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1.
Thyroid ; 27(4): 577-586, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27967605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myogenesis is positively regulated by thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine [T3]), which is amplified by the type 2 deiodinase (D2) activation of thyroxine to T3. Global inactivation of the Dio2 gene impairs skeletal muscle (SKM) differentiation and regeneration in response to muscle injury. Given that newborn and adult mice with late developmental SKM Dio2 disruption do not develop a significant phenotype, it was hypothesized that D2 plays an early role in this process. METHODS: This was tested in mice with SKM disruption of Dio2 driven by two early developmental promoters: MYF5 and MYOD. RESULTS: MYF5 myoblasts in culture differentiate normally into myotubes, despite loss of almost all D2 activity. Dio2 mRNA levels in developing SKM obtained from MYF5-D2KO embryos (E18.5) were about 54% of control littermates, but the expression of the T3-responsive genes Myh1 and 7 and Atp2a1 and 2 were not affected. In MYF5-D2KO and MYOD-D2KO neonatal hind-limb muscle, the expression of Myh1 and 7 and Atp2a2 remained unaffected, despite 60-70% loss in D2 activity and/or mRNA. Only in MYOD-D2KO neonatal muscle was there a 40% reduction in Atp2a1 mRNA. Postnatal growth of both mouse models and SKM function as assessed by exercise capacity and measurement of muscle strength were normal. Furthermore, an analysis of the adult soleus revealed no changes in the expression of T3-responsive genes, except for an about 18% increase in MYOD-D2KO SOL Myh7 mRNA. CONCLUSION: Two mouse models of early developmental disruption of Dio2 in myocyte precursor exhibit no significant SKM phenotype.


Assuntos
Iodeto Peroxidase/genética , Desenvolvimento Muscular/genética , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mioblastos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Tri-Iodotironina/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Proteína MyoD/genética , Fator Regulador Miogênico 5/genética , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Fenótipo , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio do Retículo Sarcoplasmático/genética , Transdução de Sinais
2.
J Physiol ; 594(18): 5255-69, 2016 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27302464

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: In skeletal muscle, physical exercise and thyroid hormone mediate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1a) expression that is crucial to skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. The expression of type 2 deiodinase (D2), which activates thyroid hormone in skeletal muscle is upregulated by acute treadmill exercise through a ß-adrenergic receptor-dependent mechanism. Pharmacological block of D2 or disruption of the Dio2 gene in skeletal muscle fibres impaired acute exercise-induced PGC-1a expression. Dio2 disruption also impaired muscle PGC-1a expression and mitochondrial citrate synthase activity in chronically exercised mice. ABSTRACT: Thyroid hormone promotes expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1a), which mediates mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle (SKM). Skeletal myocytes express the type 2 deiodinase (D2), which generates 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3 ), the active thyroid hormone. To test whether D2-generated T3 plays a role in exercise-induced PGC-1a expression, male rats and mice with SKM-specific Dio2 inactivation (SKM-D2KO or MYF5-D2KO) were studied. An acute treadmill exercise session (20 min at 70-75% of maximal aerobic capacity) increased D2 expression/activity (1.5- to 2.7-fold) as well as PGC-1a mRNA levels (1.5- to 5-fold) in rat soleus muscle and white gastrocnemius muscle and in mouse soleus muscle, which was prevented by pretreatment with 1 mg (100 g body weight)(-1) propranolol or 6 mg (100 g body weight)(-1) iopanoic acid (5.9- vs. 2.8-fold; P < 0.05), which blocks D2 activity . In the SKM-D2KO mice, acute treadmill exercise failed to induce PGC-1a fully in soleus muscle (1.9- vs. 2.8-fold; P < 0.05), and in primary SKM-D2KO myocytes there was only a limited PGC-1a response to 1 µm forskolin (2.2- vs. 1.3-fold; P < 0.05). Chronic exercise training (6 weeks) increased soleus muscle PGC-1a mRNA levels (∼25%) and the mitochondrial enzyme citrate synthase (∼20%). In contrast, PGC-1a expression did not change and citrate synthase decreased by ∼30% in SKM-D2KO mice. The soleus muscle PGC-1a response to chronic exercise was also blunted in MYF5-D2KO mice. In conclusion, acute treadmill exercise increases SKM D2 expression through a ß-adrenergic receptor-dependent mechanism. The accelerated conversion of T4 to T3 within myocytes mediates part of the PGC-1a induction by treadmill exercise and its downstream effects on mitochondrial function.


Assuntos
Iodeto Peroxidase/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Tiroxina/metabolismo , Tri-Iodotironina/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Células Cultivadas , Citrato (si)-Sintase/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Iodeto Peroxidase/genética , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Tiroxina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue
3.
Endocrinology ; 156(10): 3842-52, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26214036

RESUMO

The type 2 deiodinase (D2) activates the prohormone T4 to T3. D2 is expressed in skeletal muscle (SKM), and its global inactivation (GLOB-D2KO mice) reportedly leads to skeletal muscle hypothyroidism and impaired differentiation. Here floxed Dio2 mice were crossed with mice expressing Cre-recombinase under the myosin light chain 1f (cre-MLC) to disrupt D2 expression in the late developmental stages of skeletal myocytes (SKM-D2KO). This led to a loss of approximately 50% in D2 activity in neonatal and adult SKM-D2KO skeletal muscle and about 75% in isolated SKM-D2KO myocytes. To test the impact of Dio2 disruption, we measured soleus T3 content and found it to be normal. We also looked at the expression of T3-responsive genes in skeletal muscle, ie, myosin heavy chain I, α-actin, myosin light chain, tropomyosin, and serca 1 and 2, which was preserved in neonatal SKM-D2KO hindlimb muscles, at a time that coincides with a peak of D2 activity in control animals. In adult soleus the baseline level of D2 activity was about 6-fold lower, and in the SKM-D2KO soleus, the expression of only one of five T3-responsive genes was reduced. Despite this, adult SKM-D2KO animals performed indistinguishably from controls on a treadmill test, running for approximately 16 minutes and reached a speed of about 23 m/min; muscle strength was about 0.3 mN/m·g body weight in SKM-D2KO and control ankle muscles. In conclusion, there are multiple sources of D2 in the mouse SKM, and its role is limited in postnatal skeletal muscle fibers.


Assuntos
Iodeto Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Células Cultivadas , Expressão Gênica , Iodeto Peroxidase/genética , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Força Muscular/genética , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio do Retículo Sarcoplasmático/genética , Tiroxina/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Tri-Iodotironina/metabolismo , Tropomiosina/genética
4.
J Clin Invest ; 123(4): 1492-500, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23524969

RESUMO

Type II deiodinase (D2) activates thyroid hormone by converting thyroxine (T4) to 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3). This allows plasma T4 to signal a negative feedback loop that inhibits production of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the pituitary. To determine the relative contributions of these D2 pathways in the feedback loop, we developed 2 mouse strains with pituitary- and astrocyte-specific D2 knockdown (pit-D2 KO and astro-D2 KO mice, respectively). The pit-D2 KO mice had normal serum T3 and were systemically euthyroid, but exhibited an approximately 3-fold elevation in serum TSH levels and a 40% reduction in biological activity. This was the result of elevated serum T4 that increased D2-mediated T3 production in the MBH, thus decreasing Trh mRNA. That tanycytes, not astrocytes, are the cells within the MBH that mediate T4-to-T3 conversion was defined by studies using the astro-D2 KO mice. Despite near-complete loss of brain D2, tanycyte D2 was preserved in astro-D2 KO mice at levels that were sufficient to maintain both the T4-dependent negative feedback loop and thyroid economy. Taken together, these data demonstrated that the hypothalamic-thyroid axis is wired to maintain normal plasma T3 levels, which is achieved through coordination of T4-to-T3 conversion between thyrotrophs and tanycytes.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hipotálamo/enzimologia , Iodeto Peroxidase/metabolismo , Hipófise/enzimologia , Tireotropina/genética , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue , Animais , Astrócitos/enzimologia , Composição Corporal , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Ativação Enzimática , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/citologia , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Iodeto Peroxidase/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Hipófise/citologia , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Glândula Tireoide/fisiologia , Tireotrofos/enzimologia , Tireotropina/sangue , Hormônio Liberador de Tireotropina , Tiroxina/sangue , Tiroxina/fisiologia , Tri-Iodotironina/fisiologia
5.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 24(2): 121-30, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20127160

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) administration on cardiac function of rats with chronic myocardial infarction through two different protocols: high dose short term and low dose long term protocols. METHODS: Wistar rats were submitted to MI surgery and after 4 weeks they received recombinant human G-CSF (Filgrastim) or vehicle subcutaneously. We tested the classical protocol (50 microg/kg/day during 7 days) and the long term low dose treatment (four cycles of 5 days of 10 microg/kg/day). Cardiac performance was evaluated before, 4 and 6 weeks after G-CSF injections by electro- and echocardiography, hemodynamic and treadmill exercise test. RESULTS: All infarcted groups exhibited impaired function compared to sham operated animals. Moreover, all cardiac functional parameter were not different between G-CSF and Vehicle group at resting conditions as well as after treadmill exercise stress test, despite intense white blood cell mobilization in both protocols at all time points. Hypertrophy was not different and infarct size was similar in histological analysis CONCLUSIONS: These data clearly show that G-CSF treatment was unable to restore cardiac function impaired by myocardial infarction either with classical approach or long term low dose administration.


Assuntos
Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/uso terapêutico , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Sangue/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea , Contagem de Células , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia , Teste de Esforço , Filgrastim , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/administração & dosagem , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/farmacologia , Granulócitos/citologia , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/fisiopatologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Proteínas Recombinantes , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/patologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
6.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 79(4): 639-48, 2007 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18066433

RESUMO

In animal models the evaluation of myocardial infarct size in vivo and its relation to the actual lesion found post mortem is still a challenge. The purpose of the current study was to address if the conventional electrocardiogram (ECG) and/or echocardiogram (ECHO) could be used to adequately predict the size of the infarct in rats. Wistar rats were infarcted by left coronary ligation and then ECG, ECHO and histopathology were performed at 1, 7 and 28 days after surgery. Correlation between infarct size by histology and Q wave amplitude in lead L1 was only found when ECGs were performed one day post-surgery. Left ventricular diastolic and systolic dimensions correlated with infarct size by ECHO on day 7 post-infarction. On days 7 and 28 post-infarction, ejection indexes estimated by M-mode also correlated with infarct size. In summary we show that conventional ECG and ECHO methods can be used to estimate infarct size in rats. Our data suggest that the 7-day interval is actually the most accurate for estimation of infarct size by ECHO.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Doppler em Cores , Eletrocardiografia , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
7.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 79(4): 639-648, Dec. 2007. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-470037

RESUMO

In animal models the evaluation of myocardial infarct size in vivo and its relation to the actual lesion found post mortem is still a challenge. The purpose of the current study was to address if the conventional electrocardiogram (ECG) and/or echocardiogram (ECHO) could be used to adequately predict the size of the infarct in rats. Wistar rats were infarcted by left coronary ligation and then ECG, ECHO and histopathology were performed at 1, 7 and 28 days after surgery. Correlation between infarct size by histology and Q wave amplitude in lead L1 was only found when ECGs were performed one day post-surgery. Left ventricular diastolic and systolic dimensions correlated with infarct size by ECHO on day 7 post-infarction. On days 7 and 28 post-infarction, ejection indexes estimated by M-mode also correlated with infarct size. In summary we show that conventional ECG and ECHO methods can be used to estimate infarct size in rats. Our data suggest that the 7-day interval is actually the most accurate for estimation of infarct size by ECHO.


Nos modelos animais a medida do tamanho do infarto do miocárdio "in vivo" e sua relação com o tamanho da lesão encontrada no exame "pos-mortem" ainda é um desafio. A finalidade do presente estudo é verificar se um eletro (ECG) e ecocardiograma (ECO) rotineiros poderiam ser utilizados para predizer a extensão do infarto em ratos. Ratos Wistar foram infartados pela ligadura cirúrgica da artéria coronária descendente anterior e exames eletro, ecocardiográficos e histopatológicos foram realizados 1, 7 e 28 dias pós-infarto. Foi encontrada correlação entre o tamanho do infarto medido pela histopatologia e a amplitude da onda Q em D1 apenas nos ECGs realizados no primeiro dia após a cirurgia. Os diâmetros da cavidade ventricular esquerda medidos em sístole e em diástole pelo ECO correlacionaram-se com o tamanho do infarto no sétimo dia pós-infarto. Ainda mais, no sétimo e vigésimo oitavo dias pós-cirurgia, os índices sistólicos estimados pelo Modo M também se correlacionaram com o tamanho do infarto. Em resumo, nós mostramos que um ECG e ECO convencionais são capazes de estimar a extensão do infarto do miocárdio em ratos. Nossos dados sugerem que o tempo mais adequado para estimar o tamanho do infarto pelo ECO é 7 dias pós-cirurgia.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Ecocardiografia Doppler em Cores , Eletrocardiografia , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio , Ratos Wistar , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 9(6-7): 558-67, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17398154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cellular cardiomyoplasty with bone marrow derived stromal (MSC) and mononuclear (BMNC) cells has been shown to improve performance of infarcted hearts. We performed a comparative study with MSC and BMNC and tested the hypothesis that captopril treatment could enhance the beneficial effect of cell therapy in large myocardial infarctions. METHODS: Male syngeneic Wistar rats underwent experimental infarction and were randomized to receive 1-3 x 10(6) MSC, 10(8) BMNC or vehicle (BSS group). Two additional groups were treated with captopril and received 1-3 x 10(6) MSC (Cap.MSC) or vehicle (Cap). RESULTS: The ejection fraction (EF%) of MSC and BMNC-treated rats was higher than in the BSS rats, eight weeks after transplantation (33.0+/-4.0, 34.0+/-2.0 and 20.0+/-2.0% respectively, P<0.01). Both captopril-treated groups improved EF% similarly. But only captopril plus MSC treatment almost restored cardiac function to control levels, 8 weeks after injection (60.50+/-5.40% vs. 41.00+/-4.50% in Cap.MSC and Cap respectively, P<0.05). Many DAPI-labelled cells were found in the scar tissue of the left ventricle only in the Cap.MSC group. CONCLUSIONS: Cell transplantation with both MSC and BMNC produced a similar stabilisation of heart function, but the success of the cell engraftment and the recovery of cardiac performance were dependent on concomitant treatment with captopril.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Transplante de Medula Óssea/métodos , Captopril/farmacologia , Cardiomioplastia/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/transplante , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Células Estromais/transplante , Animais , Débito Cardíaco/fisiologia , Ecocardiografia Doppler em Cores , Eletrocardiografia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transplante Isogênico
9.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 287(2): H464-70, 2004 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15044198

RESUMO

Postinfarct congestive heart failure is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) directly into the myocardium could improve the performance of healed infarcted rat hearts. Cell culture medium with or without BMSC was injected into borders of cardiac scar tissue 4 wk after experimental infarction. Cardiac performance was evaluated 2 wk after cellular (n = 10) or medium (n = 10) injection by electro- and echocardiography. Histological study was performed 3 wk after treatment. Electrocardiography of BMSC-treated infarcted rats showed electrical and mechanical parameters more similar to those in control than in medium-treated animals: a normal frontal QRS axis in 6 of 10 BMSC-treated and all control rats and a rightward deviation of the QRS axis in all 10 medium-treated animals. BMSC treatment, assessed by echocardiography, improved fractional shortening (39.00 +/- 4.03%) compared with medium-treated hearts (18.20 +/- 0.74%) and prevented additional changes in cardiac geometry. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed colocalization of 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-labeled nuclei of transplanted cells with cytoskeletal markers for cardiomyocytes and smooth muscle cells, indicating regeneration of damaged myocardium and angiogenesis. These data provide strong evidence that BMSC implantation can improve cardiac performance in healed infarctions and open new promising therapeutic opportunities for patients with postinfarction heart failure.


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea , Coração/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Cicatrização , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
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