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1.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1902109, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577470
2.
J Infect Dis ; 220(10): 1609-1619, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human papillomaviruses (HPV) cause over 500 000 cervical cancers each year, most of which occur in low-resource settings. Human papillomavirus genotyping is important to study natural history and vaccine efficacy. We evaluated TypeSeq, a novel, next-generation, sequencing-based assay that detects 51 HPV genotypes, in 2 large international epidemiologic studies. METHODS: TypeSeq was evaluated in 2804 cervical specimens from the Study to Understand Cervical Cancer Endpoints and Early Determinants (SUCCEED) and in 2357 specimens from the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (CVT). Positive agreement and risks of precancer for individual genotypes were calculated for TypeSeq in comparison to Linear Array (SUCCEED). In CVT, positive agreement and vaccine efficacy were calculated for TypeSeq and SPF10-LiPA. RESULTS: We observed high overall and positive agreement for most genotypes between TypeSeq and Linear Array in SUCCEED and SPF10-LiPA in CVT. There was no significant difference in risk of precancer between TypeSeq and Linear Array in SUCCEED or in estimates of vaccine efficacy between TypeSeq and SPF10-LiPA in CVT. CONCLUSIONS: The agreement of TypeSeq with Linear Array and SPF10-LiPA, 2 well established standards for HPV genotyping, demonstrates its high accuracy. TypeSeq provides high-throughput, affordable HPV genotyping for world-wide studies of cervical precancer risk and of HPV vaccine efficacy.

3.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(11): 1201-1211, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542834

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) use induces alterations in circulating estrogens/estrogen metabolites, which may contribute to the altered risk of reproductive tract cancers among current users. Thus, the current study assessed associations between circulating estrogens/estrogen metabolites and ovarian and endometrial cancer risk among MHT users. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study among postmenopausal women using MHT at baseline in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (179 ovarian cancers, 396 controls; 230 endometrial cancers, 253 controls). Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals overall and by subtype. RESULTS: Estrogen/estrogen metabolite levels were not associated with overall or serous ovarian cancer risk, examined separately. However, unconjugated estradiol was positively associated with non-serous ovarian cancer risk [quintile 5 vs. quintile 1: 3.01 (1.17-7.73); p-trend = 0.03; p-het < 0.01]. Endometrial cancer risk was unrelated to estrogen/estrogen metabolite levels among women who took combined estrogen/progestin therapy (EPT). CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide novel evidence that may support a heterogeneous hormonal etiology across ovarian cancer subtypes. Circulating estrogens did not influence endometrial cancer risk among women with EPT-induced high-estrogen levels. Larger studies are needed to delineate the relationship between ovarian/endometrial cancer subtypes and estrogen levels in the context of MHT use.

4.
Cancer Res ; 79(20): 5442-5451, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462430

RESUMO

Growing epidemiologic evidence supports chronic inflammation as a mechanism of ovarian carcinogenesis. An association between a circulating marker of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP), and ovarian cancer risk has been consistently observed, yet, potential heterogeneity of this association by tumor and patient characteristics has not been adequately explored. In this study, we pooled data from case-control studies nested within six cohorts in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium (OC3) to examine the association between CRP and epithelial ovarian cancer risk overall, by histologic subtype and by participant characteristics. CRP concentrations were measured from prediagnosis serum or plasma in 1,091 cases and 1,951 controls. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). When CRP was evaluated using tertiles, no associations with ovarian cancer risk were observed. A 67% increased ovarian cancer risk was found for women with CRP concentrations >10 mg/L compared with <1 mg/L (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.12-2.48). A CRP concentration >10 mg/L was positively associated with risk of mucinous (OR = 9.67; 95% CI = 1.10-84.80) and endometrioid carcinoma (OR = 3.41; 95% CI = 1.07-10.92), and suggestively positive, although not statistically significant, for serous (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 0.82-2.49) and clear cell carcinoma (OR = 2.05; 95% CI = 0.36-11.57; P heterogeneity = 0.20). Heterogeneity was observed with oral contraceptive use (P interaction = 0.03), where the increased risk was present only among ever users (OR = 3.24; 95% CI = 1.62-6.47). This study adds to the existing evidence that CRP plays a role in ovarian carcinogenesis and suggests that inflammation may be particularly implicated in the etiology of endometrioid and mucinous carcinoma. SIGNIFICANCE: C-reactive protein is involved in ovarian carcinogenesis, and chronic inflammation may be particularly implicated in the etiology of mucinous and endometrioid carcinomas.

6.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(3): 822-830, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder with an estimated prevalence of 4-21% in reproductive aged women. Recently, the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) reported a decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer among women with self-reported PCOS. However, given the limitations of self-reported PCOS, the validity of these observed associations remains uncertain. Therefore, we sought to use Mendelian randomization with genetic markers as a proxy for PCOS, to examine the association between PCOS and ovarian cancer. METHODS: Utilizing 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with PCOS we assessed the association between genetically predicted PCOS and ovarian cancer risk, overall and by histotype, using summary statistics from a previously conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ovarian cancer among European ancestry women within the OCAC (22 406 with invasive disease, 3103 with borderline disease and 40 941 controls). RESULTS: An inverse association was observed between genetically predicted PCOS and invasive ovarian cancer risk: odds ratio (OR)=0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.85-0.99; P = 0.03]. When results were examined by histotype, the strongest inverse association was observed between genetically predicted PCOS and endometrioid tumors (OR = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.65-0.92; P = 0.003). Adjustment for individual-level body mass index, oral contraceptive use and parity did not materially change the associations. CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence for a relationship between PCOS and reduced ovarian cancer risk, overall and among specific histotypes of invasive ovarian cancer. These results lend support to our previous observational study results. Future studies are needed to understand mechanisms underlying this association.

7.
JAMA Intern Med ; 179(7): 881-888, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081870

RESUMO

Importance: As cervical cancer screening transitions from Papanicolaou cytologic screening to primary human papillomavirus (HPV) testing worldwide, effective triage tests are needed to decide who among the HPV-positive women should receive further diagnostic evaluation to avoid unnecessary colposcopies and biopsies. Objective: To evaluate the performance of the p16/Ki-67 dual stain (DS) and HPV16/18 genotyping for the triage of HPV-positive women. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective observational study was conducted within the cervical cancer screening program at Kaiser Permanente Northern California of 3225 HPV-positive women undergoing HPV and Papanicolaou cytologic testing with a valid DS result from September 16 to October 31, 2015, with follow-up through December 31, 2018. Exposures: Human papillomavirus screening with partial genotyping and cytologic triage compared with DS triage. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or more severe (CIN3+) and grade 2 or more severe (CIN2+), diagnosed within 3 years after sample collection. Results: A total of 3225 women (mean [SD] age, 37.9 [11.3] years) participated in the study. For triage of HPV-positive women with partial genotyping, DS showed better risk stratification for CIN3+ than did Papanicolaou cytologic testing, with women with positive DS results having a higher risk than women with positive Papanicolaou test results for CIN3+ (218 of 1818 [12.0%; 95% CI, 10.5%-13.5%] vs 219 of 2128 [10.3%; 95% CI, 9.0%-11.6%]; P = .005). Similarly, DS showed better risk stratification for CIN3+ compared with Papanicolaou cytologic testing in HPV-positive women, irrespective of genotyping. The greatest reassurance against CIN3+ was observed in HPV16/18-negative women with negative DS results, with a risk low enough to extend retesting intervals. Dual stain triage strategies required substantially fewer colposcopies per detection of CIN3+ compared with Papanicolaou cytologic testing, with a 32.1% (859 of 2677) reduction of colposcopies compared with the currently recommended triage strategy of HPV screening with Papanicolaou cytologic testing. Results for CIN2+ were very similar. Conclusions and Relevance: Triage of HPV-positive women with DS was superior to Papanicolaou cytologic testing in this study, demonstrating equal immediate detection of precancerous lesions and substantially reduced referral to colposcopy. These findings suggest that DS can safely replace Papanicolaou cytologic testing as a triage strategy for primary HPV screening, and that retesting intervals in HPV16/18-negative women with negative DS results can be safely extended to 3 years.

8.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(19): 5937-5946, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142506

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease that can be divided into multiple subtypes with variable etiology, pathogenesis, and prognosis. We analyzed DNA methylation profiling data to identify biologic subgroups of ovarian cancer and study their relationship with histologic subtypes, copy number variation, RNA expression data, and outcomes. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A total of 162 paraffin-embedded ovarian epithelial tumor tissues, including the five major epithelial ovarian tumor subtypes (high- and low-grade serous, endometrioid, mucinous, and clear cell) and tumors of low malignant potential were selected from two different sources: The Polish Ovarian Cancer study, and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Residual Tissue Repository (SEER RTR). Analyses were restricted to Caucasian women. Methylation profiling was conducted using the Illumina 450K methylation array. For 45 tumors array copy number data were available. NanoString gene expression data for 39 genes were available for 61 high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSC). RESULTS: Consensus nonnegative matrix factorization clustering of the 1,000 most variable CpG sites showed four major clusters among all epithelial ovarian cancers. We observed statistically significant differences in survival (log-rank test, P = 9.1 × 10-7) and genomic instability across these clusters. Within HGSC, clustering showed three subgroups with survival differences (log-rank test, P = 0.002). Comparing models with and without methylation subgroups in addition to previously identified gene expression subtypes suggested that the methylation subgroups added significant survival information (P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: DNA methylation profiling of ovarian cancer identified novel molecular subgroups that had significant survival difference and provided insights into the molecular underpinnings of ovarian cancer.See related commentary by Ishak et al., p. 5729.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Metilação
9.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(22): 1895-1908, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116674

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Uterine corpus cancer incidence rates have been projected to increase, a prediction often attributed to the obesity epidemic. However, correct estimation of these rates requires accounting for hysterectomy prevalence, which varies by race, ethnicity, and region. Here, we evaluated recent trends in hysterectomy-corrected rates by race and ethnicity and histologic subtype and estimated differences in relative survival by race and ethnicity, subtype, and stage. METHODS: We estimated hysterectomy prevalence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Hysterectomy-corrected age-standardized uterine corpus cancer incidence rates from 2000 to 2015 were calculated from the SEER 18 registries. Incidence rates and trends were estimated separately by race and ethnicity, region, and histologic subtype. Five-year relative survival rates were estimated by race and ethnicity, histologic subtype, and stage. RESULTS: Hysterectomy-corrected incidence rates of uterine corpus cancer were similar among non-Hispanic whites and blacks and lower among Hispanics and Asians/Pacific Islanders. Endometrioid carcinoma rates were highest in non-Hispanic whites, whereas nonendometrioid carcinoma and sarcoma rates were highest in non-Hispanic blacks. Hysterectomy-corrected uterine corpus cancer incidence increased among non-Hispanic whites from 2003 to 2015 and among non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, and Asians/Pacific Islanders from 2000 to 2015. Overall incidence rates among non-Hispanic blacks surpassed those of non-Hispanic whites in 2007. Endometrioid carcinoma rates rose among non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, and Asians/Pacific Islanders but were stable among non-Hispanic whites; however, nonendometrioid carcinoma rates rose significantly among all women. Non-Hispanic blacks had the lowest survival rates, irrespective of stage at diagnosis or histologic subtype. CONCLUSION: Among all women, rates of nonendometrioid subtypes have been rising rapidly. Our analysis shows profound racial differences and disparities indicated by higher rates of nonendometrioid subtypes and poorer survival among non-Hispanic black women.

10.
Cancer Med ; 8(5): 2503-2513, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001917

RESUMO

An association between genetic variants in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) was previously reported in women of African ancestry (AA). We sought to examine associations between genetic variants in VDR and additional genes from vitamin D biosynthesis and pathway targets (EGFR, UGT1A, UGT2A1/2, UGT2B, CYP3A4/5, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP11A1, and GC). Genotyping was performed using the custom-designed 533,631 SNP Illumina OncoArray with imputation to the 1,000 Genomes Phase 3 v5 reference set in 755 EOC cases, including 537 high-grade serous (HGSOC), and 1,235 controls. All subjects are of African ancestry (AA). Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We further evaluated statistical significance of selected SNPs using the Bayesian False Discovery Probability (BFDP). A significant association with EOC was identified in the UGT2A1/2 region for the SNP rs10017134 (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7, P = 1.2 × 10-6 , BFDP = 0.02); and an association with HGSOC was identified in the EGFR region for the SNP rs114972508 (per allele OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.4, P = 1.6 × 10-5 , BFDP = 0.29) and in the UGT2A1/2 region again for rs1017134 (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7, P = 2.3 × 10-5 , BFDP = 0.23). Genetic variants in the EGFR and UGT2A1/2 may increase susceptibility of EOC in AA women. Future studies to validate these findings are warranted. Alterations in EGFR and UGT2A1/2 could perturb enzyme efficacy, proliferation in ovaries, impact and mark susceptibility to EOC.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861114

RESUMO

US guidelines recommend that most women older than 65 years cease cervical screening after two consecutive negative cotests (concurrent HPV and cytology tests) in the previous 10 years, with one in the last 5 years. However, this recommendation was based on expert opinion and modeling rather than empirical data on cancer risk. We therefore estimated the 5-year risks of cervical precancer (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or adenocarcinoma in situ [CIN3]) after one, two and three negative cotests among 346,760 women aged 55-64 years undergoing routine cotesting at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (2003-2015). Women with a history of excisional treatment or CIN2+ were excluded. No woman with one or more negative cotests was diagnosed with cancer during follow-up. Five-year risks of CIN3 after one, two, and three consecutive negative cotests were 0.034% (95% CI: 0.023%-0.046%), 0.041% (95% CI: 0.007%-0.076%) and 0.016% (95% CI: 0.000%-0.052%), respectively (ptrend < 0.001). These risks did not appreciably differ by a positive cotest result prior to the one, two or three negative cotest(s). Since CIN3 risks after one or more negative cotests were significantly below a proposed 0.12% CIN3+ risk threshold for a 5-year screening interval, a longer screening interval in these women is justified. However, the choice of how many negative cotests provide sufficient safety against invasive cancer over a woman's remaining life represents a value judgment based on the harms versus benefits of continued screening. Ideally, this guideline should be informed by longer-term follow-up given that exiting is a long-term decision.

12.
J Clin Microbiol ; 57(5)2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814267

RESUMO

We have developed a new human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping assay for detection of 51 HPV genotypes by next-generation sequencing (NGS). The TypeSeq assay consists of 3 PCR steps that equalize viral load and each type's amplicon copies prior to genotyping by NGS, thereby maximizing multiple-type sensitivity with minimal sequencing reads. The analytical sensitivity of the TypeSeq assay is 10 copies per reaction for 49 of the 51 types, including 13 high-risk (HR) types. We tested 863 clinical cervical specimens previously evaluated with the Roche Linear Array HPV genotyping test (LA). TypeSeq achieved 94.4% positive agreement with LA for detection of any HR type. Positive agreement was 91.4% and 85.5% for HPV16 and HPV18, respectively. Low-risk (LR) types ranged from 40.0% positive agreement (HPV83) to 90.9% (HPV69). Our unique approach to HPV amplification achieved a multiple-type sensitivity comparable to that of LA, with 83.9% and 84.2% of specimens positive for multiple HPV types by TypeSeq or LA, respectively. A total of 48.2% of specimens showed perfect agreement for all 37 types common to both assays. The simplicity of our open-source TypeSeq assay allows for high-throughput yet scalable processing, with a single technician able to process up to 768 specimens within 3 days. By leveraging NGS sample multiplexing capabilities, the per-sample labor requirements are greatly reduced compared to those of traditional genotyping methods. These features and the broad spectrum of detectable types make TypeSeq highly suitable for a wide range of applications.

13.
Papillomavirus Res ; 7: 67-74, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV)16 can be separated into genetic sub-lineages (A1-4, B1-4, C1-4, D1-4) which may have differential cervical cancer risk. METHODS: A next-generation sequencing assay was used to whole-genome sequence 7116 HPV16-positive cervical samples from well-characterised international epidemiological studies, including 2076 controls, 1878 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 186 adenocarcinoma/adenosquamous cell carcinoma (ADC), and to assign HPV16 sub-lineage. Logistic regression was used to estimate region-stratified country-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95%CI. RESULTS: A1 was the most globally widespread sub-lineage, with others showing stronger regional specificity (A3 and A4 for East Asia, B1-4 and C1-4 for Africa, D2 for the Americas, B4, C4 and D4 for North Africa). Increased cancer risks versus A1 were seen for A3, A4 and D (sub)lineages in regions where they were common: A3 in East Asia (OR=2.2, 95%CI:1.0-4.7); A4 in East Asia (6.6, 3.1-14.1) and North America (3.8, 1.7-8.3); and D in North (6.2, 4.1-9.3) and South/Central America (2.2, 0.8-5.7), where D lineages were also more frequent in ADC than SCC (3.2, 1.5-6.5; 12.1, 5.7-25.6, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: HPV16 genetic variation can strongly influence cervical cancer risk. However, burden of cervical cancer attributable to different sub-lineages worldwide is largely driven by historical HPV16 sub-lineage dispersal.

14.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 127(3): 169-180, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) can be triaged accurately with a high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) test to identify those who need a referral. However, the triage of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) with hrHPV testing has very low specificity. Overexpression of p16, with or without Ki-67, indicates neoplastic transformation of human papillomavirus-infected cervical cells and may more accurately predict underlying cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 3 or worse (CIN3+). METHODS: A literature search was conducted in 3 bibliographic databases. Studies were selected if they included women with ASC-US or LSIL who were triaged with dual staining (p16/Ki-67) and/or p16 staining and, if available, with a comparator hrHPV test to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) or CIN3+. RESULTS: Thirty-eight studies were eligible. The sensitivity of p16 staining for CIN3+ was significantly lower than that of hrHPV DNA testing (ratio for ASC-US, 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78-0.97; ratio for LSIL, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.80-0.93). In contrast, the specificity of p16 staining was substantially higher with relative specificities of 1.60 (95% CI, 1.35-1.88) and 2.29 (95% CI, 2.05-2.56) for ASC-US and LSIL respectively. Dual staining was as sensitive as hrHPV DNA testing but was more specific (ratio for ASC-US, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.42-1.92; ratio for LSIL, 2.45; 95% CI, 2.17-2.77). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis confirms that p16 staining and p16/Ki-67 staining are more specific for CIN2+/CIN3+ than hrHPV DNA testing. Although p16 staining is less sensitive for CIN3+ than hrHPV DNA testing, dual staining has similar sensitivity.

15.
Carcinogenesis ; 40(6): 765-770, 2019 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753331

RESUMO

Inflammation is a driver of colorectal neoplasia; however, what particular inflammatory processes play a role in early carcinogenesis are unclear. We compared serum levels of 78 inflammation markers between 171 pathologically confirmed colorectal adenoma cases (including 48 incident cases) and 344 controls within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. We used weighted multivariable logistic regression to compute odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). We found 14 markers associated with risk of adenoma overall; three of these were also associated with incident adenoma: CC-chemokine cysteine motif chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) [overall adenoma fourth versus first quartile: OR 4.8, 95% CI 2.0-12, Ptrend 0.0007; incident adenoma third versus first tertile: OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.0-22, Ptrend 0.03], growth-related gene oncogene products (GRO) [OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.6-9.3, Ptrend 0.006 and OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.1-12, Ptrend 0.04, respectively] and insulin [OR 2.9, 95% CI 0.8-10, Ptrend 0.05 and OR 7.8, 95% CI 1.3-46, Ptrend 0.03, respectively]. All statistical tests were two-sided. These results provide important new evidence implicating CCL20- and GRO-related pathways in early colorectal carcinogenesis and further support a role for insulin.

16.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(9): 923-932, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical screening are lacking in most lower resource settings, where approximately 80% of more than 500 000 cancer cases occur annually. Visual inspection of the cervix following acetic acid application is practical but not reproducible or accurate. The objective of this study was to develop a "deep learning"-based visual evaluation algorithm that automatically recognizes cervical precancer/cancer. METHODS: A population-based longitudinal cohort of 9406 women ages 18-94 years in Guanacaste, Costa Rica was followed for 7 years (1993-2000), incorporating multiple cervical screening methods and histopathologic confirmation of precancers. Tumor registry linkage identified cancers up to 18 years. Archived, digitized cervical images from screening, taken with a fixed-focus camera ("cervicography"), were used for training/validation of the deep learning-based algorithm. The resultant image prediction score (0-1) could be categorized to balance sensitivity and specificity for detection of precancer/cancer. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Automated visual evaluation of enrollment cervigrams identified cumulative precancer/cancer cases with greater accuracy (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.89 to 0.93) than original cervigram interpretation (AUC = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.63 to 0.74; P < .001) or conventional cytology (AUC = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.65 to 0.77; P < .001). A single visual screening round restricted to women at the prime screening ages of 25-49 years could identify 127 (55.7%) of 228 precancers (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3/adenocarcinoma in situ [AIS]) diagnosed cumulatively in the entire adult population (ages 18-94 years) while referring 11.0% for management. CONCLUSIONS: The results support consideration of automated visual evaluation of cervical images from contemporary digital cameras. If achieved, this might permit dissemination of effective point-of-care cervical screening.

17.
Int J Cancer ; 145(8): 2051-2060, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684389

RESUMO

Our knowledge of epidemiologic risk factors for ovarian cancer supports a role for androgens in the pathogenesis of this disease; however, few studies have examined associations between circulating androgens and ovarian cancer risk. Using highly sensitive LC-MS/MS assays, we evaluated associations between pre-diagnostic serum levels of 12 androgens, including novel androgen metabolites that reflect androgen activity in tissues, and ovarian cancer risk among postmenopausal women in a nested case-control study in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study (OS). We frequency-matched 169 ovarian cancer cases to 410 controls from women enrolled in WHI-OS who were not using menopausal hormones at enrollment/blood draw. We estimated associations overall and by subtype (n = 102 serous/67 non-serous) using multivariable adjusted logistic regression. Androgen/androgen metabolite levels were not associated with overall ovarian cancer risk. In analyses by subtype, women with increased levels of androsterone-glucuronide (ADT-G) and total 5-α reduced glucuronide metabolites (markers of tissue-level androgenic activity) were at increased risk of developing non-serous ovarian cancer: ADT-G tertile (T)3 versus T1 odds ratio [OR] (95% confidence interval [CI]) 4.36 (1.68-11.32), p-heterogeneity 0.002; total glucuronide metabolites 3.63 (1.47-8.95), 0.002. Risk of developing serous tumors was unrelated to these markers. ADT-G and total glucuronide metabolites, better markers of tissue-level androgenic activity in women than testosterone, were associated with an increased risk of developing non-serous ovarian cancer. Our work demonstrates that sex steroid metabolism is important in the etiology of non-serous ovarian cancers and supports a heterogeneous hormonal etiology across histologic subtypes of ovarian cancer.

18.
Int J Cancer ; 145(1): 58-69, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561796

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer risk factors differ by histotype; however, within subtype, there is substantial variability in outcomes. We hypothesized that risk factor profiles may influence tumor aggressiveness, defined by time between diagnosis and death, independent of histology. Among 1.3 million women from 21 prospective cohorts, 4,584 invasive epithelial ovarian cancers were identified and classified as highly aggressive (death in <1 year, n = 864), very aggressive (death in 1 to < 3 years, n = 1,390), moderately aggressive (death in 3 to < 5 years, n = 639), and less aggressive (lived 5+ years, n = 1,691). Using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression, we assessed heterogeneity of associations by tumor aggressiveness for all cases and among serous and endometrioid/clear cell tumors. Associations between parity (phet = 0.01), family history of ovarian cancer (phet = 0.02), body mass index (BMI; phet ≤ 0.04) and smoking (phet < 0.01) and ovarian cancer risk differed by aggressiveness. A first/single pregnancy, relative to nulliparity, was inversely associated with highly aggressive disease (HR: 0.72; 95% CI [0.58-0.88]), no association was observed for subsequent pregnancies (per pregnancy, 0.97 [0.92-1.02]). In contrast, first and subsequent pregnancies were similarly associated with less aggressive disease (0.87 for both). Family history of ovarian cancer was only associated with risk of less aggressive disease (1.94 [1.47-2.55]). High BMI (≥35 vs. 20 to < 25 kg/m2 , 1.93 [1.46-2.56] and current smoking (vs. never, 1.30 [1.07-1.57]) were associated with increased risk of highly aggressive disease. Results were similar within histotypes. Ovarian cancer risk factors may be directly associated with subtypes defined by tumor aggressiveness, rather than through differential effects on histology. Studies to assess biological pathways are warranted.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Paridade , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia
19.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576462

RESUMO

Background: Cervical cancer is caused by persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. US consensus management guidelines for a positive cervical screening result typically focus on the current screening result only. A negative testing history may alter risk of the following positive screening results, caused by a new HPV infection, and therefore its optimal management. Methods: Women ages 30 years and older were screened with triennial HPV and cytology co-testing at Kaiser Permanente Northern California from 2003 to 2014. We estimated the subsequent 5-year risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or more severe diagnoses (CIN3+) in a cohort of 1 156 387 women following abnormal (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASC-US] or worse) cytology and/or positive HPV testing, when the test result followed 0 (n = 990 013), 1 (n = 543 986), 2 (n = 245 974), or 3 (n = 79 946) consecutive negative co-test(s). All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Following 0-3 successive negative co-tests, 5-year CIN3+ risks following a positive HPV test decreased progressively from 7.2% (95% CI = 7.0% to 7.4%) to 1.5% (95% CI = 0.7% to 3.4%) (Ptrend < .001). Similarly, risks following an abnormal (ASC-US or worse) cytology result decreased from 6.6% (95% CI = 6.4% to 6.9%) to 1.1% (95% CI = 0.5% to 2.3%) (Ptrend < .001). Risks following low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, the risk threshold for referral to colposcopy in the United States, decreased from 5.2% (95% CI = 4.7% to 5.7%) to 0.9% (95% CI = 0.2% to 4.3%). Risks following high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or more severe, a specific marker for the presence of precancerous lesions, decreased from 50.0% (95% CI = 47.5% to 52.5%) to 10.0% (95% CI = 2.6% to 34.4%). Conclusions: Following one or more sequential antecedent, documented negative co-tests or HPV tests, women with HPV-positive ASC-US or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion might have sufficiently low CIN3+ risk that they do not need colposcopy referral and might instead undergo 6-12-month surveillance for evidence of higher risk before being referred to colposcopy.

20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30418518

RESUMO

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related biomarkers have shown good cross-sectional performance for anal precancer detection in HIV-positive (HIV+) men who have sex with men (MSM). However, the long-term performance and risk stratification of these biomarkers are unknown. Here, we prospectively evaluated high-risk (HR) HPV DNA, HPV16/18 genotyping, HPV E6/E7 mRNA, and p16/Ki-67 dual stain in a population of HIV+ MSM. Methods: We enrolled 363 HIV+ MSM between 2009-2010 with passive follow-up through 2015. All had anal cytology and high-resolution anoscopy at baseline. For each biomarker, we calculated the baseline sensitivity and specificity for a combined endpoint of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and anal intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more severe diagnoses (HSIL/AIN2+), and we estimated the 2- and 5-year cumulative risks of HSIL/AIN2+ using logistic and Cox regression models. Results: One hundred twenty-nine men were diagnosed with HSIL/AIN2+ during the study. HR-HPV testing had the highest positivity and sensitivity, but the lowest specificity of all assays. HPV16/18 and HPV E6/E7 mRNA had high specificity, but lower sensitivity. Two- and 5-year risks of HSIL/AIN2+ were highest for testing HPV16/18- or HPV E6/E7 mRNA-positive, followed by dual stain-positive. Testing HR-HPV- or dual stain-negative had the lowest 2- and 5-year risks of HSIL/AIN2+. Conclusions: HPV-related biomarkers provide long-term risk stratification for anal precancers. HR-HPV- and dual stain-negativity indicate low risk of HSIL/AIN2+ for at least 2 years compared with negative anal cytology; however, the high positivity of HR-HPV in HIV+ MSM may limit its utility for surveillance and management in this population.

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