3.23 (95% CI: 2.43, 4.29; P < 0.001) times higher odds of screening positive for moderate-to-severe GAD, respectively. Low and very low FS at the previous visit (6 mo earlier) were independently associated with GAD outcomes at current visit. Associations of FS with PSS-10 and PCL-C scores exhibited similar dose-response relations. Very low FS was associated with 1.93 (95% CI: 1.15, 3.24; P < 0.05) times higher odds of screening positive for PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity may be associated with a range of poor mental health outcomes among women in the United States with or at risk of HIV.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213365, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity and violence are two major public health issues facing U.S. women. The link between food insecurity and violence has received little attention, particularly regarding the temporal ordering of events. The present study used data from the Women's Interagency Human Immunodeficiency Virus Study to investigate the longitudinal association of food insecurity and violence in a cohort of women at risk for or living with HIV. METHODS: Study participants completed six assessments from 2013-16 on food insecurity (operationalized as marginal, low, and very low food security) and violence (sexual or physical, and psychological). We used multi-level logistic regression, controlling for visits (level 1) nested within individuals (level 2), to estimate the association of experiencing violence. RESULTS: Among 2,343 women (8,528 visits), we found that victims of sexual or physical violence (odds ratio = 3.10; 95% confidence interval: 1.88, 5.19) and psychological violence (odds ratio = 3.00; 95% confidence interval: 1.67, 5.50) were more likely to report very low food security. The odds of experiencing violence were higher for women with very low food security at both the current and previous visit as compared to only the current visit. HIV status did not modify these associations. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity was strongly associated with violence, and women exposed to persistent food insecurity were even more likely to experience violence. Food programs and policy must consider persistent exposure to food insecurity, and interpersonal harms faced by food insecure women, such as violence.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Violência , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Pobreza/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
8.
J Nutr ; 149(2): 240-248, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity and mental health negatively affect the lives of women in the United States. Participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) provided the opportunity to understand the association of food insecurity with depression and mental well-being over time. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between current and persistent food insecurity and depression among women at risk of or living with HIV in the United States. METHODS: We used longitudinal data from the WIHS, a prospective cohort study in women at risk of or living with HIV from multiple sites in the United States. Participants completed 6 semiannual assessments from 2013 to 2016 on food security (FS; high, marginal, low, and very low) and mental health (i.e., depressive symptoms and mental well-being). We used multiple regression analysis to estimate the association between these variables. RESULTS: Among 2551 participants, 44% were food insecure and 35% reported depressive symptoms indicative of probable depression. Current marginal, low, and very low FS were associated with 2.1-, 3.5-, and 5.5-point (all P < 0.001) higher depression scores, respectively. In models adjusting for both current and previous FS, previous marginal, low, and very low FS were associated with 0.2-, 0.93-, and 1.52-point higher scores, respectively (all P < 0.001). Women with very low FS at both time points (persistent food insecurity) had a 6.86-point higher depression score (P < 0.001). In the mental health models, there was a dose-response relation between current FS and worse mental health even when controlling for previous FS (all P < 0.001). Previous low FS was associated with worse mental health. These associations did not differ by HIV status. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity placed women at risk of depression and poor mental well-being, but the risk was substantially higher for women experiencing persistent food insecurity. Future interventions to improve women's mental health call for multilevel components that include addressing food insecurity.


Assuntos
Depressão/complicações , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Saúde Mental , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Saúde da Mulher
9.
Addiction ; 114(1): 127-136, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30109752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Few longitudinal studies have examined the relationship between food insecurity and substance use. We aimed to investigate this relationship using longitudinal data among women with or at risk for HIV in the United States. DESIGN: Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a prospective cohort study. SETTING: Nine sites across the United States. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2553 women with or at risk for HIV. MEASUREMENTS: Semi-annual structured interviews were conducted during April 2013-March 2016. Food security (FS) was the primary predictor, measured using the Household Food Security Survey Module. Outcomes were: any illicit substance use except cannabis; licit or illicit cannabis use; stimulant use (crack, cocaine, or methamphetamine); opioid use (heroin or methadone in a non-prescribed way); and prescription drug misuse (prescription narcotics, amphetamines, or tranquilizers in a non-prescribed way) since the last visit. We used multivariable logistic regression with random effects to examine longitudinal associations of current and previous FS with the outcomes simultaneously, adjusting for socio-demographic factors, HIV serostatus, physical health and health insurance. FINDINGS: Average number of visits was 4.6. At baseline, 71% of participants were HIV-seropositive, 44% reported marginal, low, or very low FS, and 13% were using illicit substances. In adjusted analyses, current low and very low FS were significantly associated with 1.59 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02, 2.46; P = 0.039] and 2.48 (95% CI = 1.52, 4.04; P < 0.001) higher odds of any illicit substance use, compared to high FS, and also with higher odds of cannabis, stimulant and opioid use, exhibiting a consistent dose-response relationship. Marginal, low, and very low FS at the previous visit were associated with 1.66 (95% CI = 1.08, 2.54; P = 0.020), 1.77 (95% CI = 1.14, 2.74; P = 0.011), and 2.28 (95% CI = 1.43, 3.64; P < 0.001) higher odds of current illicit substance use. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity appears to be longitudinally associated with substance use among US women with or at risk for HIV.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
AIDS Behav ; 22(12): 3869-3878, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29948333

RESUMO

Food insecurity, internalized HIV stigma, and depressive symptoms are independently associated with poor HIV outcomes. Food insecurity, stigma, and depression may be interrelated among women living with HIV (WLHIV). We hypothesized that food insecurity would be independently associated with internalized stigma and depressive symptoms among WLHIV in the United States (US), and would partially account for associations between stigma and depressive symptoms. We tested hypotheses using regression models and partial correlation analysis with cross-sectional data among 1317 WLHIV from the Women's Interagency HIV Study. In adjusted models, greater food insecurity was associated with internalized HIV stigma and depressive symptoms (all p < 0.05), exhibiting dose-response relationships. Food insecurity accounted for 23.2% of the total shared variance between depressive symptoms and internalized stigma. Food insecurity is associated with depressive symptoms and internalized HIV stigma among US WLHIV, and may play a role in the negative cycle of depression and internalized stigma.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Estigma Social , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
AIDS Behav ; 21(12): 3431-3439, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29081045

RESUMO

There is insufficient research on the impact of perceived discrimination in healthcare settings on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), particularly among women living with HIV, and even less is known about psychosocial mechanisms that may mediate this association. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted in a sample of 1356 diverse women living with HIV enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a multi-center cohort study. Indirect effects analysis with bootstrapping was used to examine the potential mediating roles of internalized stigma and depressive symptoms in the association between perceived discrimination in healthcare settings and ART adherence. Perceived discrimination in healthcare settings was negatively associated with optimal (95% or better) ART adherence (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.81, p = 0.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.68, 0.97]). Furthermore, internalization of stigma and depressive symptoms mediated the perceived discrimination-adherence association: Serial mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect effect of perceived discrimination in healthcare settings on ART adherence, first through internalized HIV stigma, and then through depressive symptoms (B = - 0.08, SE = 0.02, 95% CI [- 0.12, - 0.04]). Perceiving discrimination in healthcare settings may contribute to internalization of HIV-related stigma, which in turn may lead to depressive symptoms, with downstream adverse effects on ART adherence among women. These findings can guide the design of interventions to reduce discrimination in healthcare settings, as well as interventions targeting psychosocial mechanisms that may impact the ability of women living with HIV to adhere to ART regimens.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Depressão/psicologia , Discriminação Psicológica , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Estigma Social , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo da Dor , Percepção , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 72(2): 198-205, 2016 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26885803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internalization of HIV-related stigma may inhibit a person's ability to manage HIV disease through adherence to treatment regimens. Studies, mainly with white men, have suggested an association between internalized stigma and suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, there is a scarcity of research with women of different racial/ethnic backgrounds and on mediating mechanisms in the association between internalized stigma and ART adherence. METHODS: The Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) is a multicenter cohort study. Women living with HIV complete interviewer-administered questionnaires semiannually. Cross-sectional analyses for the current article included 1168 women on ART for whom data on medication adherence were available from their last study visit between April 2013 and March 2014, when the internalized stigma measure was initially introduced. RESULTS: The association between internalized stigma and self-reported suboptimal ART adherence was significant for those in racial/ethnic minority groups (AOR = 0.69, P = 0.009, 95% CI: 0.52 to 0.91), but not for non-Hispanic whites (AOR = 2.15, P = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.69 to 6.73). Depressive symptoms, loneliness, and low perceived social support mediated the association between internalized stigma and suboptimal adherence in the whole sample, as well as in the subsample of minority participants. In serial mediation models, internalized stigma predicted less-perceived social support (or higher loneliness), which in turn predicted more depressive symptoms, which in turn predicted suboptimal medication adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that interconnected psychosocial mechanisms affect ART adherence, and that improvements in adherence may require multifaceted interventions addressing both mental health and interpersonal factors, especially for minority women.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Depressão/complicações , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Estigma Social , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Discriminação Psicológica , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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