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1.
JAMA ; 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36409512

RESUMO

This study uses national cancer incidence data to evaluate calendar trends in cervical cancer incidence by age at diagnosis.

2.
Milland Workshop (2022) ; 13559: 206-217, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36315110

RESUMO

Image quality control is a critical element in the process of data collection and cleaning. Both manual and automated analyses alike are adversely impacted by bad quality data. There are several factors that can degrade image quality and, correspondingly, there are many approaches to mitigate their negative impact. In this paper, we address image quality control toward our goal of improving the performance of automated visual evaluation (AVE) for cervical precancer screening. Specifically, we report efforts made toward classifying images into four quality categories ("unusable", "unsatisfactory", "limited", and "evaluable") and improving the quality classification performance by automatically identifying mislabeled and overly ambiguous images. The proposed new deep learning ensemble framework is an integration of several networks that consists of three main components: cervix detection, mislabel identification, and quality classification. We evaluated our method using a large dataset that comprises 87,420 images obtained from 14,183 patients through several cervical cancer studies conducted by different providers using different imaging devices in different geographic regions worldwide. The proposed ensemble approach achieved higher performance than the baseline approaches.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36222824

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The most recent guidelines for colposcopy practice in the United States, the 2017 Colposcopy Standards Consensus Guidelines, did not include recommendations for endocervical curettage (ECC). This document provides updated guidelines for use of ECC among patients referred for colposcopy. METHODS: Consensus guidelines for the use of ECC were developed in 2012. To update these guidelines in concordance with the 2017 Colposcopy Standards process, an expert workgroup was convened in 2021. Literature had been previously reviewed through 2011, before the 2012 guideline. Literature from the years 2012-2021 and data from the NCI Biopsy study were reviewed, focusing on the additional yield of ECC. RESULTS: Endocervical curettage is recommended for patients with high-grade cytology, human papillomavirus 16/18 infection, positive results on dual staining for p16/Ki67, for those previously treated for known or suspected cervical precancer or considering observation of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2, and when the squamocolumnar junction is not fully visualized at colposcopy. Endocervical curettage is preferred for all patients aged older than 40 years. Endocervical curettage is acceptable for all nonpregnant patients undergoing colposcopy but may be omitted when a subsequent excisional procedure is planned, the endocervical canal does not admit a sampling device, or in nulliparous patients aged younger than 30 years, with cytology reported as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion regardless of whether the squamocolumnar junction is fully visualized. Endocervical curettage is unacceptable in pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: These guidelines for ECC add to the 2017 consensus recommendations for colposcopy practice in the United States.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(19)2022 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36230818

RESUMO

The human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 E7 oncogene is critical to carcinogenesis and highly conserved. Previous studies identified a preponderance of non-synonymous E7 variants amongst HPV16-positive cancer-free controls compared to those with cervical cancer. To investigate the function of E7 variants, we constructed full-length HPV16 E7 genes and tested variants at positions H9R, D21N, N29S, E33K, T56I, D62N, S63F, S63P, T64M, E80K, D81N, P92L, and P92S (found only in controls); D14E, N29H cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2), and P6L, H51N, R77S (CIN3). We determined the steady-state level of cytoplasmic and nuclear HPV16 E7 protein. All variants from controls showed a reduced level of E7 protein, with 7/13 variants having lower protein levels. In contrast, 2/3 variants from the CIN3 precancer group had near-wild type E7 levels. We assayed the activity of representative variants in stably transfected NIH3T3 cells. The H9R, E33K, P92L, and P92S variants found in control subjects had lower transforming activity than D14E and N29H variants (CIN2), and the R77S (CIN3) had activity only slightly reduced from wild-type E7. In addition, R77S and WT E7 caused increased migration of NIH3T3 cells in a wound-healing assay compared with H9R, E33K, P92L, and P92S (controls) and D14E (CIN2). These data provide evidence that the E7 variants found in HPV16-positive cancer-free women are partially defective for transformation and cell migration, further demonstrating the importance of fully active E7 in cancer development.

7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36041172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that coffee consumption may be inversely associated with risk of endometrial cancer (EC), the most common gynecological malignancy in developed countries. Furthermore, coffee consumption may lower circulating levels of estrogen and insulin, hormones implicated in endometrial carcinogenesis. Antioxidants and other chemopreventive compounds in coffee may have anticarcinogenic effects. Based on available meta-analyses, the World Cancer Research Fund concluded that consumption of coffee probably protects against EC. OBJECTIVE: Our main aim was to examine the association between coffee consumption and EC risk by combining individual-level data in a pooled analysis. We also sought to evaluate potential effect modification by other risk factors of EC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We combined individual-level data from 19 epidemiologic studies (6 cohort, 13 case-control) of 12,159 endometrial cancer cases and 27,479 controls from the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2). Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). All models were adjusted for potential confounders including age, race, body mass index, smoking status, diabetes status, study design and study site. RESULTS: Coffee drinkers had a lower risk of EC compared to non-coffee drinkers (multi-adjusted OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.79,0.95). There was a dose-response relationship between higher coffee consumption and lower risk of EC: compared to non-coffee drinkers, the adjusted pooled ORs for those who drank 1, 2-3 and more than 4 cups/day were 0.90 (95% CI = 0.82,1.00), 0.86 (95% CI = 0.78,0.95), and 0.76 (95% CI = 0.66,0.87), respectively (p for trend < 0.001). The inverse association between coffee consumption and EC risk was stronger in participants with body mass index (BMI) over 25 kg/m2. CONCLUSION: The results of the largest analysis to date pooling individual-level data further support the potentially beneficial health effects of coffee consumption in relation to EC, especially among females with higher BMI.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 151(11): 1889-1901, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793241

RESUMO

To inform optimal approaches for detecting anal precancers, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of anal cancer screening tests in different populations with elevated risk for anal cancer. We conducted a literature search of studies evaluating tests for anal precancer and cancer (anal intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse, AIN2+) published between January 1, 1997 to September 30, 2021 in PubMed and Embase. Titles and abstracts were screened for inclusion and included articles underwent full-text review, data abstraction and quality assessment. We estimated the prevalence of AIN2+ and calculated summary estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of test positivity, sensitivity and specificity and predictive values of various testing strategies, overall and among population subgroups. A total of 39 articles were included. The prevalence of AIN2+ was 20% (95% CI, 17-29%), and ranged from 22% in men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV to 13% in women and 12% in MSM without HIV. The sensitivity and specificity of cytology and HPV testing were 81% and 62% and 92% and 42%, respectively, and 93% and 33%, respectively for cytology and HPV co-testing. AIN2+ risks were similar among those testing positive for cytology, HPV, or co-testing. Limited data on other biomarkers (HPV E6/E7 mRNA and p16/Ki-67 dual stain), suggested higher specificity, but lower sensitivity compared with anal cytology and HPV. Our findings provide important evidence for the development of clinical guidelines using anal cytology and HPV testing for anal cancer screening.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Ânus , Infecções por HIV , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Neoplasias do Ânus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Ânus/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Antígeno Ki-67 , Masculino , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética
9.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2101900, 2022 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35867953

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Frequent aspirin use has been associated with reduced ovarian cancer risk, but no study has comprehensively assessed for effect modification. We leveraged harmonized, individual-level data from 17 studies to examine the association between frequent aspirin use and ovarian cancer risk, overall and across subgroups of women with other ovarian cancer risk factors. METHODS: Nine cohort studies from the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium (n = 2,600 cases) and eight case-control studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (n = 5,726 cases) were included. We used Cox regression and logistic regression to assess study-specific associations between frequent aspirin use (≥ 6 days/week) and ovarian cancer risk and combined study-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analysis. We conducted analyses within subgroups defined by individual ovarian cancer risk factors (endometriosis, obesity, family history of breast/ovarian cancer, nulliparity, oral contraceptive use, and tubal ligation) and by number of risk factors (0, 1, and ≥ 2). RESULTS: Overall, frequent aspirin use was associated with a 13% reduction in ovarian cancer risk (95% CI, 6 to 20), with no significant heterogeneity by study design (P = .48) or histotype (P = .60). Although no association was observed among women with endometriosis, consistent risk reductions were observed among all other subgroups defined by ovarian cancer risk factors (relative risks ranging from 0.79 to 0.93, all P-heterogeneity > .05), including women with ≥ 2 risk factors (relative risk, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.90). CONCLUSION: This study, the largest to-date on aspirin use and ovarian cancer, provides evidence that frequent aspirin use is associated with lower ovarian cancer risk regardless of the presence of most other ovarian cancer risk factors. Risk reductions were also observed among women with multiple risk factors, providing proof of principle that chemoprevention programs with frequent aspirin use could target higher-risk subgroups.

10.
Prev Med ; 162: 107157, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35810936

RESUMO

As the US moves increasingly towards using human papillomavirus (HPV) testing with or without concurrent cytology for cervical cancer screening, it is unknown what the corresponding risks are following a screening result for women living with HIV (WLWH), which will dictate the optimal clinical follow-up. Therefore, using medical records data from Kaiser Permanente Northern California, which introduced triennial HPV and cytology co-testing in women aged 30-64 years in 2003, we compared risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) or more severe diagnoses (CIN2+) in women not known to have HIV (HIV[-] women) (n = 67,488) frequency matched 111:1 on age and year of the first co-test to the 608 WLWH (n = 608). WLWH were more likely to test HPV positive (20.2% vs. 6.5%, p < 0.001) and have non-normal cytology (14.1% vs. 4.1%, p < 0.001) than HIV[-] women. Five-year CIN2+ risks for all WLWH and HIV[-] women were 3.5% (95%CI = 2.0-5.0%) and 1.6% (95%CI = 1.5-1.8%) (p = 0.01), respectively. Five-year CIN2+ risks for WLWH with positive HPV and non-normal cytology, positive HPV and normal cytology, negative HPV and non-normal cytology, and negative HPV and normal cytology were 24.9% (95%CI = 13.4-36.4%), 3.0% (95%CI = 0.0-7.4%), 3.6 (95%CI = 0.0-9.8%) and 0.3% (95%CI = 0.0-0.8%), respectively. Corresponding 5-year CIN2+ risks for HIV[-] women were 26.6% (95%CI = 24.6-28.7%), 8.5% (95%CI = 7.2-9.9%), 1.9% (95%CI = 1.0-2.8%), and 0.5% (95%CI = 0.4-0.6%), respectively. Thus, in this healthcare setting, the main cause in overall CIN2+ risk differences between WLWH and HIV[-] women was the former was more likely to screen positive and once the screening result is known, it may be reasonable to manage both populations similarly.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical , Infecções por HIV , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , HIV , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Esfregaço Vaginal
11.
BJOG ; 2022 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35686564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical utility of p16/Ki67 dual-stain (DS) compared with cytology for detecting cervical intraepithelial lesion grade two or worse (CIN2+) in women with a transformation zone type 3 (TZ3). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Colposcopy clinics in Central Denmark Region. POPULATION: Women aged 45 years or older referred for colposcopy because of an abnormal screening test. METHODS: All women had a cervical sample collected for cytology and DS testing and underwent large-loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Sensitivity, specificity and negative (NPV) and positive (PPV) predictive values of DS for CIN2+ detection were compared to those of cytology. RESULTS: Of 166 women eligible, 93 (56.0%) were included in the final analysis. Median age was 68 years (interquartile range [IQR] 63.4-70.5 years). Most women were postmenopausal (95.7%) and referred based on a positive human papillomavirus screening test (86.0%). Fifty-two women (55.9%) were DS-positive, 29 (55.8%) of whom had CIN2+ detected. Twenty-seven (29.0%) women had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse (ASC-US+), and CIN2+ was detected in 21 women (77.8%). DS had a higher sensitivity (96.7% versus 70.0% p = 0.021) and NPV (97.6% versus 86.4%, p = 0.018) compared with cytology for CIN2+ detection. In contrast, the specificity (63.5% versus 90.5% p < 0.001) and PPV (55.8% versus 77.8%, p = 0.001) were lower for DS compared with cytology. CONCLUSIONS: Dual stain may be a valuable risk marker to guide clinical management of women with a TZ3. The superior NPV of DS suggests that a diagnostic excision may safely be avoided in DS-negative women.

12.
Lancet Oncol ; 23(7): 950-960, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35709810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer screening tests that identify DNA of the main causal agent, high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, are more protective than cervical cytology. We systematically reviewed the literature to assess whether tests targeting high-risk HPV (hrHPV) mRNA are as accurate and effective as HPV DNA-based screening tests. METHODS: We did a systematic review to assess the cross-sectional clinical accuracy to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) or 3 or worse (CIN3+) of hrHPV mRNA versus DNA testing in primary cervical cancer screening; the longitudinal clinical performance of cervical cancer screening using hrHPV mRNA versus DNA assays; and the clinical accuracy of hrHPV mRNA testing on self-collected versus clinician-collected samples. We identified relevant studies published before Aug 1, 2021, through a search of Medline (PubMed), Embase, and CENTRAL. Eligible studies had to contain comparative data addressing one of our three clinical questions. Aggregated data were extracted from selected reports or requested from study authors if necessary. QUADAS and ROBINS-1 tools were used to assess the quality of diagnostic test accuracy studies and cohort studies. To assess cross-sectional clinical accuracy of mRNA testing versus DNA testing and clinical accuracy of hrHPV mRNA testing on self-collected versus clinician collected samples, we applied meta-analytical methods for comparison of diagnostic tests. To assess the longitudinal clinical performance of cervical cancer screening using hrHPV mRNA versus DNA assays, we compared the longitudinal sensitivity of mRNA tests and validated DNA tests for CIN3+ and the relative detection of CIN3+ among women who screened negative for hrHPV mRNA or DNA (both used as measures of safety) at baseline and pooled estimates by years of follow-up. A random-effect model for pooling ratios of proportions or risks was used to summarise longitudinal performance. FINDINGS: For the hrHPV mRNA testing with APTIMA HPV Test (APTIMA), the cross-sectional accuracy could be compared with DNA assays on clinician-collected samples in eight studies; longitudinal performance was compared in four studies; and accuracy on self-samples was assessed in five studies. Few reports were retrieved for other mRNA assays, precluding their evaluation in meta-analyses. Compared with validated DNA assays, APTIMA was similarly sensitive (relative sensitivity 0·98 [95% CI 0·95-1·01]) and slightly more specific (1·03 [1·02-1·04]) for CIN2+. The relative sensitivity for CIN3+ was 0·98 (95% CI 0·95-1·01). The longitudinal relative sensitivity for CIN3+ of APTIMA compared with DNA assays assessed over 4-7 years ranged at the study level from 0·91 to 1·05 and in the pooled analysis between 0·95 and 0·98, depending on timepoint, with CIs including or close to unity. The detection rate ratios between 4 and 10 years after baseline negative mRNA versus negative DNA screening were imprecise and heterogeneous among studies, but summary ratios did not differ from unity. In self-collected samples, APTIMA was less sensitive for CIN2+ (relative cross-sectional sensitivity 0·84 [0·74-0·96]) but similarly specific (relative specificity 0·96 [0·91-1·01]) compared with clinician-collected samples. INTERPRETATION: HrHPV RNA testing with APTIMA had similar cross-sectional sensitivity for CIN2+ and CIN3+ and slightly higher specificity than DNA tests. Four studies with 4-7 years of follow-up showed heterogeneous safety outcomes. One study with up to 10 years of follow-up showed no differences in cumulative detection of CIN3+ after negative mRNA versus DNA screening. APTIMA could be accepted for primary cervical cancer screening on clinician-collected cervical samples at intervals of around 5 years. APTIMA is less sensitive on self-collected samples than clinician-collected samples. FUNDING: Horizon 2020 Framework Programme for Research and Innovation of the European Commission, through the RISCC Network, WHO, Haute Autorité de la Santé, European Society of Gynaecological Oncology, and the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos
13.
Int J Cancer ; 151(7): 1142-1149, 2022 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35666530

RESUMO

Accelerated cervical cancer control will require widespread human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and screening. For screening, sensitive HPV testing with an option of self-collection is increasingly desirable. HPV typing predicts risk of precancer/cancer, which could be useful in management, but most current typing assays are expensive and/or complicated. An existing 15-type isothermal amplification assay (AmpFire, Atila Biosystems, USA) was redesigned as a 13-type assay (ScreenFire) for public health use. The redesigned assay groups HPV types into four channels with differential cervical cancer risk: (a) HPV16, (b) HPV18/45, (c) HPV31/33/35/52/58 and (d) HPV39/51/56/59/68. Since the assay will be most useful in resource-limited settings, we chose a stratified random sample of 453 provider-collected samples from a population-based screening study in rural Nigeria that had been initially tested with MY09-MY11-based PCR with oligonucleotide hybridization genotyping. Frozen residual specimens were masked and retested at Atila Biosystems. Agreement on positivity between ScreenFire and prior PCR testing was very high for each of the channels. When we simulated intended use, that is, a hierarchical result in order of clinical importance of the type groups (HPV16 > 18/45 > 31/33/35/52/58 > 39/51/56/59/68), the weighted kappa for ScreenFire vs PCR was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.86-0.93). The ScreenFire assay is mobile, relatively simple, rapid (results within 20-60 minutes) and agrees well with reference testing particularly for the HPV types of greatest carcinogenic risk. If confirmed, ScreenFire or similar isothermal amplification assays could be useful as part of risk-based screening and management.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Colo do Útero , DNA Viral/análise , DNA Viral/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Genótipo , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Humanos , Papillomaviridae/genética
14.
J Low Genit Tract Dis ; 26(3): 195-201, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35763610

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In the 2019 ASCCP Risk-Based Management Consensus Guidelines, clinical management decisions are based on immediate and 5-year cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3+ risk estimates. However, data for technologies other than human papillomavirus testing and cytology may be limited to clinical trials and observational studies of shorter duration than 5 years. To enable decisions about 1- or 3-year intervals, 3-year CIN 3+ risk equivalents to 5-year CIN 3+ risk thresholds were generated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined screening test result scenarios around the 5-year risk thresholds of 0.15% and 0.55% and calculated the average percent increase in CIN 3+ risk from 3 to 5 years. Using this average increase, we obtained estimates of corresponding risk thresholds at 3 years. We then validated whether use of the 3-year risk threshold would have resulted in equivalent management per the 2019 recommendations. RESULTS: Around the 5-year CIN 3+ risk threshold of 0.55%, the average increase in risk from 3 to 5 years was 0.16%. Therefore, the equivalent threshold for 3-year risk was estimated as 0.39%. We found no difference in recommendations to return in 1 or 3 years using the 3-year or 5-year risk thresholds in 66 of the 67 scenarios (98.5%) in follow-up in 2019 guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: In this methodological addendum, the Enduring Guidelines Committee adopted the use of the 0.39% 3-year CIN 3+ risk threshold as equivalent of the 0.55% 5-year CIN 3+ risk threshold for technologies with fewer than 5 years of follow-up data. This allows evidence-based guidance for surveillance intervals of 1 or 3 years for new technologies with limited longitudinal data.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/terapia , Colo do Útero , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Papillomaviridae , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/terapia
15.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 227(4): 611.e1-611.e12, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35764133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hysterectomy is the most common nonobstetrical medical procedure performed in US women. Evaluating hysterectomy prevalence trends and determinants is important for estimating gynecologic cancer rates and management of uterine conditions. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess hysterectomy prevalence trends and determinants using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2006-2016). STUDY DESIGN: We estimated crude hysterectomy prevalences and multivariable-adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations of race or ethnicity, age group (5-year), body mass index (categorical), smoking status, education, insurance, income, and US region with hysterectomy. Missing data were imputed. The number of women in each survey year ranged from 220,302 in 2006 to 275,631 in 2016. RESULTS: Although overall hysterectomy prevalence changed little between 2006 and 2016 (21.4% and 21.1%, respectively), hysterectomy prevalence was lower in 2016 than in 2006 among women aged ≥40 years, particularly among non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic women. Current smoking (odds ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-1.41), increasing age (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.39-1.40), living in the South compared with the Midwest (odds ratio, 1.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-1.39), higher body mass index (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-1.27), Black race compared with White (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.13), and having insurance compared with being uninsured (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-1.30) were most strongly associated with increased prevalence. Hispanic ethnicity and living in the Northeast were most strongly associated with decreased prevalence (odds ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.76; odds ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.69). CONCLUSION: Nationwide hysterectomy prevalence decreased among women aged ≥40 years from 2006 to 2016, particularly among non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic women. Age, non-Hispanic Black race, having insurance, current smoking, and living in the South were associated with increased odds of hysterectomy, even after accounting for possible explanatory factors. Further research is needed to better understand associations of race and ethnicity and region with hysterectomy prevalence.


Assuntos
Etnicidade , Histerectomia , Feminino , Hispânico ou Latino , Humanos , Histerectomia/métodos , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
JAMA Oncol ; 8(6): 895-903, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511145

RESUMO

Importance: Uterine cancer incidence has been increasing, particularly rates of aggressive, nonendometrioid subtypes, which are disproportionately higher among non-Hispanic Black women. The association of subtype-specific trends with uterine cancer mortality and with the role of tumor subtype and stage at diagnosis with racial disparities in uterine cancer deaths at the population-based level are not known. Objective: To estimate histologic subtype- and stage-specific uterine cancer mortality rates by race and ethnicity, corrected for hysterectomy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-18 Incidence-Based Mortality database, representing approximately 26% of the US population and including deaths that occurred from 2000 to 2017. Hysterectomy correction was based on hysterectomy prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Uncorrected and corrected rates associated with uterine corpus cancer cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2017 and uterine corpus cancer deaths occurring between 2010 and 2017 were age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population and are expressed per 100 000 person-years, and annual percent changes in rates were calculated using log-linear regression. Data analysis was performed from March 10 to May 20, 2021. Exposures: Tumor histologic subtype, cancer stage at diagnosis, and race and ethnicity. Results: Among 208 587 women diagnosed with uterine cancer during 2000-2017 (15 983 [7.7%] were Asian; 20 302 [9.7%] Black; 23 096 [11.1%] Hispanic; and 149 206 [71.5%] White individuals), there were 16 797 uterine cancer deaths between 2010 and 2017, corresponding to a hysterectomy-corrected mortality rate of 15.7 per 100 000 person-years. Hysterectomy-corrected rates were highest among Black women, overall, by histologic subtype and stage at diagnosis. Among all women, uterine corpus cancer mortality rates increased significantly by 1.8% (95% CI, 1.5%-2.9%) per year from 2010 to 2017, as did rates of nonendometrioid carcinomas (2.7%; 95% CI, 1.8%-3.6%), with increases occurring in Asian (3.4%; 95% CI, 0.3%-6.6%), Black (3.5%; 95% CI, 2.2%-4.9%), Hispanic (6.7%; 95% CI, 1.9%-11.8%), and White women (1.5%; 95% CI, 0.6%-2.4%). In contrast, endometrioid carcinoma mortality rates remained stable. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study suggest a significant increase of nonendometrioid uterine carcinoma mortality rates, aligning with recent incidence trends. The factors associated with these trends are not well understood and require more investigation of possible mechanisms. Despite stable incidence rates, endometrioid cancer mortality rates have not decreased over the past decade at the population level, suggesting limited progress in treatment for these cancers. The substantial disparities in uterine corpus cancer mortality rates among non-Hispanic Black women cannot be fully explained by subtype distribution and stage at diagnosis.


Assuntos
Histerectomia , Neoplasias Uterinas , Estudos de Coortes , Etnicidade , Feminino , Hispânico ou Latino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Uterinas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Uterinas/cirurgia
17.
Int J Cancer ; 151(6): 920-929, 2022 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35603904

RESUMO

Necessary stages of cervical carcinogenesis include acquisition of a carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) type, persistence associated with the development of precancerous lesions, and invasion. Using prospective data from immunocompetent women in the Guanacaste HPV Natural History Study (NHS), the ASCUS-LSIL Triage Study (ALTS) and the Costa Rica HPV Vaccine Trial (CVT), we compared the early natural history of HPV types to inform transition probabilities for health decision models. We excluded women with evidence of high-grade cervical abnormalities at any point during follow-up and restricted the analysis to incident infections in all women and prevalent infections in young women (aged <30 years). We used survival approaches accounting for interval-censoring to estimate the time to clearance distribution for 20 529 HPV infections (64% were incident and 51% were carcinogenic). Time to clearance was similar across HPV types and risk classes (HPV16, HPV18/45, HPV31/33/35/52/58, HPV 39/51/56/59 and noncarcinogenic HPV types); and by age group (18-29, 30-44 and 45-54 years), among carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic infections. Similar time to clearance across HPV types suggests that relative prevalence can predict relative incidence. We confirmed that there was a uniform linear association between incident and prevalent infections for all HPV types within each study cohort. In the absence of progression to precancer, we observed similar time to clearance for incident infections across HPV types and risk classes. A singular clearance function for incident HPV infections has important implications for the refinement of microsimulation models used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of novel prevention technologies.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Feminino , Humanos , Papillomaviridae , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle
18.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390126

RESUMO

CONTEXT.­: The terminology used by pathologists to describe and grade dysplasia and premalignant changes of the cervical epithelium has evolved over time. Unfortunately, coexistence of different classification systems combined with nonstandardized interpretive text has created multiple layers of interpretive ambiguity. OBJECTIVE.­: To use natural language processing (NLP) to automate and expedite translation of interpretive text to a single most severe, and thus actionable, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) diagnosis. DESIGN.­: We developed and applied NLP algorithms to 35 847 unstructured cervical pathology reports and assessed NLP performance in identifying the severest diagnosis, compared to expert manual review. NLP performance was determined by calculating precision, recall, and F score. RESULTS.­: The NLP algorithms yielded a precision of 0.957, a recall of 0.925, and an F score of 0.94. Additionally, we estimated that the time to evaluate each monthly biopsy file was significantly reduced, from 30 hours to 0.5 hours. CONCLUSIONS.­: A set of validated NLP algorithms applied to pathology reports can rapidly and efficiently assign a discrete, actionable diagnosis using CIN classification to assist with clinical management of cervical pathology and disease. Moreover, discrete diagnostic data encoded as CIN terminology can enhance the efficiency of clinical research.

19.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 31(4): 462-468, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35467443

RESUMO

Cervical cancer is highly preventable when precancerous lesions are detected early and appropriately managed. However, the complexity of and frequent updates to existing evidence-based clinical guidelines make it challenging for clinicians to stay abreast of the latest recommendations. In addition, limited availability and accessibility to information technology (IT) decision supports make it difficult for groups who are medically underserved to receive screening or receive the appropriate follow-up care. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC), is leading a multiyear initiative to develop computer-interpretable ("computable") version of already existing evidence-based guidelines to support clinician awareness and adoption of the most up-to-date cervical cancer screening and management guidelines. DCPC is collaborating with the MITRE Corporation, leading scientists from the National Cancer Institute, and other CDC subject matter experts to translate existing narrative guidelines into computable format and develop clinical decision support tools for integration into health IT systems such as electronic health records with the ultimate goal of improving patient outcomes and decreasing disparities in cervical cancer outcomes among populations that are medically underserved. This initiative meets the challenges and opportunities highlighted by the President's Cancer Panel and the President's Cancer Moonshot 2.0 to nearly eliminate cervical cancer.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Equidade em Saúde , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle
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