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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 509-525, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422817

RESUMO

The human RNA helicase DDX6 is an essential component of membrane-less organelles called processing bodies (PBs). PBs are involved in mRNA metabolic processes including translational repression via coordinated storage of mRNAs. Previous studies in human cell lines have implicated altered DDX6 in molecular and cellular dysfunction, but clinical consequences and pathogenesis in humans have yet to be described. Here, we report the identification of five rare de novo missense variants in DDX6 in probands presenting with intellectual disability, developmental delay, and similar dysmorphic features including telecanthus, epicanthus, arched eyebrows, and low-set ears. All five missense variants (p.His372Arg, p.Arg373Gln, p.Cys390Arg, p.Thr391Ile, and p.Thr391Pro) are located in two conserved motifs of the RecA-2 domain of DDX6 involved in RNA binding, helicase activity, and protein-partner binding. We use functional studies to demonstrate that the first variants identified (p.Arg373Gln and p.Cys390Arg) cause significant defects in PB assembly in primary fibroblast and model human cell lines. These variants' interactions with several protein partners were also disrupted in immunoprecipitation assays. Further investigation via complementation assays included the additional variants p.Thr391Ile and p.Thr391Pro, both of which, similarly to p.Arg373Gln and p.Cys390Arg, demonstrated significant defects in P-body assembly. Complementing these molecular findings, modeling of the variants on solved protein structures showed distinct spatial clustering near known protein binding regions. Collectively, our clinical and molecular data describe a neurodevelopmental syndrome associated with pathogenic missense variants in DDX6. Additionally, we suggest DDX6 join the DExD/H-box genes DDX3X and DHX30 in an emerging class of neurodevelopmental disorders involving RNA helicases.

2.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395947

RESUMO

PTPN23 is a His-domain protein-tyrosine phosphatase implicated in ciliogenesis, the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway, and RNA splicing. Until recently, no defined human phenotype had been associated with alterations in this gene. We identified and report a cohort of seven patients with either homozygous or compound heterozygous rare deleterious variants in PTPN23. Combined with four patients previously reported, a total of 11 patients with this disorder have now been identified. We expand the phenotypic and variation spectrum associated with defects in this gene. Patients have strong phenotypic overlap, suggesting a defined autosomal recessive syndrome caused by reduced function of PTPN23. Shared characteristics of affected individuals include developmental delay, brain abnormalities (mainly ventriculomegaly and/or brain atrophy), intellectual disability, spasticity, language disorder, microcephaly, optic atrophy, and seizures. We observe a broad range of variants across patients that are likely strongly reducing the expression or disrupting the function of the protein. However, we do not observe any patients with an allele combination predicted to result in complete loss of function of PTPN23, as this is likely incompatible with life, consistent with reported embryonic lethality in the mouse. None of the observed or reported variants are recurrent, although some have been identified in homozygosis in patients from consanguineous populations. This study expands the phenotypic and molecular spectrum of PTPN23 associated disease and identifies major shared features among patients affected with this disorder, while providing additional support to the important role of PTPN23 in human nervous and visual system development and function.

3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(7): 1276-1286, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124279

RESUMO

Lysine-specific demethylase 6B (KDM6B) demethylates trimethylated lysine-27 on histone H3. The methylation and demethylation of histone proteins affects gene expression during development. Pathogenic alterations in histone lysine methylation and demethylation genes have been associated with multiple neurodevelopmental disorders. We have identified a number of de novo alterations in the KDM6B gene via whole exome sequencing (WES) in a cohort of 12 unrelated patients with developmental delay, intellectual disability, dysmorphic facial features, and other clinical findings. Our findings will allow for further investigation in to the role of the KDM6B gene in human neurodevelopmental disorders.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(5): 815-834, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031012

RESUMO

We identified individuals with variations in ACTL6B, a component of the chromatin remodeling machinery including the BAF complex. Ten individuals harbored bi-allelic mutations and presented with global developmental delay, epileptic encephalopathy, and spasticity, and ten individuals with de novo heterozygous mutations displayed intellectual disability, ambulation deficits, severe language impairment, hypotonia, Rett-like stereotypies, and minor facial dysmorphisms (wide mouth, diastema, bulbous nose). Nine of these ten unrelated individuals had the identical de novo c.1027G>A (p.Gly343Arg) mutation. Human-derived neurons were generated that recaptured ACTL6B expression patterns in development from progenitor cell to post-mitotic neuron, validating the use of this model. Engineered knock-out of ACTL6B in wild-type human neurons resulted in profound deficits in dendrite development, a result recapitulated in two individuals with different bi-allelic mutations, and reversed on clonal genetic repair or exogenous expression of ACTL6B. Whole-transcriptome analyses and whole-genomic profiling of the BAF complex in wild-type and bi-allelic mutant ACTL6B neural progenitor cells and neurons revealed increased genomic binding of the BAF complex in ACTL6B mutants, with corresponding transcriptional changes in several genes including TPPP and FSCN1, suggesting that altered regulation of some cytoskeletal genes contribute to altered dendrite development. Assessment of bi-alleic and heterozygous ACTL6B mutations on an ACTL6B knock-out human background demonstrated that bi-allelic mutations mimic engineered deletion deficits while heterozygous mutations do not, suggesting that the former are loss of function and the latter are gain of function. These results reveal a role for ACTL6B in neurodevelopment and implicate another component of chromatin remodeling machinery in brain disease.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 701-708, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879638

RESUMO

Developmental delay and intellectual disability (DD and ID) are heterogeneous phenotypes that arise in many rare monogenic disorders. Because of this rarity, developing cohorts with enough individuals to robustly identify disease-associated genes is challenging. Social-media platforms that facilitate data sharing among sequencing labs can help to address this challenge. Through one such tool, GeneMatcher, we identified nine DD- and/or ID-affected probands with a rare, heterozygous variant in the gene encoding the serine/threonine-protein kinase BRSK2. All probands have a speech delay, and most present with intellectual disability, motor delay, behavioral issues, and autism. Six of the nine variants are predicted to result in loss of function, and computational modeling predicts that the remaining three missense variants are damaging to BRSK2 structure and function. All nine variants are absent from large variant databases, and BRSK2 is, in general, relatively intolerant to protein-altering variation among humans. In all six probands for whom parents were available, the mutations were found to have arisen de novo. Five of these de novo variants were from cohorts with at least 400 sequenced probands; collectively, the cohorts span 3,429 probands, and the observed rate of de novo variation in these cohorts is significantly higher than the estimated background-mutation rate (p = 2.46 × 10-6). We also find that exome sequencing provides lower coverage and appears less sensitive to rare variation in BRSK2 than does genome sequencing; this fact most likely reduces BRSK2's visibility in many clinical and research sequencing efforts. Altogether, our results implicate damaging variation in BRSK2 as a source of neurodevelopmental disease.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(2): 319-330, 2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639322

RESUMO

ZMIZ1 is a coactivator of several transcription factors, including p53, the androgen receptor, and NOTCH1. Here, we report 19 subjects with intellectual disability and developmental delay carrying variants in ZMIZ1. The associated features include growth failure, feeding difficulties, microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, and various other congenital malformations. Of these 19, 14 unrelated subjects carried de novo heterozygous single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) or single-base insertions/deletions, 3 siblings harbored a heterozygous single-base insertion, and 2 subjects had a balanced translocation disrupting ZMIZ1 or involving a regulatory region of ZMIZ1. In total, we identified 13 point mutations that affect key protein regions, including a SUMO acceptor site, a central disordered alanine-rich motif, a proline-rich domain, and a transactivation domain. All identified variants were absent from all available exome and genome databases. In vitro, ZMIZ1 showed impaired coactivation of the androgen receptor. In vivo, overexpression of ZMIZ1 mutant alleles in developing mouse brains using in utero electroporation resulted in abnormal pyramidal neuron morphology, polarization, and positioning, underscoring the importance of ZMIZ1 in neural development and supporting mutations in ZMIZ1 as the cause of a rare neurodevelopmental syndrome.

9.
Genet Med ; 21(8): 1797-1807, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679821

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Haploinsufficiency of USP7, located at chromosome 16p13.2, has recently been reported in seven individuals with neurodevelopmental phenotypes, including developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), seizures, and hypogonadism. Further, USP7 was identified to critically incorporate into the MAGEL2-USP7-TRIM27 (MUST), such that pathogenic variants in USP7 lead to altered endosomal F-actin polymerization and dysregulated protein recycling. METHODS: We report 16 newly identified individuals with heterozygous USP7 variants, identified by genome or exome sequencing or by chromosome microarray analysis. Clinical features were evaluated by review of medical records. Additional clinical information was obtained on the seven previously reported individuals to fully elucidate the phenotypic expression associated with USP7 haploinsufficiency. RESULTS: The clinical manifestations of these 23 individuals suggest a syndrome characterized by DD/ID, hypotonia, eye anomalies,feeding difficulties, GERD, behavioral anomalies, and ASD, and more specific phenotypes of speech delays including a nonverbal phenotype and abnormal brain magnetic resonance image findings including white matter changes based on neuroradiologic examination. CONCLUSION: The consistency of clinical features among all individuals presented regardless of de novo USP7 variant type supports haploinsufficiency as a mechanism for pathogenesis and refines the clinical impact faced by affected individuals and caregivers.

10.
PLoS Genet ; 14(11): e1007671, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500825

RESUMO

Mutations that alter signaling of RAS/MAPK-family proteins give rise to a group of Mendelian diseases known as RASopathies. However, among RASopathies, the matrix of genotype-phenotype relationships is still incomplete, in part because there are many RAS-related proteins and in part because the phenotypic consequences may be variable and/or pleiotropic. Here, we describe a cohort of ten cases, drawn from six clinical sites and over 16,000 sequenced probands, with de novo protein-altering variation in RALA, a RAS-like small GTPase. All probands present with speech and motor delays, and most have intellectual disability, low weight, short stature, and facial dysmorphism. The observed rate of de novo RALA variants in affected probands is significantly higher (p = 4.93 x 10-11) than expected from the estimated random mutation rate. Further, all de novo variants described here affect residues within the GTP/GDP-binding region of RALA; in fact, six alleles arose at only two codons, Val25 and Lys128. The affected residues are highly conserved across both RAL- and RAS-family genes, are devoid of variation in large human population datasets, and several are homologous to positions at which disease-associated variants have been observed in other GTPase genes. We directly assayed GTP hydrolysis and RALA effector-protein binding of the observed variants, and found that all but one tested variant significantly reduced both activities compared to wild-type. The one exception, S157A, reduced GTP hydrolysis but significantly increased RALA-effector binding, an observation similar to that seen for oncogenic RAS variants. These results show the power of data sharing for the interpretation and analysis of rare variation, expand the spectrum of molecular causes of developmental disability to include RALA, and provide additional insight into the pathogenesis of human disease caused by mutations in small GTPases.

11.
EMBO J ; 37(23)2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420557

RESUMO

A set of glutamylases and deglutamylases controls levels of tubulin polyglutamylation, a prominent post-translational modification of neuronal microtubules. Defective tubulin polyglutamylation was first linked to neurodegeneration in the Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd) mouse, which lacks deglutamylase CCP1, displays massive cerebellar atrophy, and accumulates abnormally glutamylated tubulin in degenerating neurons. We found biallelic rare and damaging variants in the gene encoding CCP1 in 13 individuals with infantile-onset neurodegeneration and confirmed the absence of functional CCP1 along with dysregulated tubulin polyglutamylation. The human disease mainly affected the cerebellum, spinal motor neurons, and peripheral nerves. We also demonstrate previously unrecognized peripheral nerve and spinal motor neuron degeneration in pcd mice, which thus recapitulated key features of the human disease. Our findings link human neurodegeneration to tubulin polyglutamylation, entailing this post-translational modification as a potential target for drug development for neurodegenerative disorders.

12.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4619, 2018 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397230

RESUMO

Chromatin remodeling is of crucial importance during brain development. Pathogenic alterations of several chromatin remodeling ATPases have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. We describe an index case with a de novo missense mutation in CHD3, identified during whole genome sequencing of a cohort of children with rare speech disorders. To gain a comprehensive view of features associated with disruption of this gene, we use a genotype-driven approach, collecting and characterizing 35 individuals with de novo CHD3 mutations and overlapping phenotypes. Most mutations cluster within the ATPase/helicase domain of the encoded protein. Modeling their impact on the three-dimensional structure demonstrates disturbance of critical binding and interaction motifs. Experimental assays with six of the identified mutations show that a subset directly affects ATPase activity, and all but one yield alterations in chromatin remodeling. We implicate de novo CHD3 mutations in a syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, macrocephaly, and impaired speech and language.

13.
J Med Genet ; 55(8): 561-566, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28866611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The list of Mendelian disorders of the epigenetic machinery has expanded rapidly during the last 5 years. A few missense variants in the chromatin remodeler CHD1 have been found in several large-scale sequencing efforts focused on uncovering the genetic aetiology of autism. OBJECTIVES: To explore whether variants in CHD1 are associated with a human phenotype. METHODS: We used GeneMatcher to identify other physicians caring for patients with variants in CHD1. We also explored the epigenetic consequences of one of these variants in cultured fibroblasts. RESULTS: Here we describe six CHD1 heterozygous missense variants in a cohort of patients with autism, speech apraxia, developmental delay and facial dysmorphic features. Importantly, three of these variants occurred de novo. We also report on a subject with a de novo deletion covering a large fraction of the CHD1 gene without any obvious neurological phenotype. Finally, we demonstrate increased levels of the closed chromatin modification H3K27me3 in fibroblasts from a subject carrying a de novo variant in CHD1. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that variants in CHD1 can lead to diverse phenotypic outcomes; however, the neurodevelopmental phenotype appears to be limited to patients with missense variants, which is compatible with a dominant negative mechanism of disease.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28679688

RESUMO

Disruption of normal ciliary function results in a range of diseases collectively referred to as ciliopathies. Here we report a child with a phenotype that overlapped with Joubert, oral-facial-digital, and Pallister-Hall syndromes including brain, limb, and craniofacial anomalies. We performed exome-sequence analysis on a proband and both parents, filtered for putative causative variants, and Sanger-verified variants of interest. Identified variants in CLUAP1 were functionally analyzed in a Xenopus system to determine their effect on ciliary function. Two variants in CLUAP1 were identified through exome-sequence analysis, Chr16:g.3558407T>G, c.338T>G, p.(Met113Arg) and Chr16:g.3570011C>T, c.688C>T, p.(Arg230Ter). These variants were rare in the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) data set of 65,000 individuals (one and two occurrences, respectively). Transfection of mutant CLUAP1 constructs into Xenopus embryos showed reduced protein levels p.(Arg230Ter) and reduced intraflagellar transport p.(Met113Arg). The genetic data show that these variants are present in an affected child, are rare in the population, and result in reduced, but not absent, intraflagellar transport. We conclude that biallelic mutations in CLUAP1 resulted in this novel ciliopathy syndrome in the proband.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Cerebelo/anormalidades , Anormalidades do Olho/genética , Doenças Renais Císticas/genética , Síndromes Orofaciodigitais/genética , Retina/anormalidades , Adulto , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Criança , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Exoma , Feminino , Flagelos/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome de Pallister-Hall/genética , Fenótipo , Polidactilia/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Xenopus/genética
15.
Hum Genet ; 135(12): 1399-1409, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27681385

RESUMO

Intellectual disabilities are genetically heterogeneous and can be associated with congenital anomalies. Using whole-exome sequencing (WES), we identified five different de novo missense variants in the protein phosphatase-1 catalytic subunit beta (PPP1CB) gene in eight unrelated individuals who share an overlapping phenotype of dysmorphic features, macrocephaly, developmental delay or intellectual disability (ID), congenital heart disease, short stature, and skeletal and connective tissue abnormalities. Protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) is a serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatase involved in the dephosphorylation of a variety of proteins. The PPP1CB gene encodes a PP1 subunit that regulates the level of protein phosphorylation. All five altered amino acids we observed are highly conserved among the PP1 subunit family, and all are predicted to disrupt PP1 subunit binding and impair dephosphorylation. Our data suggest that our heterozygous de novo PPP1CB pathogenic variants are associated with syndromic intellectual disability.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteína Fosfatase 1/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fosforilação/genética
16.
Hum Genome Var ; 3: 15069, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27081566

RESUMO

Orofaciodigital syndrome type 1 or oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 (OFDS1, OMIM #311200) is an X-linked malformation syndrome caused by hemizygous mutations in the OFD1 (OMIM #300170) gene with presumed male lethality. Recently males with OFDS1 and mutations in OFD1 have been described. We report a 17-year-old male with molar tooth sign, small cerebellum with absence of the cerebellar vermis, complex polydactyly with a Y-shaped metacarpal, renal failure and craniofacial anomalies caused by a novel splice-mutation (c.1129+4A>T) in the OFD1 gene identified by exome sequencing.

17.
Hum Genome Var ; 2: 15045, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27081551

RESUMO

Oral-facial-digital syndrome VI (OFD6 OMIM #277170), also called Varadi-Papp syndrome, is a ciliopathy inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Recently, mutations in C5orf42 (OMIM #614571) have been associated with OFD6. OFD6 overlaps with Joubert syndrome and mutations in C5orf42 were described in Joubert syndrome 17 (JBTS17, OMIM #614571). Using exome sequencing we report three novel variants and one previously reported variant in the C5orf42 gene in patients with OFD6.

18.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 56(11): 1124-8, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24684524

RESUMO

Homozygous deletions of chromosome 20p12.3, disrupting the promoter region and first three coding exons of the phospholipase C ß1 gene (PLCB1), have previously been described in two reports of early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE). Both children were born to consanguineous parents, one presented with infantile spasms, the other with migrating partial seizures of infancy. We describe an infant presenting with severe intractable epilepsy (without a specific EIEE electroclinical syndrome diagnosis) and neurodevelopmental delay associated with compound heterozygous mutations in PLCB1. A case note review and molecular genetic investigations were performed for a child, approximately 10 months of age, admitted to Johns Hopkins University Hospital for developmental delay and new-onset seizures. The patient presented at 6 months of age with developmental delay, followed by the onset of intractable, focal, and generalized seizures associated with developmental regression from 10 months of age. Presently, at 2 years of age, the child has severe motor and cognitive delays. Diagnostic microarray revealed a heterozygous 476kb deletion of 20p12.3 (encompassing PLCB1), which was also detected in the mother. The genomic breakpoints for the heterozygous deletion were determined. In order to investigate the presence of a second PLCB1 mutation, direct Sanger sequencing of the coding region and flanking intronic regions was undertaken, revealing a novel heterozygous intron 1 splice site variant (c.99+1G>A) in both the index individual and the father. Advances in molecular genetic testing have greatly improved diagnostic rates in EIEE, and this report further confirms the important role of microarray investigation in this group of disorders. PLCB1-EIEE is now reported in a number of different EIEE phenotypes and our report provides further evidence for phenotypic pleiotropy encountered in early infantile epilepsy syndromes.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Tônico-Clônica/genética , Mutação , Fosfolipase C beta/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Fenótipo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
Br J Haematol ; 165(3): 349-57, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24666134

RESUMO

Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome and telomere biology disorder characterized by dysplastic nails, reticular skin pigmentation and oral leucoplakia. Androgens are a standard therapeutic option for bone marrow failure in those patients with DC who are unable to undergo haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, but there are no systematic data on its use in those patients. We evaluated haematological response and side effects of androgen therapy in 16 patients with DC in our observational cohort study. Untreated DC patients served as controls. Seventy percent of treated DC patients had a haematological response with red blood cell and/or platelet transfusion independence. The expected age-related decline in telomere length was noted in androgen-treated patients. All treated DC patients had at least one significant lipid abnormality. Additional treatment-related findings included a significant decrease in thyroid binding globulin, accelerated growth in pre-pubertal children and splenic peliosis in two patients. Liver enzymes were elevated in both androgen-treated and untreated patients, suggesting underlying liver involvement in DC. This study suggests that androgen therapy can be effectively used to treat bone marrow failure in DC, but that side effects need to be closely monitored.


Assuntos
Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Disceratose Congênita/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Disceratose Congênita/genética , Disceratose Congênita/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Telômero/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cancer Genet ; 205(10): 479-87, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22939227

RESUMO

Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a rare dominantly inherited cancer predisposition syndrome that was first described in 1969. In most families, it is caused by germline mutations in the TP53 gene and is characterized by early onset of multiple specific cancers and very high lifetime cumulative cancer risk. Despite significant progress in understanding the molecular biology of TP53, the optimal clinical management of this syndrome is poorly defined. We convened a workshop on November 2, 2010, at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, bringing together clinicians and scientists, as well as individuals from families with LFS, to review the state of the science, address clinical management issues, stimulate collaborative research, and engage the LFS family community. This workshop also led to the creation of the Li-Fraumeni Exploration (LiFE) Research Consortium.


Assuntos
Genes p53 , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/genética , Congressos como Assunto , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/psicologia , Masculino , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Neoplasias/genética , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Estados Unidos
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