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1.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(3): e00041320, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852659

RESUMO

Dogs are the main reservoirs in the domestic transmission cycle of visceral leishmaniasis, and the diagnosis is essential for the effectiveness of the control measures recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. We assessed the diagnostic performance of the ELISA-Vetlisa/BIOCLIN prototype with serum samples from 200 dogs, in triplicate, including symptomatic, oligosymptomatic, asymptomatic, and healthy dogs, originated by two distinct panels (A and B) characterized by parasitological tests as the reference standard. In this study, the prototype kit showed a 99% sensitivity (95%CI: 94.5-100.0) and a 100% specificity (95%CI: 96.4-100.0). The sensitivity of the prototype kit did not vary significantly with the clinical status of the dogs. Considering the final result classification (positive or negative), agreement between the results of repeated tests was almost perfect (kappa = 0.99; 95%CI: 0.98-1.00). ELISA-Vetlisa/BIOCLIN is a promising option for the serological diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

2.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24: e210014, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825774

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with the willingness to take the pandemic influenza vaccine. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of Brazilian civil servants participating in the fourth wave (2012-2013) of the longitudinal Pró-Saúde Study. Associations were expressed as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), estimated by multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: Among 2,828 participants, 15.9% would not be willing to vaccinate in the future if the Brazilian Ministry of Health promoted a new vaccination campaign against pandemic influenza. Not willing to vaccinate in the future was strongly associated with not taking the pandemic influenza vaccine in 2010 (OR = 9.0, 95%CI 6.9 - 11.6). Among the unvaccinated, females, those aged > 60 years, and non-health care workers were less willing to vaccinate in the future. Again, in the vaccinated group, females were less willing to vaccinate. CONCLUSION: Multidisciplinary efforts should be encouraged in order to identify reasons for refusing vaccination, focusing on the individual and group perceptions of susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers to vaccination. Such information is needed to identify target groups for the delivery of customized interventions towards preventing emerging pandemics, such as avian influenza and COVID-19.


Assuntos
Empregados do Governo , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Vacinação , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Empregados do Governo/psicologia , Empregados do Governo/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/psicologia
3.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e07792020, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605384

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rio de Janeiro has hardly experienced coronavirus disease. METHODS: Here, 87,442 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were reported among Rio de Janeiro residents (March to September 2020). RESULTS: Overall, RT-PCR positivity of 44.6% decreased over time towards 20%. Positivity was greater among males (OR=1.22; 95%CI:1.19-1.26); Black (OR=1.10; 95%CI:1.02-1.19), Brown (OR=1.16; 95%CI:1.10-1.22), and indigenous people (OR=2.11; 95%CI:0.88-5.03) compared to Whites and increased with age; with epidemic spread from the capital to inland regions. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 keeps spreading in Rio de Janeiro, and reopening of activities may fuel the epidemic.


Assuntos
Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e07792020, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155583

RESUMO

Abstract INTRODUCTION Rio de Janeiro has hardly experienced coronavirus disease. METHODS Here, 87,442 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were reported among Rio de Janeiro residents (March to September 2020). RESULTS Overall, RT-PCR positivity of 44.6% decreased over time towards 20%. Positivity was greater among males (OR=1.22; 95%CI:1.19-1.26); Black (OR=1.10; 95%CI:1.02-1.19), Brown (OR=1.16; 95%CI:1.10-1.22), and indigenous people (OR=2.11; 95%CI:0.88-5.03) compared to Whites and increased with age; with epidemic spread from the capital to inland regions. CONCLUSIONS SARS-CoV-2 keeps spreading in Rio de Janeiro, and reopening of activities may fuel the epidemic.

5.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 24: e210014, 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156023

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with the willingness to take the pandemic influenza vaccine. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of Brazilian civil servants participating in the fourth wave (2012-2013) of the longitudinal Pró-Saúde Study. Associations were expressed as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), estimated by multivariate logistic regression models. Results: Among 2,828 participants, 15.9% would not be willing to vaccinate in the future if the Brazilian Ministry of Health promoted a new vaccination campaign against pandemic influenza. Not willing to vaccinate in the future was strongly associated with not taking the pandemic influenza vaccine in 2010 (OR = 9.0, 95%CI 6.9 - 11.6). Among the unvaccinated, females, those aged > 60 years, and non-health care workers were less willing to vaccinate in the future. Again, in the vaccinated group, females were less willing to vaccinate. Conclusion: Multidisciplinary efforts should be encouraged in order to identify reasons for refusing vaccination, focusing on the individual and group perceptions of susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers to vaccination. Such information is needed to identify target groups for the delivery of customized interventions towards preventing emerging pandemics, such as avian influenza and COVID-19.


RESUMO: Objetivo: Investigar fatores sociodemográficos associados à disposição em adotar a vacina contra influenza pandêmica. Métodos: Estudo transversal entre servidores técnico-administrativos participantes da quarta onda (2012-2013) do estudo longitudinal Pró-Saúde. Associações foram expressas como razões de chances (RC) e intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC 95%), estimados mediante modelos de regressão logística multivariada. Resultados: Entre os 2.828 participantes, 15,9% não estariam dispostos a serem vacinados no futuro se o Ministério da Saúde do Brasil promovesse uma nova campanha de vacinação contra influenza pandêmica. Não estar disposto a ser vacinado no futuro foi fortemente associado a não receber a vacina contra influenza pandêmica em 2010 (RC = 9,0, IC95% 6,9 - 11,6). Entre os não vacinados, mulheres, maiores de 60 anos e profissionais de outras áreas que não a saúde estavam menos dispostos a serem vacinados no futuro. Novamente, para aqueles vacinados, as mulheres estavam menos dispostas a serem vacinadas. Conclusão: Abordagens multidisciplinares devem ser estimuladas para identificar as razões para recusa vacinal, com foco nas percepções individual e coletivas sobre suscetibilidade, gravidade, benefícios e barreiras à vacinação. Essas informações são necessárias para identificar grupos-alvo para a oferta de intervenções particularizadas para a prevenção de pandemias emergentes, como a de influenza aviária e de covid-19.

6.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20200680, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331613

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of insecticide-impregnated dog collars is a potentially useful tool for the control of visceral leishmaniasis. The objective of the present study was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of a program based on insecticide-impregnated collars compared to traditional visceral leishmaniasis control strategies used in Brazil. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from the perspective of the Unified Health System, using data from the Visceral Leishmaniasis Control Program implemented in the municipality of Montes Claros, Minas Gerais. The direct costs of the three control strategies, which were 1) canine infection screening + sacrifice, 2) residual chemical control of the vector, and 3) insecticide-impregnated dog collars (Scalibor®), were evaluated over the two-year study period. RESULTS: The total cost of the program in the area subjected to the traditional control strategies (strategies 1 and 2; control area) was R$ 1,551,699.80, and in the area subjected to all three control strategies (intervention area), it was R$ 1,898,190.16. The collar program was considered highly cost-effective at preventing canine visceral leishmaniasis (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of approximately R$ 578 per avoided dog sacrifice). CONCLUSIONS: These results provide support for the decision by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2019 to provide insecticide-impregnated collars for the control of canine visceral leishmaniasis in a pilot project.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Inseticidas , Leishmaniose Visceral , Piretrinas , Animais , Brasil , Análise Custo-Benefício , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Nitrilos , Projetos Piloto
7.
Popul Health Metr ; 18(Suppl 1): 5, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study presents the malaria burden in Brazil from 1990 to 2017 using data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD 2017), by analyzing disease burden indicators in federated units of the Legal Amazon and Extra-Amazon regions, as well as describing malaria cases according to Plasmodium species occurring in the country. METHODS: We used estimates from the GBD 2017 to report years of life lost due to premature death (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for malaria in Brazil, grouped by gender, age group, and Brazilian federated unit, from 1990 to 2017. Results are presented as absolute numbers and age-standardized rates (per 100,000 inhabitants) with 95% uncertainty intervals (UI). RESULTS: At the national level, the age-standardized DALYs rate due to malaria decreased by 92.0%, from 42.5 DALYs per 100,000 inhabitants (95% UI 16.6-56.9) in 1990 to 3.4 DALYs per 100,000 inhabitants (95% UI 2.7-4.7) in 2017. The YLLs were the main component of the total DALYs rate for malaria in 1990 (67.3%), and the YLDs were the main component of the metric in 2017 (61.8%). In 2017, the highest sex-age DALYs rate was found among females in the "< 1-year-old" age group, with a 6.4 DALYs per 100,000 inhabitants (95% UI 1.8-14.7) and among males in the age group of "20 to 24 years old", with a 4.7 DALYs per 100,000 inhabitants (95% UI 3.3-9.9). Within the Brazilian Amazon region, the three federated units with the highest age-standardized DALYs rates in 2017 were Acre [28.4 (95% UI 14.2-39.1)], Roraima [28.3 (95% UI 13.5-40.2)], and Rondônia [24.7 (95% UI 11.4-34.8)]. Concerning the parasite species that caused malaria, 73.5% of the total of cases registered in the period had Plasmodium vivax as the etiological agent. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the GBD 2017 show that despite the considerable reduction in the DALYs rates between 1990 and 2017, malaria remains a relevant and preventable disease, which in recent years has generated more years of life lost due to disability than deaths. The states endemic for malaria in the Amazon region require constant evaluation of preventive and control measures. The present study will contribute to the direction of current health policies aimed at reducing the burden of malaria in Brazil, as knowing the geographical and temporal distribution of the risk of death and disability of this disease can facilitate the planning, implementation, and improvement of control strategies aimed at eliminating the disease.

8.
Popul Health Metr ; 18(Suppl 1): 10, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be an important cause of fatal and non-fatal burden in Brazil. In this study, we present estimates for TB burden in Brazil from 1990 to 2017 using data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD 2017). METHODS: This descriptive study used GBD 2017 findings to report years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of TB in Brazil by sex, age group, HIV status, and Brazilian states, from 1990 to 2017. We also present the TB burden attributable to independent risk factors such as smoking, alcohol use, and diabetes. Results are reported in absolute number and age-standardized rates (per 100,000 inhabitants) with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). RESULTS: In 2017, the number of DALYs due to TB (HIV-negative and HIV-positive combined) in Brazil was 284,323 (95% UI: 240,269-349,265). Among HIV-negative individuals, the number of DALYs was 196,366 (95% UI: 189,645-202,394), while 87,957 DALYs (95% UI: 50,624-146,870) were estimated among HIV-positive individuals. Between 1990 and 2017, the absolute number and age-standardized rates of DALYs due to TB at the national level decreased by 47.0% and 68.5%, respectively. In 2017, the sex-age-specific TB burden was highest among males and in children under-1 year and the age groups 45-59 years. The Brazilian states with the highest age-standardized DALY rates in 2017 were Rio de Janeiro, Pernambuco, and Amazonas. Age-standardized DALY rates decreased for all 27 Brazilian states between 1990 and 2017. Alcohol use accounted for 47.5% of national DALYs due to TB among HIV-negative individuals in 2017, smoking for 17.9%, and diabetes for 7.7%. CONCLUSIONS: GBD 2017 results show that, despite the remarkable progress in reducing the DALY rates during the period, TB remains as an important and preventable cause of health lost to due premature death and disability in Brazil. The findings reinforce the importance of strengthening TB control strategies in Brazil through integrated and multisectoral actions that enable the access to prevention, early diagnosis, and timely treatment, with emphasis on high-risk groups and populations most vulnerable to the disease in the country.

9.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 69, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638883

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To estimate the seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 among blood donors in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS Data were collected on 2,857 blood donors from April 14 to 27, 2020. This study reports crude prevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, population weighted prevalence for the state, and prevalence adjusted for test sensitivity and specificity. Logistic regression models were used to establish the correlates of SARS-CoV-2 prevalence. For the analysis, we considered collection period and site, sociodemographic characteristics, and place of residence. RESULTS The proportion of positive tests for SARS-Cov-2, without any adjustment, was 4.0% (95%CI 3.3-4.7%), and the weighted prevalence was 3.8% (95%CI 3.1-4.5%). We found lower estimates after adjusting for test sensitivity and specificity: 3.6% (95%CI 2.7-4.4%) for the non-weighted prevalence, and 3.3% (95%CI 2.6-4.1%) for the weighted prevalence. Collection period was the variable most significantly associated with crude prevalence: the later the period, the higher the prevalence. Regarding sociodemographic characteristics, the younger the blood donor, the higher the prevalence, and the lower the education level, the higher the odds of testing positive for SARS-Cov-2 antibody. We found similar results for weighted prevalence. CONCLUSIONS Our findings comply with some basic premises: the increasing trend over time, as the epidemic curve in the state is still on the rise; and the higher prevalence among both the youngest, for moving around more than older age groups, and the less educated, for encountering more difficulties in following social distancing recommendations. Despite the study limitations, we may infer that Rio de Janeiro is far from reaching the required levels of herd immunity against SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190291, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491100

RESUMO

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a zoonotic disease with complex transmission cycle. Some environmental and socioeconomic factors are known to be the major determinants of the transmission process, which are involved in configuring the spatiotemporal patterns and thus can be delimiting. However, the relevance of these socioeconomic and environmental determinants is still not well understood. In this study, we aimed to identify the major environmental and socioeconomic determinants of CL in Brazil by articulating a systematic literature review of studies that are based on this subject. The methodology included a search for studies according to a structured protocol using the scientific platforms, such as Scielo and PubMed. The references of each identified article were who referred to CL determinants were further screened, and so on. We extracted information from 41 articles and the determinants were grouped accordingly. Two measures were evaluated as follows: a) the frequency of citations of the determinants; and b) the proportion of determinants identified as having "significant association in analytical studies" with respect to the total number of determinants analyzed in other analytical studies using the same concept. The analyzed articles covered most of the regions of Brazil and 7 other countries bordering Brazil. We found 43 concepts of determinants. However, the final selection resulted in the identification of 14 major determinants. These results therefore contribute in the identification of major CL determinants and this information can be used to establish strategies for identifying risk prone areas for disease surveillance.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espacial
11.
Front Vet Sci ; 7: 289, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32537462

RESUMO

Information concerning the factors affecting the circulation and distribution of free-roaming dogs is crucial in developing control actions and limiting the spread of zoonoses. The present study analyzes the influence of gender, sterilization, and environment on the spatial distribution of free-roaming dogs in urban settings. Animals were captured/recaptured in seven consecutive morning sampling efforts conducted at 2-monthly intervals in control and intervention areas in a medium-size town in southeastern Brazil. Capture locations were georeferenced and captured animals were microchipped before being released at their original capture sites. Dogs captured in the intervention area were subjected additionally to surgical sterilization prior to release. Home range (HR) areas were calculated by applying the minimum convex polygon method to dogs that had been captured at least three times. Land coverage zones were determined from satellite images and overlaid on maps of the study areas along with the locations of 22 commercial food outlets. HR areas showed a global mean of 448 m2 and a median of 28 m2, values that were smaller than those reported previously for dogs in rural regions. The median HR of females (64.m2) was higher than that of males (15 m2), while median HRs of animals in the control and intervention areas were similar (27 and 28.5 m2, respectively). Variability of HR was high, although animals with small HRs predominated. Free-roaming dogs grouped primarily in urbanized and transitional regions, and their spatial distribution was positively correlated with locations of commercial food outlets. While sterilization did not influence HR size, the search for food was a key factor in determining mobility and spatial aggregation of free-roaming dogs. Our findings are pertinent in understanding the ecology of free-roaming dogs in urban environments and will be applicable to strategies aimed at promoting animal welfare and preventing the dissemination of zoonoses.

12.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 953, 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The utilisation of health services is determined by complex interactions. In this context, rural populations face greater barriers in accessing dental services than do urban populations, and they generally have poorer oral health status. The evaluation of the determinants of health services utilisation is important to support planning and management of dental services. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictors of dental services utilisation of Brazilian adults living in rural and urban areas. METHODS: Data from 60,202 adults aged 18 years or older who took part in the Brazilian National Health Survey carried out in 2013 were analysed. Predisposing (age, sex, education, social networks), enabling financing (income, durable goods and household's crowding), enabling organisation (health insurance, registration in primary health care [PHC]) and need variables (eating difficulties, self-perceived tooth loss and self-perceived oral health) were selected based upon the Andersen behavioural model. Multi-group structural equation modeling assessed the direct and indirect associations of independent variables with non-utilisation of dental services and the interval since the last dental visit for individuals living in rural and urban areas. RESULTS: Adults living in urban areas were more likely to use dental services than those living in rural areas. Lower enabling financing, lower perceived dental needs and lack of PHC registration were directly associated with lower utilisation of dental services (non-utilisation, ß = - 0.36, ß = - 0.16, ß = - 0.03, respectively; and interval since last dental visit, ß = 1.25, ß = 0.82, ß = - 0.12, respectively). The enabling financing (non-utilisation, ßrural = - 0.02 [95%CI: - 0.03 to - 0.02], ßurban = 0.00 [95%CI: - 0.01 to 0.00]) and PHC registration (non-utilisation, ßrural = - 0.03 [95%CI: - 0.04 to - 0.02], ßurban = - 0.01 [95%CI, - 0.01 to - 0.01]) non-standardised total effects were stronger in rural areas. Enabling organisation (ß = 0.16) and social network (ß = - 2.59) latent variables showed a direct effect on the interval since last dental visit in urban areas. Education and social networks influenced utilisation of dental services through different pathways. Males showed less use of dental services in both urban and rural areas (non-utilisation, ßrural = - 0.07, ßurban = - 0.04; interval since last dental visit, ßrural = - 0.07, ßurban = - 0.07) and older adults have used dental services longer than younger ones, mainly in rural areas (ßrural = 0.26, ßurban = 0.17). CONCLUSION: Dental services utilisation was lower in rural areas in Brazil. The theoretical model was supported by empirical data and showed different relationships between the predictors in the two geographical contexts. In rural areas, financial aspects, education, primary care availability, sex and age were relevant factors for the utilisation of services.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Preprint em Inglês | SciELO Preprints | ID: pps-404

RESUMO

Background: In Brazil, mathematical models for deriving estimates and projections of COVID-19 cases have been developed without data on asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. We estimated the seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 among blood donors in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Methods: Data were collected on 2,857 blood donors from April 14 to 27, 2020. We report the crude prevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, the weighted prevalence by the total state population, and adjusted prevalence estimates for test sensitivity and specificity. To establish the correlates of SARS-CoV-2 prevalence, we used logistic regression models. The analysis included period and site of blood collection, sociodemographic characteristics, and place of residence. Results: The proportion of SARS-Cov-2 positive tests without any adjustment was 4.0% (95% CI 3.3-4.7%), and the weighted prevalence was 3.8% (95% CI 3.1-4.5%). Further adjustment by test sensitivity and specificity produced lower estimates, 3.6% (95% CI 2.7-4.4%) and 3.3% (95% CI 2.6-4.1%), respectively. The variable most significantly associated with the crude prevalence was the period of blood collection: the later the period, the higher the prevalence. Regarding socio-demographic characteristics, the younger the blood donors, the higher the prevalence, and the lower the educational level, the higher the odds of a positive SARS-Cov-2 antibody. Similar results were found for the weighted prevalence. Discussion: Although our findings resulted from a convenience sample, they match some basic premises: the increasing trend over time, since the epidemic curve in the state is still on the rise; the higher prevalence among the youngest who are more likely to circulate; and the higher prevalence among the less educated as they have more difficulties in following the social distancing recommendations. Despite the study limitations, it is possible to infer that protective levels of natural herd immunity to SARS-CoV-2 are far from being reached in Rio de Janeiro.

16.
Vaccine X ; 4: 100048, 2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891152

RESUMO

There is little evidence that current control strategies for canine leishmaniosis (CanL), the veterinary disease caused by L. infantum infection, are having a positive impact. This is of critical importance because dogs are a primary reservoir for L. infantum and a significant source of parasite transmission to humans. Drugs intended primarily for human use are prohibited for the treatment of CanL because of concerns over the propagation of resistant parasites. Although allopurinol effectively decreases parasite burden in CanL the treatment needs to be maintained for life. We hypothesized that during the allopurinol-induced parasite reduction dogs may become capable of developing a more robust immune response that may permit more effective control of parasites. To test this, we investigated the clinical and parasitological impact of short-term treatment with allopurinol, either alone or in combination with a defined subunit vaccine, on dogs naturally infected with L. infantum. A total of 28 dogs were distributed as follows: untreated; oral allopurinol alone (20 mg/kg, once each day for 90 days); or allopurinol with immunization with the Leish-F2 antigen formulated with the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 agonist Second generation Lipid Adjuvant (SLA) in stable emulsion (SE; SLA-SE). Dogs that did not receive treatment had a progressive decline in their clinical condition and an increase in their infection levels, while treatment with allopurinol alone alleviated the clinical symptoms of CanL but did not generate sustained reduction in parasites. Concomitant immunization with Leish-F2 + SLA-SE, however, improved clinical condition while also providing long-term clearance of L. infantum from lymphoid tissues and systemic organs. These results have important implications for both the management of CanL and for limiting L. infantum transmission to humans.

17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190291, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1136835

RESUMO

Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a zoonotic disease with complex transmission cycle. Some environmental and socioeconomic factors are known to be the major determinants of the transmission process, which are involved in configuring the spatiotemporal patterns and thus can be delimiting. However, the relevance of these socioeconomic and environmental determinants is still not well understood. In this study, we aimed to identify the major environmental and socioeconomic determinants of CL in Brazil by articulating a systematic literature review of studies that are based on this subject. The methodology included a search for studies according to a structured protocol using the scientific platforms, such as Scielo and PubMed. The references of each identified article were who referred to CL determinants were further screened, and so on. We extracted information from 41 articles and the determinants were grouped accordingly. Two measures were evaluated as follows: a) the frequency of citations of the determinants; and b) the proportion of determinants identified as having "significant association in analytical studies" with respect to the total number of determinants analyzed in other analytical studies using the same concept. The analyzed articles covered most of the regions of Brazil and 7 other countries bordering Brazil. We found 43 concepts of determinants. However, the final selection resulted in the identification of 14 major determinants. These results therefore contribute in the identification of major CL determinants and this information can be used to establish strategies for identifying risk prone areas for disease surveillance.

18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200680, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1143869

RESUMO

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The use of insecticide-impregnated dog collars is a potentially useful tool for the control of visceral leishmaniasis. The objective of the present study was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of a program based on insecticide-impregnated collars compared to traditional visceral leishmaniasis control strategies used in Brazil. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from the perspective of the Unified Health System, using data from the Visceral Leishmaniasis Control Program implemented in the municipality of Montes Claros, Minas Gerais. The direct costs of the three control strategies, which were 1) canine infection screening + sacrifice, 2) residual chemical control of the vector, and 3) insecticide-impregnated dog collars (Scalibor®), were evaluated over the two-year study period. RESULTS: The total cost of the program in the area subjected to the traditional control strategies (strategies 1 and 2; control area) was R$ 1,551,699.80, and in the area subjected to all three control strategies (intervention area), it was R$ 1,898,190.16. The collar program was considered highly cost-effective at preventing canine visceral leishmaniasis (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of approximately R$ 578 per avoided dog sacrifice). CONCLUSIONS: These results provide support for the decision by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2019 to provide insecticide-impregnated collars for the control of canine visceral leishmaniasis in a pilot project.

19.
s.l; s.n; 2020. 19 p. graf, tab.
Não convencional em Inglês | LILACS, CONASS, SES-RJ | ID: biblio-1102511

RESUMO

Background: In Brazil, mathematical models for derivingestimates and projections of COVID-19 cases have been developed without data on asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. We estimated the seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 among blood donors in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Methods: Data were collected on 2,857 blood donors from April 14 to 27, 2020. We report the crude prevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, the weighted prevalence by the total state population, and adjusted prevalence estimates for test sensitivity and specificity. To establish the correlates of SARS-CoV-2 prevalence, we used logistic regression models. The analysis included period and site of blood collection, sociodemographic characteristics, and place of residence. Results: The proportion of SARS-Cov-2 positive tests without any adjustment was 4.0% (95% CI 3.3-4.7%), and the weighted prevalence was 3.8% (95% CI 3.1-4.5%). Further adjustment by test sensitivity and specificity produced lower estimates, 3.6% (95% CI 2.7-4.4%) and 3.3% (95% CI 2.6-4.1%), respectively. The variable most significantly associated with the crude prevalence was the period of blood collection: the later the period, the higher the prevalence. Regarding socio-demographic characteristics, the younger the blood donors, the higher the prevalence, and the lower the educational level, the higher the odds of a positive SARS-Cov-2 antibody. Similar results were found for the weighted prevalence. Discussion: Although our findings resulted from a convenience sample, they match some basic premises: the increasing trend over time, since the epidemic curve in the state is still on the rise; the higher prevalence among the youngest who are more likely to circulate; and the higher prevalence among the less educated as they have more difficulties in following the social distancing recommendations. Despite the study limitations, it is possible to infer that protective levels of natural herd immunity to SARS-CoV-2 are far from being reached in Rio de Janeiro. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Doadores de Sangue , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina M , Infecções por Coronavirus , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
20.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 69, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1127233

RESUMO

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 among blood donors in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS Data were collected on 2,857 blood donors from April 14 to 27, 2020. This study reports crude prevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, population weighted prevalence for the state, and prevalence adjusted for test sensitivity and specificity. Logistic regression models were used to establish the correlates of SARS-CoV-2 prevalence. For the analysis, we considered collection period and site, sociodemographic characteristics, and place of residence. RESULTS The proportion of positive tests for SARS-Cov-2, without any adjustment, was 4.0% (95%CI 3.3-4.7%), and the weighted prevalence was 3.8% (95%CI 3.1-4.5%). We found lower estimates after adjusting for test sensitivity and specificity: 3.6% (95%CI 2.7-4.4%) for the non-weighted prevalence, and 3.3% (95%CI 2.6-4.1%) for the weighted prevalence. Collection period was the variable most significantly associated with crude prevalence: the later the period, the higher the prevalence. Regarding sociodemographic characteristics, the younger the blood donor, the higher the prevalence, and the lower the education level, the higher the odds of testing positive for SARS-Cov-2 antibody. We found similar results for weighted prevalence. CONCLUSIONS Our findings comply with some basic premises: the increasing trend over time, as the epidemic curve in the state is still on the rise; and the higher prevalence among both the youngest, for moving around more than older age groups, and the less educated, for encountering more difficulties in following social distancing recommendations. Despite the study limitations, we may infer that Rio de Janeiro is far from reaching the required levels of herd immunity against SARS-CoV-2.

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