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1.
Prostate ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted radioligand therapy (RLT) may be associated with renal toxicity. We aimed to identify predictive parameters for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) undergoing RLT. METHODS: In 46 mCRPC patients scheduled for Lu-177-PSMA-RLT, pretherapeutic estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR [ml/min/1.73 m2 ]), Tc-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (Tc-99m-MAG3) clearance and baseline Ga-68-PSMA-ligand positron emission tomography (PET)-derived renal cortical uptake and PSMA-tumor volume (TV) were determined. We tested the predictive capability of these parameters and clinical risk factors for the occurrence of CKD (defined as CTCAE vers. 5.0 grade 2 or higher) during follow-up. RESULTS: After 4 ± 3 cycles of RLT average eGFR declined from 76 ± 17 to 72 ± 20 ml/min/1.73 m2 (p = 0.003). Increased estimated renal radiation dose (eRRD) was significantly associated with renal functional decline (p = 0.008). During follow-up, 16/46 (30.4%) developed CKD grade 2 (no grade 3 or higher). In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, pretherapeutic eGFR was highly accurate in identifying the occurrence of CKD vs no CKD with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.945 (p < 0.001; best threshold, 77 ml/min/1.73 m2 ), followed by Tc-99m-MAG3-derived tubular extraction rate (TER; AUC, 0.831, p < 0.001; best threshold, 200 ml/min/1.73 m2 ). Renal PET signal (p = 0.751) and PSMA-TV (p = 0.942), however, were not predictive. Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed adverse renal outcome for patients with lower eGFR (p = 0.001) and lower scintigraphy-derived TER (p = 0.009), with pretherapeutic eGFR emerging as the sole predictive parameter in multivariate analysis (p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: Serious adverse renal events are not a frequent phenomenon after PSMA-targeted RLT. However, in patients developing moderate CKD after RLT, pretherapeutic eGFR is an independent predictor for renal impairment during follow-up.

3.
Theranostics ; 11(16): 7984-7994, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335975

RESUMO

Rationale: Acute myocardial infarction (MI) triggers a systemic inflammatory response including crosstalk along the heart-kidney axis. We employed radionuclide-based inflammation-targeted whole-body molecular imaging to identify potential cardio-renal crosstalk after MI in a translational setup. Methods: Serial whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) with the specific CXCR4 ligand 68Ga-Pentixafor was performed after MI in mice. Tracer retention in kidneys and heart was compared to hematopoietic organs to evaluate systemic inflammation, validated by ex vivo analysis and correlated with progressive contractile dysfunction. Additionally, 96 patients underwent 68Ga-Pentixafor PET within the first week after MI, for systems-based image analysis and to determine prognostic value for adverse renal outcome. Results: In mice, transient myocardial CXCR4 upregulation occurred early after MI. Cardiac and renal PET signal directly correlated over the time course (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001), suggesting an inflammatory link between organs. Ex-vivo autoradiography (r = 0.9, p < 0.01) and CD68 immunostaining indicated signal localization to inflammatory cell content. Renal signal at 7d was inversely proportional to left ventricular ejection fraction at 6 weeks after MI (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). In patients, renal CXCR4 signal also correlated with signal from infarct (r = 0.25, p < 0.05) and remote myocardium (r = 0.39, p < 0.0001). Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was available in 48/96 (50%) during follow-up. Worsening of renal function (GFR loss >5 mL/min/1.73m2), occurred a mean 80.5 days after MI in 16/48 (33.3%). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed adverse renal outcome for patients with elevated remote myocardial CXCR4 signal (p < 0.05). Multivariate Cox analysis confirmed an independent predictive value (relative to baseline GFR, LVEF, infarct size; HR, 5.27). Conclusion: Systems-based CXCR4-targeted molecular imaging identifies inflammatory crosstalk along the cardio-renal axis early after MI.


Assuntos
Coração/fisiopatologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Animais , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Peptídeos Cíclicos/farmacologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Receptores CXCR4/metabolismo , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia , Imagem Corporal Total/métodos
4.
J Nucl Med ; 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413147

RESUMO

The chemokine receptor CXCR4, which is overexpressed in many solid and hematologic malignancies, can be targeted for radiopeptide therapy via the antagonist Pentixather®. Biokinetics and dosimetry of 177Lu-Pentixather and 90Y-Pentixather were analyzed. Methods: This retrospective study is a standardized reevaluation of data collected for treatment planning. Nineteen patients with complete sets of planar whole-body scans over at least four days and a single SPECT/CT after 200 MBq 177Lu-Pentixather were included. Kinetics were measured in the whole body, in tissues with activity retention, and in 10 individuals in the blood. Time-integrated activity coefficients and tissue absorbed doses were derived. Results: Increased uptake of Pentixather was observed in kidneys, liver, spleen, and bone marrow, inducing median (minimum-maximum) absorbed doses of 0.91 (0.38-3.47), 0.71 (0.39-1.17), 0.58 (0.34-2.26), and 0.47 (0.14-2.33) Gy per GBq 177Lu-Pentixather and 3.75 (1.48-12.2), 1.61 (1.14-2.97), 1.66 (0.97-6.69), and 1.06 (0.27-4.45) Gy per GBq 90Y-Pentixather, respectively. In most tissues, activity increased during the first day after the administration of 177Lu-Pentixather and afterwards decayed with mean effective half-lives of 41 ± 10 (range: 24-64) hours in kidneys and median half-lives of 109, 86, and 92 hours in liver, spleen, and bone marrow, respectively. Maximum uptake per kidney was 2.2% ± 1.0% (range: 0.6%-5.1%). In organs showing no specific uptake, absorbed doses exceeding 0.3 Gy per GBq 90Y-Pentixather are estimated for the urinary bladder and for tissues adjacent to accumulating organs such as the adrenal glands, bone surface, and gallbladder. Dose estimates for tumors and extramedullary lesions ranged from 1.5 to 18.2 Gy per GBq 90Y-Pentixather. Conclusion: In patients with hematologic neoplasms, absorbed doses calculated for bone marrow and extramedullary lesions are sufficient to be effective as an adjunct to high-dose chemotherapies prior to stem cell transplantation.

5.
Radiol Clin North Am ; 59(5): 801-811, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392920

RESUMO

The role of PET imaging with 11C-choline and 18F-fluciclovine in evaluating patients with prostate cancer (PCa) has become more important over the years and has been incorporated into the NCCN guidelines. A new generation of PET radiotracers targeting the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is widely used outside the United States to evaluate patients with primary PCa and PCa recurrence. PET imaging influences treatment planning and demonstrates a significantly higher disease detection rate than conventional imaging such as computed tomography and MR imaging. Early data indicate that using PET radiotracers such as 18F-fluciclovine and PSMA improves patient outcomes. 68-Ga-PSMA-11 and 18F-DCFPyL-PET/CT were recently approved by the US Food & Drug Administration (FDA) for clinical use. Other PSMA radiotracers, including fluorinated variants, will likely gain FDA approval in the not-too-distant future.


Assuntos
Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/tendências , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Ácidos Carboxílicos , Ciclobutanos , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Antígeno Prostático Específico , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10896, 2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34035416

RESUMO

Stem cell therapy holds great promise for tissue regeneration and cancer treatment, although its efficacy is still inconclusive and requires further understanding and optimization of the procedures. Non-invasive cell tracking can provide an important opportunity to monitor in vivo cell distribution in living subjects. Here, using a combination of positron emission tomography (PET) and in vitro 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) direct cell labelling, the feasibility of engrafted stem cell monitoring was tested in multiple animal species. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were incubated with phosphate-buffered saline containing [18F]FDG for in vitro cell radiolabelling. The pre-labelled MSCs were administrated via peripheral vein in a mouse (n = 1), rats (n = 4), rabbits (n = 4) and non-human primates (n = 3), via carotid artery in rats (n = 4) and non-human primates (n = 3), and via intra-myocardial injection in rats (n = 5). PET imaging was started 10 min after cell administration using a dedicated small animal PET system for a mouse and rats. A clinical PET system was used for the imaging of rabbits and non-human primates. After MSC administration via peripheral vein, PET imaging revealed intense radiotracer signal from the lung in all tested animal species including mouse, rat, rabbit, and non-human primate, suggesting administrated MSCs were trapped in the lung tissue. Furthermore, the distribution of the PET signal significantly differed based on the route of cell administration. Administration via carotid artery showed the highest activity in the head, and intra-myocardial injection increased signal from the heart. In vitro [18F]FDG MSC pre-labelling for PET imaging is feasible and allows non-invasive visualization of initial cell distribution after different routes of cell administration in multiple animal models. Those results highlight the potential use of that imaging approach for the understanding and optimization of stem cell therapy in translational research.

8.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 48(12): 4077-4088, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041564

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Hematotoxicity is a potentially dose-limiting adverse event in patients with metastasized castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) undergoing prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-directed radioligand therapy (RLT). We aimed to identify clinical or PSMA-targeted imaging-derived parameters to predict hematological adverse events at early and late stages in the treatment course. METHODS: In 67 patients with mCRPC scheduled for 177Lu-PSMA-617 RLT, pretherapeutic osseous tumor volume (TV) from 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT and laboratory values were assessed. We then tested the predictive capability of these parameters for early and late hematotoxicity (according to CTCAE vers. 5.0) after one cycle of RLT and in a subgroup of 32/67 (47.8%) patients after four cycles of RLT. RESULTS: After one cycle, 10/67 (14.9%) patients developed leukocytopenia (lymphocytopenia, 39/67 [58.2%]; thrombocytopenia, 17/67 [25.4%]). A cut-off of 5.6 × 103/mm3 for baseline leukocytes was defined by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and separated between patients with and without leukocytopenia (P < 0.001). Baseline leukocyte count emerged as a stronger predictive factor in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio [HR], 33.94, P = 0.001) relative to osseous TV (HR, 14.24, P = 0.01). After four cycles, 4/32 (12.5%) developed leukocytopenia and the pretherapeutic leukocyte cut-off (HR, 9.97, P = 0.082) tended to predict leukocytopenia better than TV (HR, 8.37, P = 0.109). In addition, a cut-off of 1.33 × 103/mm3 for baseline lymphocytes separated between patients with and without lymphocytopenia (P < 0.001), which was corroborated in multivariate analysis (HR, 21.39, P < 0.001 vs. TV, HR, 4.57, P = 0.03). After four cycles, 19/32 (59.4%) developed lymphocytopenia and the pretherapeutic cut-off for lymphocytes (HR, 46.76, P = 0.007) also demonstrated superior predictive performance for late lymphocytopenia (TV, HR, 5.15, P = 0.167). Moreover, a cut-off of 206 × 103/mm3 for baseline platelets separated between patients with and without thrombocytopenia (P < 0.001) and also demonstrated superior predictive capability in multivariate analysis (HR, 115.02, P < 0.001 vs.TV, HR, 12.75, P = 0.025). After four cycles, 9/32 (28.1%) developed thrombocytopenia and the pretherapeutic cut-off for platelets (HR, 5.44, P = 0.048) was also superior for the occurrence of late thrombocytopenia (TV, HR, 1.44, P = 0.7). CONCLUSIONS: Pretherapeutic leukocyte, lymphocyte, and platelet levels themselves are strong predictors for early and late hematotoxicity under PSMA-directed RLT, and are better suited than PET-based osseous TV for this purpose.

9.
Theranostics ; 11(12): 6105-6119, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33897902

RESUMO

In recent years, a paradigm shift from single-photon-emitting radionuclide radiotracers toward positron-emission tomography (PET) radiotracers has occurred in nuclear oncology. Although PET-based molecular imaging of the kidneys is still in its infancy, such a trend has emerged in the field of functional renal radionuclide imaging. Potentially allowing for precise and thorough evaluation of renal radiotracer urodynamics, PET radionuclide imaging has numerous advantages including precise anatomical co-registration with CT images and dynamic three-dimensional imaging capability. In addition, relative to scintigraphic approaches, PET can allow for significantly reduced scan time enabling high-throughput in a busy PET practice and further reduces radiation exposure, which may have a clinical impact in pediatric populations. In recent years, multiple renal PET radiotracers labeled with 11C, 68Ga, and 18F have been utilized in clinical studies. Beyond providing a precise non-invasive read-out of renal function, such radiotracers may also be used to assess renal inflammation. This manuscript will provide an overview of renal molecular PET imaging and will highlight the transformation of conventional scintigraphy of the kidneys toward novel, high-resolution PET imaging for assessing renal function. In addition, future applications will be introduced, e.g. by transferring the concept of molecular image-guided diagnostics and therapy (theranostics) to the field of nephrology.


Assuntos
Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Urologia/métodos , Animais , Humanos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Radioisótopos/administração & dosagem , Cintilografia/métodos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/administração & dosagem
10.
Eur Urol ; 80(1): 82-94, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840558

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) treatment is an evolving challenge. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted endoradiotherapy/radioligand therapy (PRLT) with small-molecule, urea-based agents labeled with the ß-particle-emitting radionuclide lutetium-177 (177Lu) is a promising new approach. OBJECTIVE: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of PRLT. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic search was performed in PubMed/Medline (last updated February 18, 2019). A total of 250 studies were reviewed, and 24 studies with 1192 patients were included in the analysis. Proportions of patients with ≥50% serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decrease, any PSA decrease, and any PSA increase were extracted. Proportions of patients showing any grade toxicity and those with grade 3/4 toxicities based on Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) grading were extracted from manuscripts. Overall survival and progression-free survival were evaluated. A meta-analysis of single proportions was carried out. Furthermore, we compared the two most common PRLT agents, 177Lu-PSMA with 177Lu-PSMA-I&T, for effectiveness and toxicity. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Among the 24 included studies, 20 included data on 177Lu-PSMA-617, three included data on 177Lu-PSMA-I&T, and one study had aggregated data for 177Lu-PSMA-617 and 177Lu-PSMA-I&T. The estimated proportion of 177Lu-PSMA-617-treated patients who showed a serum PSA decrease of ≥50% with at least an 8-wk interval between therapy and PSA measurement was 0.44 (0.39; 0.50). Therapy with 177Lu-PSMA-I&T demonstrated an estimated proportion of patients with ≥50% PSA reduction to be 0.36 (0.26; 0.47). The aggregate results for men treated with more than one cycle of any kind of PRLT showed an estimated proportion of 0.46 (0.41; 0.51) for PSA response ≥50%. Regarding aggregate data from all of the PRLT agents, we found that grade 3 and 4 toxicities were uncommon, with estimated proportions from 0.01 (0.00;0.04) for nausea, fatigue, diarrhea, and elevated aspartate transaminase up to 0.08 (0.05; 0.12) for anemia. There was considerable heterogeneity among the studies in the "any-grade toxicity" groups. Meta-regression showed that more than one cycle of PRLT is associated with a greater proportion of patients with ≥50% PSA reduction. Overall survival according to pooled hazard ratios (HRs) for any PSA decline was 0.29 (0.18; 0.46), and for >50% PSA reduction was 0.67 (0.43; 1.07). Progression-free survival according to a pooled HR of >50% PSA reduction was 0.53 (0.32; 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: The relatively high number of PSA responders alongside the low rate of severe toxicity reflects the potentially promising role of PRLT in treating CRPC. The ultimate utility of this treatment modality will become clearer as multiple prospective studies continue to accrue. In the interim, this systematic review and meta-analysis can serve as a compendium of effectiveness and adverse events associated with PRLT for treating clinicians. PATIENT SUMMARY: Prostate-specific membrane antigen-targeted endoradiotherapy/radioligand therapy (PRLT) is associated with ≥50% reduction in prostate-specific antigen level in a large number of patients and a low rate of toxicity, reflecting its potential in treating castration-resistant prostate cancer. This systematic review and meta-analysis presents as a compendium of the effectiveness and adverse events related to PRLT for treating clinicians.

11.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(4)2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805264

RESUMO

We aimed to elucidate the diagnostic potential of the C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4)-directed positron emission tomography (PET) tracer 68Ga-Pentixafor in patients with poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC), relative to the established reference standard 18F-FDG PET/computed tomography (CT). In our database, we retrospectively identified 11 treatment-naïve patients with histologically proven NEC, who underwent 18F-FDG and CXCR4-directed PET/CT for staging and therapy planning. The images were analyzed on a per-patient and per-lesion basis and compared to immunohistochemical staining (IHC) of CXCR4 from PET-guided biopsies. 68Ga-Pentixafor visualized tumor lesions in 10/11 subjects, while18F-FDG revealed sites of disease in all 11 patients. Although weak to moderate CXCR4 expression could be corroborated by IHC in 10/11 cases, 18F-FDG PET/CT detected significantly more tumor lesions (102 vs. 42; total lesions, n = 107; p < 0.001). Semi-quantitative analysis revealed markedly higher 18F-FDG uptake as compared to 68Ga-Pentixafor (maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUV) and tumor-to-background ratios (TBR) of cancerous lesions, SUVmax: 12.8 ± 9.8 vs. 5.2 ± 3.7; SUVmean: 7.4 ± 5.4 vs. 3.1 ± 3.2, p < 0.001; and, TBR 7.2 ± 7.9 vs. 3.4 ± 3.0, p < 0.001). Non-invasive imaging of CXCR4 expression in NEC is inferior to the reference standard 18F-FDG PET/CT.

12.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(7)2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to characterize γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci formation in patients receiving somatostatin receptor-targeted radioligand therapy, and explored its role for predicting treatment-related hematotoxicity, and treatment response. METHODS: A prospective analysis of double-strand break (DSB) markers was performed in 21 patients with advanced gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci formation were evaluated in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) at baseline, +1 h and +24 h after administration of 7.4 GBq (177Lu)Lu-DOTA-TATE. Hematotoxicity was evaluated using standard hematology. Therapy response was assessed using (68Ga)Ga-DOTA-TATE PET/CT before enrollment and after 2 cycles of PRRT according to the volumetric modification of RECIST 1.1. RESULTS: DSB marker kinetics were heterogeneous among patients. Subclinical hematotoxicity was associated with γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci formation (e.g., change in platelet count vs change in γ-H2AX+ cells between baseline and +1 h (r = -0.6080; p = 0.0045). Patients showing early development of new metastases had less γ-H2AX (p = 0.0125) and less 53BP1 foci per cell at +1 h (p = 0.0289), and demonstrated a distinct kinetic pattern with an absence of DSB marker decrease at +24 h (γ-H2AX: p = 0.0025; 53BP1: p = 0.0008). CONCLUSIONS: Assessment of γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci formation in PBLs of patients receiving radioligand therapy may hold promise for predicting subclinical hematotoxicity and early treatment response.

13.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809226

RESUMO

Tumor microenvironment inflammation contributes to the proliferation and survival of malignant cells, angiogenesis, metastasis, subversion of adaptive immunity, and reduced treatment response. We aimed to evaluate the early predictive and prognostic significance of markers of systemic inflammation in patients receiving somatostatin-receptor targeted peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). This retrospective observational cohort study included 33 patients with advanced gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) treated with PRRT. Pretreatment blood-based inflammatory biomarkers, e.g., C-reactive protein levels (CRP), white blood cell count (WBC), and absolute neutrophil count (ANC), were documented and inflammation indexes, e.g., neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and Platelet × CRP multiplier (PCM), were calculated. Tumor burden was determined using [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-TATE PET/CT before enrollment and every 2 cycles thereafter until progression. Therapy response was assessed using RECIST 1.1, including its volumetric modification. Inflammatory biomarkers and inflammatory indexes demonstrated marked heterogeneity among patients, and were significantly higher in non-responders (e.g., CRP (p < 0.001), ANC (p = 0.002), and PCM (p < 0.001)). Change in whole-body tumor burden after two cycles of PRRT was significantly associated with CRP (p = 0.0157) and NLR (p = 0.0040) in multivariate regression analysis. A cut-off of 2.5 mg/L for CRP (AUC = 0.84, p = 0.001) revealed a significant outcome difference between patients with adversely high vs. low CRP (median PFS 508 days vs. not yet reached (HR = 4.52; 95% CI, 1.27 to 16.18; p = 0.02)). Tumor-driven systemic inflammatory networks may be associated with treatment response, change in tumor burden, and prognosis in patients with GEP-NETs receiving PRRT.

14.
J Nucl Med ; 62(6): 823-828, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127624

RESUMO

Accurate delineation of the intraprostatic gross tumor volume (GTV) is a prerequisite for treatment approaches in patients with primary prostate cancer (PCa). Prostate-specific membrane antigen PET (PSMA PET) may outperform MRI in GTV detection. However, visual GTV delineation underlies interobserver heterogeneity and is time consuming. The aim of this study was to develop a convolutional neural network (CNN) for automated segmentation of intraprostatic tumor (GTV-CNN) in PSMA PET. Methods: The CNN (3D U-Net) was trained on the 68Ga-PSMA PET images of 152 patients from 2 different institutions, and the training labels were generated manually using a validated technique. The CNN was tested on 2 independent internal (cohort 1: 68Ga-PSMA PET, n = 18 and cohort 2: 18F-PSMA PET, n = 19) and 1 external (cohort 3: 68Ga-PSMA PET, n = 20) test datasets. Accordance between manual contours and GTV-CNN was assessed with the Dice-Sørensen coefficient (DSC). Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for the 2 internal test datasets (cohort 1: n = 18, cohort 2: n = 11) using whole-mount histology. Results: The median DSCs for cohorts 1-3 were 0.84 (range: 0.32-0.95), 0.81 (range: 0.28-0.93), and 0.83 (range: 0.32-0.93), respectively. Sensitivities and specificities for the GTV-CNN were comparable with manual expert contours: 0.98 and 0.76 (cohort 1) and 1 and 0.57 (cohort 2), respectively. Computation time was around 6 s for a standard dataset. Conclusion: The application of a CNN for automated contouring of intraprostatic GTV in 68Ga-PSMA and 18F-PSMA PET images resulted in a high concordance with expert contours and in high sensitivities and specificities in comparison with histology as a reference. This robust, accurate and fast technique may be implemented for treatment concepts in primary prostate cancer. The trained model and the study's source code are available in an open source repository.

15.
Ann Nucl Med ; 35(1): 132-138, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174144

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The interplay between systemic inflammation, activity of lymphoid organs and lymphoma activity in CD19-targeting chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-cell immunotherapy, and its significance for response and toxicity, is not well defined. METHODS: Using serial 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), metabolic parameters of lymphoma and lymphoid organs were analyzed in ten patients receiving Tisagenlecleucel (an autologous CD19 CAR-T cell product) for relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The prevalence and severity of toxicity (e.g., neurotoxicity) were noted. RESULTS: Achieving remission required early metabolic response (P = 0.0476). Early suppression of metabolic activity of lymphoid organs (spleen, P = 0.0368; lymph nodes, P = 0.0470) was associated with poor outcome. Lymphoma metabolic activity was significantly higher in patients with neurotoxicity (P = 0.0489). CONCLUSIONS: Early metabolic changes in lymphoma lesions and off-target lymphoid organs parallel medium-term response to CAR-T-cell therapy. PET can identify patients at risk for severe toxicity.

16.
J Nucl Med ; 62(4): 514-520, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859702

RESUMO

Recently, a standardized framework system for interpreting somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-targeted PET/CT, termed the SSTR reporting and data system (RADS) 1.0, was introduced, providing reliable standards and criteria for SSTR-targeted imaging. We determined the interobserver reliability of SSTR-RADS for interpretation of 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT scans in a multicentric, randomized setting. Methods: A set of 51 randomized 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT scans was independently assessed by 4 masked readers with different levels of experience (2 experienced readers and 2 inexperienced readers) trained on the SSTR-RADS 1.0 criteria (based on a 5-point scale from 1 [definitively benign] to 5 [high certainty that neuroendocrine neoplasia is present]). For each scan, SSTR-RADS scores were assigned to a maximum of 5 target lesions (TLs). An overall scan impression based on SSTR-RADS was indicated, and interobserver agreement rates on a TL-based, on an organ-based, and on an overall SSTR-RADS score-based level were computed. The readers were also asked to decide whether peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) should be considered on the basis of the assigned RADS scores. Results: Among the selected TLs, 153 were chosen by at least 2 readers (all 4 readers selected the same TLs in 58 of 153 [37.9%] instances). The interobserver agreement for SSTR-RADS scoring among identical TLs was good (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] ≥ 0.73 for 4, 3, and 2 identical TLs). For lymph node and liver lesions, excellent interobserver agreement rates were derived (ICC, 0.91 and 0.77, respectively). Moreover, the interobserver agreement for an overall scan impression based on SSTR-RADS was excellent (ICC, 0.88). The SSTR-RADS-based decision to use PRRT also demonstrated excellent agreement, with an ICC of 0.80. No significant differences between experienced and inexperienced readers for an overall scan impression and TL-based SSTR-RADS scoring were observed (P ≥ 0.18), thereby suggesting that SSTR-RADS seems to be readily applicable even for less experienced readers. Conclusion: SSTR-RADS-guided assessment demonstrated a high concordance rate, even among readers with different levels of experience, supporting the adoption of SSTR-RADS for trials, clinical routine, or outcome studies.


Assuntos
Octreotida/análogos & derivados , Compostos Organometálicos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Receptores de Somatostatina/metabolismo , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Padrões de Referência
17.
Clin Nucl Med ; 45(12): e521-e522, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657878

RESUMO

Gallbladder visualization represents a rare incidental finding when using somatostatin receptor-targeted SPECT radiopharmaceuticals such as In-octreotide. We present the case of a 30-year-old man with pseudomyogenic hemangioendothelioma who underwent Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT for restaging of metastatic disease and subsequent treatment with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with Lu-DOTATATE. Posttherapeutic SPECT/CT, but not pretherapeutic or posttherapeutic PET/CT, showed gallbladder visualization, evidencing Lu-DOTATATE excretion into the bile. This case highlights that biliary Lu-DOTATATE excretion may represent a rare mimicker of hepatic metastases and emphasizes the role SPECT/CT for precise anatomical correlation to avoid misinterpretation.


Assuntos
Vesícula Biliar/diagnóstico por imagem , Octreotida/análogos & derivados , Compostos Organometálicos/uso terapêutico , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Receptores de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Adulto , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Vesícula Biliar/patologia , Vesícula Biliar/efeitos da radiação , Hemangioendotelioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemangioendotelioma/patologia , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Masculino , Octreotida/metabolismo , Octreotida/uso terapêutico , Compostos Organometálicos/metabolismo
18.
Radiol Case Rep ; 15(8): 1344-1347, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617128

RESUMO

We present a case of a 53-year-old woman with metastatic neuroendocrine tumor, presumed primary in the small intestine with metastases to the liver and mesenteric lymph nodes. The patient was being treated with lanreotide and followed with somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-targeted 68Ga-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N', N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid-d-Phe(1)-Tyr(3)-octreotate (68Ga-DOTATATE) positron emission tomography - computed tomography (PET/CT). On a follow-up exam, the patient's primary and metastatic disease had improved but she had new 68Ga-DOTATATE-avid lesions in the right breast and right axilla. Subsequent breast imaging workup and biopsy demonstrated a primary breast cancer and axillary lymph node metastasis.

20.
Curr Radiopharm ; 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32368992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Positron-emission-tomography (PET) using the radiopharmaceutical 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has become an established and validated molecular imaging modality for characterization of the inflammatory activity of atherosclerotic plaque. In the latest years, new innovative radiopharmaceuticals and applications have emerged, providing specific information on atherosclerotic plaque biology, particularly focused on inflammatory processes. OBJECTIVE: To review and highlight recent evidence on the role of PET for atherosclerosis imaging using emerging radiotracers. METHODS: A comprehensive computer literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE was carried out to find relevant published articles concerning the usefulness of nuclear hybrid imaging in atherosclerosis imaging using 18F-sodium fluoride PET, CXCR4-targeted PET, and amyloid-ß-targeted PET. RESULTS: Atherosclerosis imaging with PET using emerging, specific tracers holds promise in improving our understanding of the pathophysiologic processes that underlie plaque progression and adverse cardiovascular events. There is increasing, high-quality evidence on the usefulness of 18F-sodium fluoride PET and - to a lesser extent - CXCR4-targeted PET, whereas amyloid-ß-targeted PET is still in its infancy. CONCLUSION: 18F-sodium fluoride PET, CXCR4-targeted PET and amyloid-ß-targeted PET may be used to obtain molecular information on different aspects of plaque biology. Further work is required to improve technical aspects of these imaging techniques and to elucidate their ability to predict adverse cardiac events prospectively.

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