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1.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 44(3): 611-619, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent alcohol abuse can lead to behavioral dysfunction and chronic, relapsing alcohol use disorder (AUD) in adulthood. However, not all adolescents that consume alcohol will develop an AUD; therefore, it is critical to identify neural and environmental risk factors that contribute to increases in susceptibility to AUDs following adolescent alcohol (ethanol [EtOH]) exposure. We previously found that adolescent anesthetic exposure led to strikingly similar behavioral and neural effects as adolescent alcohol exposure. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that general anesthetic exposure during early adolescence would alter EtOH responses consistent with an exacerbation of the adolescent alcohol phenotype. METHODS: To test this hypothesis, early-adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for a short duration to the general anesthetic isoflurane and tested on multiple EtOH-induced behaviors in mid-late adolescence or adulthood. RESULTS: Adolescent rats exposed to isoflurane exhibited decreases in sensitivity to negative properties of EtOH such as its aversive, hypnotic, and socially suppressive effects, as well as increases in voluntary EtOH intake and cognitive impairment. Select behaviors were noted to persist into adulthood following adolescent isoflurane exposure. Similar exposure in adults had no effects on EtOH sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates for the first time that early-adolescent isoflurane exposure alters EtOH sensitivity in a manner consistent with an exacerbation of adolescent-typical alcohol responding. These findings suggest that general anesthetic exposure during adolescence may be an environmental risk factor contributing to an enhanced susceptibility to developing AUDs in an already vulnerable population.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; 390: 122144, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006845

RESUMO

Many studies have examined changes in soil microbial community structure and composition by carbon nanomaterials (CNMs). Few, however, have investigated their impact on microbial community functions. This study explored how fullerene (C60) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (M50) altered functionality of an agricultural soil microbial community (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya), using microcosm experiments combined with GeoChip microarray. M50 had a stronger effect than C60 on alpha diversity of microbial functional genes; both CNMs increased beta diversity, resulting in functional profiles distinct from the control. M50 exerted a broader, severer impact on microbially mediated nutrient cycles. Together, these two CNMs affected CO2 fixation pathways, microbial degradation of diverse carbohydrates, secondary plant metabolites, lipids and phospholipids, proteins, as well as methanogenesis and methane oxidation. They also suppressed nitrogen fixation, nitrification, dissimilatory nitrogen reduction, eukaryotic assimilatory nitrogen reduction, and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). Phosphorus and sulfur cycles were less vulnerable; only phytic acid hydrolysis and sulfite reduction were inhibited by M50 but not C60. Network analysis suggested decoupling of nutrient cycles by CNMs, manifesting closer and more hierarchical gene networks. This work reinforces profound impact of CNMs on soil microbial community functions and ecosystem services, laying a path for future investigation in this direction.

3.
Behav Brain Res ; 378: 112292, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626849

RESUMO

Although both humans and laboratory rodents demonstrate cognitive and affective alterations associated with adolescent alcohol exposure, it is still unknown whether the consequences of early initiation of alcohol use differ from those of later binge drinking within the adolescent developmental period. The present study was designed to assess the effects of early and late AIE on (1) anxiety-like behavior under social (modified social interaction test) and non-social test circumstances (modified light/dark box test, elevated plus maze), and (2) behavioral flexibility, indexed via set shifting in males and females. Early-mid adolescent intermittent exposure (early AIE) occurred between postnatal days (P) 25 and 45, whereas late adolescent intermittent exposure (late AIE) was conducted between P45 and P65, with behavioral testing initiated not earlier than 25 days after repeated exposure to ethanol (4.0 g/kg intragastrically, every other day for a total of 11 exposures). Anxiety-like behavior on the EPM was evident in males and females following early AIE, whereas only males demonstrated non-social anxiety on the EPM following late AIE. Social anxiety-like alterations and deficits in behavioral flexibility were evident only in males following early AIE. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrate a particular vulnerability of young adolescent males to long-lasting detrimental effects of repeated ethanol and an insensitivity of older adolescent females to the intermittent ethanol exposure paradigm.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 695: 133923, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756855

RESUMO

Peri-urban aquacultures produce nutritious food in proximity to markets, but poor surface water quality in rapidly expanding megacities threatens their success in emerging economies. Our study compared, for a wide range of parameters, water quality downstream of Bangkok with aquaculture regulations and standards. For parameters not meeting those requirements, we sought to establish whether aquaculture practice or external factors were responsible. We applied conventional and advanced methods, including micropollutant analysis, genetic markers, and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, to investigate three family-owned aquacultures spanning extensive, semi-intensive and intensive practices. Canals draining the city of Bangkok did not meet quality standards for water to be used in aquaculture, and were sources for faecal coliforms, Bacteriodes, Prevotella, Human E. coli, tetracycline resistance genes, and nitrogen into the aquaculture ponds. Because of these inputs, aquacultures suffered algae blooms, with and without fertilizer and feed addition to the ponds. The aquacultures were sources of salinity and the herbicide diuron into the canals. Diuron was detectable in shrimp, but not at a level of concern to human health. Given the extent and nature of pollution, peri-urban water policy should prioritize charging for urban wastewater treatment over water fees for small-scale agricultural users. The extensive aquaculture attenuated per year an estimated twenty population equivalents of nitrogen pollution and trillions of faecal coliform bacteria inputs from the canal. Extensive aquacultures could thus contribute to peri-urban blue-green infrastructures providing ecosystem services to the urban population such as flood risk management, food production and water pollution attenuation.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição da Água/análise , Cidades , Tailândia , Poluição da Água/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15726, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673047

RESUMO

Nucleic acid based techniques, such as quantitative PCR (qPCR) and next generation sequencing (NGS), provide new insights into microbial water quality, but considerable uncertainty remains around their correct interpretation. We demonstrate, for different water sources in informal settlements in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, significant Spearman rank correlations between conventional and molecular microbiology methods that indicate faecal contamination. At family and genera level, 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing results obtained with the low-cost, portable next generation sequencer MinION from Oxford Nanopore Technologies had significant Spearman rank correlations with Illumina MiSeq sequencing results. However, method validation by amplicon sequencing of a MOCK microbial community revealed the need to ascertain MinION sequencing results for putative pathogens at species level with complementary qPCR assays. Vibrio cholerae hazards were poorly associated with plate count faecal coliforms, but flagged up by the MinION screening method, and confirmed by a qPCR assay. Plate counting methods remain important to assess viability of faecal coliforms in disinfected water sources. We outline a systematic approach for data collection and interpretation of such complementary results. In the Kathmandu Valley, there is high variability of water quality from different sources, including for treated water samples, illustrating the importance of disinfection at the point of use.

6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(22): 13201-13208, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657903

RESUMO

Biodegradation of hydrophobic organic contaminants by bacteria has been widely studied, but how dissolved organic matter (DOM) may affect their removal if accumulated on biochars is poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, microbial mineralization of phenanthrene (PHE) spiked on various biochars by Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 in the presence of humic acid (HA, a model DOM) at two concentrations was investigated. Our findings showed that HA greatly increased the rate and extent of PHE mineralization. This could be attributed to enhanced PHE desorption by HA, which facilitated access to it by bacteria in the aqueous phase. Furthermore, the high HA affinity for PHE facilitated PHE flow toward the bacterial cells with HA acting as a carrier in the aqueous phase. The mineralization enhancement of PHE by HA within 480 h was negatively influenced by the aromatic carbon contents and micropore volumes in biochars. This shows the importance of the physicochemical properties of biochars in altering the HA effect. Results of this study provide novel information on how to achieve complete removal of PHE accumulated on biochars with a strong sorption affinity for it, using a microbial technique and natural DOM.


Assuntos
Substâncias Húmicas , Fenantrenos , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal
7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9967, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292461

RESUMO

Quantitative predictions of impacts on public water supplies are essential for planning climate change adaptations. Monitoring data from five full-scale Scottish drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) showed that significant correlations exist between conditionally carcinogenic trihalomethanes (THMs) levels, water temperature (r = 0.812, p = 0.0013) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (r = 0.892, p < 0.0001), respectively. The strong seasonality of these parameters demonstrated how climate can influence THMs formation. We quantified with laboratory experiments the sensitivity of THMs formation to changes in water temperature and DOC concentration. The laboratory data accurately reproduced real-world THM formation in the DWTPs. We then combined these validated relationships with information from the literature about future trends in mean summer temperatures and surface water DOC in the British Isles, to estimate future global warming impacts on THMs formation in DWTPs that use chlorine for disinfection. An increase in mean summer temperatures will likely increase THM formation, with a 1.8 °C temperature increase and 39% THMs increase by 2050 representing our mid-range scenario. Such an increase has major implications to potable water around the world, either an increased health risk or increased water treatment costs to maintain an equivalent quality potable supply.

8.
Water Res ; 160: 278-287, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154125

RESUMO

Quantitative Structure Biodegradation Relationships (QSBRs) are a tool to predict the biodegradability of chemicals. The objective of this work was to generate reliable biodegradation data for mono-aromatic chemicals in order to evaluate and verify previously developed QSBRs models. A robust biodegradation test method was developed to estimate specific substrate utilization rates, which were used as a proxy for biodegradation rates of chemicals in pure culture. Five representative mono-aromatic chemicals were selected that spanned a wide range of biodegradability. Aerobic biodegradation experiments were performed for each chemical in batch reactors seeded with known degraders. Chemical removal, degrader growth and CO2 production were monitored over time. Experimental data were interpreted using a full carbon mass balance model, and Monod kinetic parameters (Y, Ks, qmax and µmax) for each chemical were determined. In addition, stoichiometric equations for aerobic mineralization of the test chemicals were developed. The theoretically estimated biomass and CO2 yields were similar to those experimentally observed; 35% (s.d ±â€¯8%) of the recovered substrate carbon was converted to biomass, and 65% (s.d ±â€¯8%) was mineralised to CO2. Significant correlations were observed between the experimentally determined specific substrate utilization rates, as represented by qmax and qmax/Ks, at high and low substrate concentrations, respectively, and the first order biodegradation rate constants predicted by a previous QSBR study. Similarly, the correlation between qmax and selected molecular descriptors characterizing the chemicals structure in a previous QSBR study was also significant. These results suggest that QSBR models can be reliable and robust in prioritising chemical half-lives for regulatory screening purposes.


Assuntos
Carbono , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Cinética
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(10): 5707-5716, 2019 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046252

RESUMO

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have huge industrial potential, and their environmental impacts need to be evaluated. Knowledge of CNT impacts on soil microbial communities is still limited. To address this knowledge gap, we systematically examined dynamic effects of one type of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWs) and three multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWs) with different outer diameters on the soil bacterial community in an agricultural soil over 56 days. The results showed that SWs differently affected soil bacterial abundance, diversity, and composition as compared to MWs. The differences could have resulted from the materials' distinct physical structure and surface composition, which in turn affected their bioavailability in soil. For certain treatments, soil bacterial diversity and the relative abundance of certain predominant phyla were correlated with their exposure duration. However, many phyla recovered to their initial relative abundance within 56 days, reflecting resilience of the soil bacterial community in response to CNT-induced disturbance. Further analysis at the genus level showed differential tolerance to MWs, as well as size- and dose-dependent tolerance among bacterial genera. Predictive functional profiling showed that while CNTs initially caused fluctuations in microbial community function, community function largely converged across all treatments by the end of the 56 day exposure.


Assuntos
Nanotubos de Carbono , Poluentes do Solo , Bactérias , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
10.
Water Res ; 157: 181-190, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953853

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to develop a QSBR model for the prioritization of organic pollutants based on biodegradation rates from a database containing globally harmonized biodegradation tests using relevant molecular descriptors. To do this, we first categorized the chemicals into three groups (Group 1: simple aromatic chemicals with a single ring, Group 2: aromatic chemicals with multiple rings and Group3: Group 1 plus Group 2) based on molecular descriptors, estimated the first order biodegradation rate of the chemicals using rating values derived from the BIOWIN3 model, and finally developed, validated and defined the applicability domain of models for each group using a multiple linear regression approach. All the developed QSBR models complied with OECD principles for QSAR validation. The biodegradation rate in the models for the two groups (Group 2 and 3 chemicals) are associated with abstract molecular descriptors that provide little relevant practical information towards understanding the relationship between chemical structure and biodegradation rates. However, molecular descriptors associated with the QSBR model for Group 1 chemicals (R2 = 0.89, Q2loo = 0.87) provided information on properties that can readily be scrutinised and interpreted in relation to biodegradation processes. In combination, these results lead to the conclusion that QSBRs can be an alternative tool to estimate the persistence of chemicals, some of which can provide further insights into those factors affecting biodegradation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Modelos Lineares , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade
11.
Neuropharmacology ; 150: 153-163, 2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926450

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence indicates that exposure to general anesthetics during infancy and childhood can cause persistent cognitive impairment, alterations in synaptic plasticity, and, to a lesser extent, increased incidence of behavioral disorders. Unfortunately, the developmental parameters of susceptibility to general anesthetics are not well understood. Adolescence is a critical developmental period wherein multiple late developing brain regions may also be vulnerable to enduring general anesthetic effects. Given the breadth of the adolescent age span, this group potentially represents millions more individuals than those exposed during early childhood. In this study, isoflurane exposure within a well-characterized adolescent period in Sprague-Dawley rats elicited immediate and persistent anxiety- and impulsive-like responding, as well as delayed cognitive impairment into adulthood. These behavioral abnormalities were paralleled by atypical dendritic spine morphology in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HPC), suggesting delayed anatomical maturation, and shifts in inhibitory function that suggest hypermaturation of extrasynaptic GABAA receptor inhibition. Preventing this hypermaturation of extrasynaptic GABAA receptor-mediated function in the PFC selectively reversed enhanced impulsivity resulting from adolescent isoflurane exposure. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the developmental window for susceptibility to enduring untoward effects of general anesthetics may be much longer than previously appreciated, and those effects may include affective behaviors in addition to cognition.


Assuntos
Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Anestésicos Gerais/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoflurano/farmacologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Espinhas Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Exploratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Impulsivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Piramidais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
12.
J Sport Rehabil ; 28(4): 395-398, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30040035

RESUMO

Context: Core stability is considered critical for the successful execution of rehabilitative and athletic tasks. Although no consensus definition exists, different components related to core stability have been identified. An important component is the domain of motor control. There are few clinical tests assessing the motor control component of core stability (MCCS). Objective: To evaluate the interrater reliability and known-groups validity of a novel test of MCCS, the in-line half-kneeling test. The test is aimed at assessing MCCS by challenging the ability to maintain a static position with minimized contributions from the distal extremities over a minimized base of support. Design: Cross-sectional group comparison study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 75 participants (25 individuals with a history of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, 25 uninjured Division 1 collegiate athletes, and 25 uninjured controls) were recruited from a university community. Intervention: Participants were video recorded while performing the in-line half-kneeling test for 120 seconds bilaterally. Three observers independently viewed each video to determine if individuals broke form during each test using 2 dichotomous criteria. Main Outcome Measures: Cohen's kappa was used to assess interrater reliability, and chi-square tests of independence were used to compare break rates between groups. Results: Good-to-excellent interrater reliability (.732-.973) was seen between the 3 observers. Chi-square tests of independence revealed different break rates between all 3 groups. Compared to break rate for the reference control group (11/25-44%), those with a history of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction broke at a higher rate (18/25-72%), whereas the uninjured collegiate athletes broke at a lower rate (4/25-16%). Conclusions: The in-line half-kneeling test is a reliable test between raters that can differentiate between groups expected to differ in MCCS.


Assuntos
Músculos Abdominais/fisiologia , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Força Muscular , Postura , Atletas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tronco , Adulto Jovem
13.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(12)2018 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563235

RESUMO

With a novel Freeze Foaming method, it is possible to manufacture porous cellular components whose structure and composition also enables them for application as artificial bones, among others. To tune the foam properties to our needs, we have to understand the principles of the foaming process and how the relevant process parameters and the foam's structure are linked. Using in situ analysis methods, like X-ray microcomputed tomography (µCT), the foam structure and its development can be observed and correlated to its properties. For this purpose, a device was designed at the Institute of Lightweight Engineering and Polymer Technology (ILK). Due to varying suspension temperature and the rate of pressure decrease it was possible to analyze the foam's developmental stages for the first time. After successfully identifying the mechanism of foam creation and cell structure formation, process routes for tailored foams can be developed in future.

14.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 235(10): 3065-3077, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30141056

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure (AIE) produces lasting, sex-specific social anxiety-like alterations in male, but not female rats. Oxytocin (OXT) and vasopressin (AVP) brain systems play opposite roles in regulating social preference/avoidance, with OXT increasing approach to, and AVP increasing avoidance of social stimuli. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that social anxiety-like alterations seen in adult males after AIE are associated with a shift in the balance between OXT and AVP toward AVP, effectiveness of pharmacological activation of the OXT system and blockade of endogenous activity at AVP receptors for reversing AIE-induced social anxiety-like alterations was assessed, along with examination of the effects of AIE on OXT, vasopressin V1a, and V1b receptor (OXT-R, V1a-R, and V1b-R) surface expression in the hypothalamus. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley male and female rats were given 4 g/kg ethanol (AIE) or water intragastrically every 48 h for a total of 11 exposures during postnatal days (P) 25-45. On P70-72, animals were given a social interaction test following administration of a selective OXT-R agonist WAY-267464, selective V1a-R antagonist SR-49059, or V1b-R antagonist SSR-149415, and hypothalamic tissue was collected. RESULTS: Social anxiety-like behavior was induced by AIE in males but not females, and was selectively reversed by the selective OXT-R agonist and V1b-R antagonist, but not V1a-R antagonist. AIE was also found to decrease OXT-R, but increase V1b-R neuronal surface expression relative to water-exposed controls in the hypothalamus of males, but not females. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that AIE induces changes in OXT-R and AVP-R surface expression in the hypothalamus along with social anxiety-like alterations in male rats. These social anxiety-like alterations can be reversed either by activation of the OXT system or by suppression of the AVP system, data that support the hypothesis that social anxiety-like alterations induced by adolescent alcohol exposure in male rats are associated at least in part with an OXT/AVP imbalance.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Etanol/farmacologia , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Comportamento Social , Vasopressinas/farmacologia , Animais , Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Vasopressinas/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais
15.
Water Res ; 143: 66-76, 2018 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29940363

RESUMO

Rapid quantification of absolute microbial cell abundances is important for a comprehensive interpretation of microbiome surveys and crucial to support theoretical modelling and the design of engineered systems. In this paper, we propose a protocol specifically optimised for the quantification of microbial abundances in water biofilters using flow cytometry (FCM). We optimised cell detachment from sand biofilter particles for FCM quantification through the evaluation of five chemical dispersants (NaCl, Triton-X100, CaCl2, sodium pyrophosphate (PP), Tween 80 combined with PP), different mechanical pre-treatments (low and high energy sonication and shaking) and two fixation methods (glutaraldehyde and ethanol). The developed protocol was cross-compared using other established and commonly employed methods for biomass quantification in water filter samples (adenosine triphosphate (ATP) quantification, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and volatile solids (VS)). The highest microbial count was obtained by detaching the biofilm from biofilter grains and dispersing clusters into singles cells using Tween 80 and sodium pyrophosphate combined with four steps of high energy sonication (27W, for 80 s each step); glutaraldehyde was shown to be the best fixative solution. The developed protocol was reliable and highly reproducible and produced results that are comparable to data from alternative quantification methods. Indeed, high correlations were found with trends obtained through ATP and qPCR (ρ = 0.98 and ρ = 0.91) measurements. The VS content was confirmed as an inaccurate method to express biomass in sand samples since it correlated poorly with all the other three methods (ρ = 0.005 with FCM, 0.002 with ATP and 0.177 with qPCR). FCM and ATP showed the strongest agreement between absolute counts with a slope of the correlation equal to 0.7, while qPCR seemed to overestimate cell counts by a factor of ten. The rapidity and reproducibility of the method developed make its application ideal for routine quantification of microbial cell abundances on sand from water biofilters and thus useful in revealing the ecological patterns and quantifying the metabolic kinetics involved in such systems.


Assuntos
Filtração/instrumentação , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Microbiologia da Água , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomassa , Água Potável/metabolismo , Octoxinol/farmacologia , Polissorbatos/farmacologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Purificação da Água/instrumentação , Purificação da Água/métodos
16.
United European Gastroenterol J ; 6(3): 337-342, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29774146

RESUMO

Lower gastrointestinal bleeding is common and occurs often in elderly patients. In rare cases it is associated with hemorrhagic shock. A large number of such bleedings, which are often caused by colon diverticula, subside spontaneously. Alternatively they can be treated by endoscopic procedures successfully. Given the aging population of our society, the rising incidence of lower gastrointestinal tract bleeding and new anticoagulant therapies, some of the bleedings tend to be severe. Colonoscopy is the established standard procedure for the diagnosis and treatment of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. However, a small number of patients experience re-bleeding or shock; their bleeding does not resolve spontaneously and cannot be treated successfully by endoscopic procedures. In such patients, interventional radiology is very useful for the detection of bleeding and the achievement of hemostasis. Against this background we performed a literature search using PubMed to identify all relevant studies focused on the endoscopic and radiological management of lower gastrointestinal bleeding and present recent conclusions on the subject.

17.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2018 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29630588

RESUMO

Werner, DM and Barrios, JA. Trunk muscle endurance in individuals with and without a history of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is one of the most common knee injuries and often leads to surgery. Second injury after an ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is a major risk after rehabilitation, and may be linked to persistent postoperative deficits in muscular strength and endurance. Trunk muscle endurance has not been well studied after ACLR. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare trunk endurance using the established McGill testing battery in 20 individuals who had previously undergone ACLR at least 1 year before with 20 controls matched for sex frequency, limb dominance, age, body mass index, and activity level. Four static positional holds to failure were performed in random order, with time in seconds recorded as the primary dependent variable. Mann-Whitney U tests using an alpha level of 0.05 were conducted comparing hold times for all positions between groups. Effect sizes were also calculated between groups. Deficits in trunk extension endurance were observed in the surgical group. The results of this study suggest that contemporary rehabilitation schemes after ACLR do not fully address trunk endurance deficits. Health care professionals delivering postoperative rehabilitation after ACLR may consider direct assessment of trunk endurance and targeted exercise training to address potential deficits.

18.
Bioresour Technol ; 258: 208-219, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29525596

RESUMO

The effects of temperature reduction (from 35 °C to 20 °C) on nitrogen removal performance and microbial diversity of an anammox sequencing batch reactor were evaluated. The reactor was fed for 148 days with anaerobically pretreated municipal wastewater amended with nitrite. On average, removal efficiencies of ammonium and nitrite were high (96%) during the enrichment period and phases 1 (at 35 °C) and 2 (at 25 °C), and slightly decreased (to 90%) when the reactor was operated at 20 °C. Deep sequencing analysis revealed that microbial community structure changed with temperature decrease. Anammox bacteria (Ca. Brocadia and Ca. Anammoximicrobium) and denitrifiers (Burkholderiales, Myxococcales, Rhodocyclales, Xanthomonadales, and Pseudomonadales) were favoured when the temperature was lowered from 35 °C to 25 °C, while Anaerolineales and Clostridiales were negatively affected. The results support the feasibility of using the anammox process for mainstream nitrogen removal from anaerobically pretreated municipal wastewater at typical tropical temperatures.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Purificação da Água , Anaerobiose , Desnitrificação , Nitrogênio , Oxirredução , Temperatura Ambiente , Águas Residuárias
19.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 37(7): 2013-2021, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29521428

RESUMO

We evaluated bioturbation as a facilitator for in situ treatment with a thin layer of activated carbon to treat dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-contaminated sediment and contaminant influx by sediment deposition. Using the freshwater worm Lumbriculus variegatus as a bioturbator, microcosm time-series studies were conducted for 4 mo and monitored for DDT flux and porewater concentration profiles by polyethylene passive samplers. With bioturbators present, the thin-layer activated carbon amendment reduced DDT flux by >90% compared with the same simulated scenario without activated carbon amendment. In contrast, a clean sediment cap without activated carbon was ineffective in reducing flux when bioturbation was present. In simulated scenarios with contaminant influx through deposition of contaminated sediment, bioturbation facilitated in situ activated carbon treatment, reducing 4-mo DDT flux by 77% compared with the same scenario without bioturbation. Porewater concentration profiles and activated carbon dose profiles confirmed effective mixing of activated carbon particles down to 1-cm depth. A mass transfer model was developed to predict flux with consideration of bioturbation and sediment deposition processes. Predicted flux values were consistent with experimental results and confirm that bioturbation activity helps reduce DDT sediment-to-water fluxes in activated carbon-treated sediment with recontamination by contaminated sediment deposition. To our knowledge, this is the first study to combine experimental and modeling results showing how bioturbation enhances activated carbon amendment effectiveness against ongoing contaminant influx by sediment deposition. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:2013-2021. © 2018 SETAC.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , DDT/isolamento & purificação , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Animais , DDT/toxicidade , Água Doce , Modelos Teóricos , Oligoquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Polietileno/química , Fatores de Tempo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
20.
Int J Sports Phys Ther ; 13(1): 77-85, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29484244

RESUMO

Background: The lateral step-down test is an established clinical evaluation tool to assess quality of movement in patients with knee disorders. However, this test has not been investigated in individuals after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) in association with quantitative 3D motion analysis. Purposes: The purpose of this study was to determine the strength of association between visually-assessed quality of movement during the lateral step-down test and 3D lower limb kinematics in patients with history of ACLR. A second purpose was to compare kinematics between subgroups based on the presence or absence of faulty alignments during the task. The final purpose was to compare visually-assessed quality of movement scores between box heights during lateral step-down testing. Methods: Twenty subjects at least one year status post-ACLR (18 females, age of 24.5 ± 4.6 years and body mass index of 23.4 ± 2.3 kg/m2) performed the lateral step-down test unilaterally on the surgical limb atop four and six inch boxes. A board-certified orthopedic physical therapist scored overall quality of movement during the lateral step-down test using established criteria during 2D video playback. Lower limb kinematics were simultaneously collected using 3D motion capture. An alpha level of 0.05 was used for all statistical treatments. Results: Overall 2D quality of movement score significantly correlated (r =0.47-0.57) with 3D hip adduction and hip internal rotation across box heights. Across box heights, the presence of faulty pelvic alignment differentiated a subgroup exhibiting less peak knee flexion, and the presence of faulty knee alignment differentiated a subgroup exhibiting greater peak hip adduction. The six inch box elicited worse quality of movement compared to the four inch box. Conclusions: These results suggest that visually-assessed quality of movement is associated with several kinematic variables after ACLR. 2D movement deviations at the pelvis appear to consistently relate to less knee flexion, and 2D deviations at the knee appear to suggest greater hip adduction. Generally, poorer quality of movement was observed for the six inch box height. Clinically, these data suggest that interventions targeting hip abductor and knee extensor strength and neuromuscular control may be useful in the presence of poor quality of movement during lateral step-down testing. Level of Evidence: 2b.

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