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1.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 20(1): 5, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insufficient solubility and stability of bioactive small molecules as well as poor biocompatibility may cause low bioavailability and are common obstacles in drug development. One example of such problematic molecules is 6-bromoindirubin-3'-glycerol-oxime ether (6BIGOE), a hydrophobic indirubin derivative. 6BIGOE potently modulates the release of inflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators from isolated human monocytes through inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 in a favorable fashion. However, 6BIGOE suffers from poor solubility and short half-lives in biological aqueous environment and exerts cytotoxic effects in various mammalian cells. In order to overcome the poor water solubility, instability and cytotoxicity of 6BIGOE, we applied encapsulation into poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based nanoparticles by employing formulation methods using the sustainable solvents Cyrene™ or 400 g/mol poly(ethylene glycol) as suitable technology for efficient drug delivery of 6BIGOE. RESULTS: For all preparation techniques the physicochemical characterization of 6BIGOE-loaded nanoparticles revealed comparable crystallinity, sizes of about 230 nm with low polydispersity, negative zeta potentials around - 15 to - 25 mV, and biphasic release profiles over up to 24 h. Nanoparticles with improved cellular uptake and the ability to mask cytotoxic effects of 6BIGOE were obtained as shown in human monocytes over 48 h as well as in a shell-less hen's egg model. Intriguingly, encapsulation into these nanoparticles fully retains the anti-inflammatory properties of 6BIGOE, that is, favorable modulation of the release of inflammation-relevant cytokines and lipid mediators from human monocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Our formulation method of PLGA-based nanoparticles by applying sustainable, non-toxic solvents is a feasible nanotechnology that circumvents the poor bioavailability and biocompatibility of the cargo 6BIGOE. This technology yields favorable drug delivery systems for efficient interference with inflammatory processes, with improved pharmacotherapeutic potential.

2.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 178: 83-96, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848369

RESUMO

SCOPE: The long-chain metabolites of (LCM) vitamin E are proposed as the active regulatory metabolites of vitamin E providing, with their anti-inflammatory properties, an explanatory approach for the inconsistent effects of vitamin E on inflammatory-driven diseases. We examined the modulation of cytokine expression and release from macrophages, a fundamental process in many diseases, to gain insights into the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the α-tocopherol-derived LCM α-13'-COOH. METHODS AND RESULTS: Suppressed gene expression of C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (Ccl2), tumor necrosis factor (Tnf), and interleukin (Il) 6 in response to lipopolysaccharides by 24 h pre-treatment with α-13'-COOH in RAW264.7 macrophages was revealed using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Further, reduced secretion of IL1ß and CCL2 was found in this setup using flow cytometry. In contrast, 1 h pre-treatment suppressed only CCL2. Consequent gene expression analysis within 24 h of α-13'-COOH treatment revealed the induction of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) negative feedback regulators including the 'master regulators' dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (Dusp1/Mkp1) and tumor necrosis factor induced protein 3 (Tnfaip3/A20). Approaches with immunoblots and chemical antagonists suggest a feedback induction via activation of extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK), p38 MAPK and NFκB pathways. CONCLUSIONS: CCL2 is suppressed in murine macrophages by α-13'-COOH and the indirect suppression of MAPK and NFκB pathways is likely a relevant process contributing to anti-inflammatory actions of α-13'-COOH. These results improve the understanding of the effects of α-13'-COOH and provide a basis for new research strategies in the context of inflammatory diseases.

3.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(1): 40, 2021 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34971430

RESUMO

Leukotrienes are pro-inflammatory lipid mediators generated by 5-lipoxygenase aided by the 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP). BRP-201, a novel benzimidazole-based FLAP antagonist, inhibits leukotriene biosynthesis in isolated leukocytes. However, like other FLAP antagonists, BRP-201 fails to effectively suppress leukotriene formation in blood, which limits its therapeutic value. Here, we describe the encapsulation of BRP-201 into poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and ethoxy acetalated dextran (Ace-DEX) nanoparticles (NPs), aiming to overcome these detrimental pharmacokinetic limitations and to enhance the bioactivity of BRP-201. NPs loaded with BRP-201 were produced via nanoprecipitation and the physicochemical properties of the NPs were analyzed in-depth using dynamic light scattering (size, dispersity, degradation), electrophoretic light scattering (effective charge), NP tracking analysis (size, dispersity), scanning electron microscopy (size and morphology), UV-VIS spectroscopy (drug loading), an analytical ultracentrifuge (drug release, degradation kinetics), and Raman spectroscopy (chemical attributes). Biological assays were performed to study cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, and efficiency of BRP-201-loaded NPs versus free BRP-201 to suppress leukotriene formation in primary human leukocytes and whole blood. Both PLGA- and Ace-DEX-based NPs were significantly more efficient to inhibit leukotriene formation in neutrophils versus free drug. Whole blood experiments revealed that encapsulation of BRP-201 into Ace-DEX NPs strongly increases its potency, especially upon pro-longed (≥ 5 h) incubations and upon lipopolysaccharide-challenge of blood. Finally, intravenous injection of BRP-201-loaded NPs significantly suppressed leukotriene levels in blood of mice in vivo. These results reveal the feasibility of our pharmacological approach using a novel FLAP antagonist encapsulated into Ace-DEX-based NPs with improved efficiency in blood to suppress leukotriene biosynthesis.

4.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959989

RESUMO

Olive oil contains high amounts of oleic acid (OA). Although OA has been described to inhibit inflammatory processes, the effects of olive oil on cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Therefore, we compared the effects of major fatty acids (FA) from olive oil with those of olive oil extracts (OOE) on inflammatory mediators and alterations in the cellular phospholipid composition in murine macrophages. Upon treatment with different OOE, FA compositions of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine RAW264.7 macrophages were analyzed using gas chromatography. Olive oil extracts and OA significantly reduced the LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNos), cyclooxygenase (Cox2), and interleukin-6 mRNA. In addition, a significant decrease in Cox2 and iNos protein expression was observed. The formation of nitric oxide was significantly reduced, while the formation of prostaglandin (PG) E2 from arachidonic acid significantly increased after treatment with OOE or OA. The latter was associated with a shift in the phospholipid FA composition from arachidonic acid to OA, resulting in an elevated availability of arachidonic acid. Together, OOE and OA mediate anti-inflammatory effects in vitro but increase the release of arachidonic acid and hereinafter PGE2, likely due to elongation of OA and competitive incorporation of fatty acids into membrane phospholipids.

5.
Biochem Pharmacol ; : 114825, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762841

RESUMO

Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) comprise lipid mediators (LMs) produced from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) via stereoselective oxygenation particularly involving 12/15-lipoxygenases (LOXs). In contrast to pro-inflammatory LMs such as leukotrienes formed by 5-LOX and prostaglandins formed by cyclooxygenases, the SPMs have anti-inflammatory and inflammation-resolving properties. Although glucocorticoids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that block prostaglandin production are still prime therapeutics for inflammation-related diseases despite severe side-effects, novel concepts focus on SPMs as immunoresolvents for anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapy. Here, we studied the natural chalcone MF-14 and the corresponding dihydrochalcone MF-15 from Melodorum fruticosum, for modulating the biosynthesis of LM including leukotrienes, prostaglandins, SPM and their 12/15-LOX-derived precursors in human monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) M1- and M2-like phenotypes. In MDM challenged with Staphylococcus aureus-derived exotoxins both compounds (10 µM) significantly suppressed 5-LOX product formation but increased the biosynthesis of 12/15-LOX products, especially in M2-MDM. Intriguingly, in resting M2-MDM, MF-14 and MF-15 strikingly evoked generation of 12/15-LOX products and of SPMs from liberated PUFAs, along with translocation of 15-LOX-1 to membranous compartments. Enhanced 12/15-LOX product formation by the chalcones was evident also when exogenous PUFAs were supplied, excluding increased substrate supply as sole underlying mechanism. Rather, MF-14 and MF15 stimulate the activity of 15-LOX-1, supported by experiments with HEK293 cells transfected with either 5-LOX, 15-LOX-1 and 15-LOX-2. Together, the natural chalcone MF-14 and the dihydrochalcone MF-15 favorably modulate LM biosynthesis in human macrophages by suppressing pro-inflammatory leukotrienes but stimulating formation of SPMs by differential interference with 5-LOX and 15-LOX-1.

6.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(11)2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34832905

RESUMO

The resolution of inflammation is an integral part of the acute inflammatory response and eventually leads to the return to homeostasis. It is supported by specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) that act as immunoresolvents via specific G-protein-coupled receptors. In contrast to classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that suppress the formation of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators such as prostaglandins, novel pharmacotherapeutic concepts propose to foster the biosynthesis of beneficial SPMs. Here, we demonstrate that the natural combination medicine Traumeel (Tr14) improves resolution of inflammation by promoting SPM formation. Tr14 enhanced the biosynthesis of 12-/15-lipoxygenase (LOX) products and of SPMs in zymosan-induced mouse peritonitis as well as in human monocyte-derived macrophages challenged with Staphylococcus aureus. Importantly, in the peritonitis model, Tr14 supported the recruitment of innate leukocytes and the efferocytotic capacity of macrophages, and positively influenced the inflammation resolution index. Taken together, we suggest that based on these properties Tr14 may possess therapeutic potential as an enhancer for the resolution of inflammatory processes.

7.
FEBS J ; 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741578

RESUMO

Acute inflammation caused by bacterial infections is an essential biological defence mechanism of the host in order to neutralize and clear the invaders and to return to homeostasis. Despite its protective function, inflammation may become persistent and uncontrolled, resulting in chronic diseases and tissue destruction as consequence of the unresolved inflammatory process. Therefore, spatiotemporal induction of endogenous inflammation resolution programs that govern bacterial clearance as well as tissue repair and regeneration, are of major importance in order to enable tissues to restore functions. Lipid mediators that are de-novo biosynthesized from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) mainly by lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenases, critically regulate the initiation, the maintenance but also the resolution of infectious inflammation and tissue regeneration. The discovery of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) generated from omega-3 PUFAs stimulated intensive research in inflammation resolution, especially in infectious inflammation elicited by bacteria. SPMs are immunoresolvents that actively terminate inflammation by limiting neutrophil influx, stimulating phagocytosis, bacterial killing and clearance as well as efferocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils and cellular debris by macrophages. Moreover, SPMs prevent collateral tissue damage, promote tissue repair and regeneration and lower antibiotic requirement. Here, we review the biosynthesis of SPMs in bacterial infections and cover specific mechanisms of SPMs that govern the resolution of bacteria-initiated inflammation.

8.
J Pharm Sci ; 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756868

RESUMO

Diflapolin is a dual FLAP/sEH inhibitor with potent anti-inflammatory efficiency in cellular assays and experimental in vivo studies. Despite these outstanding characteristics, its high lipophilicity and plasma protein binding hamper the bioactivity in blood. To overcome these limitations, diflapolin was encapsulated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles to develop an efficient and biocompatible drug delivery system. Two different cosolvent approaches were tested showing the possibility to exchange dimethyl sulfoxide in the organic phase by the sustainable 400 g/mol poly(ethylene glycol). A particle size of 220 nm and the amorphous encapsulation of diflapolin in high amounts rendered the nanoparticles appropriate for the intended application. Excellent biocompatibility of the nanoparticles was demonstrated in an ex ovo hen's egg model. The potent suppression of FLAP-dependent 5-lipoxygenase product formation by the nanoparticles in human whole blood, superior to the free drug, makes them to a promising drug delivery system to improve the bioactivity of diflapolin.

9.
Cell Rep ; 37(4): 109898, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706241

RESUMO

After demyelinating injury of the central nervous system, resolution of the mounting acute inflammation is crucial for the initiation of a regenerative response. Here, we aim to identify fatty acids and lipid mediators that govern the balance of inflammatory reactions within demyelinating lesions. Using lipidomics, we identify bioactive lipids in the resolution phase of inflammation with markedly elevated levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Using fat-1 transgenic mice, which convert n-6 fatty acids to n-3 fatty acids, we find that reduction of the n-6/n-3 ratio decreases the phagocytic infiltrate. In addition, we observe accelerated decline of microglia/macrophages and enhanced generation of oligodendrocytes in aged mice when n-3 fatty acids are shuttled to the brain. Thus, n-3 fatty acids enhance lesion recovery and may, therefore, provide the basis for pro-regenerative medicines of demyelinating diseases in the central nervous system.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34681720

RESUMO

Physiological selenium (Se) levels counteract excessive inflammation, with selenoproteins shaping the immunoregulatory cytokine and lipid mediator profile. How exactly differentiation of monocytes into macrophages influences the expression of the selenoproteome in concert with the Se supply remains obscure. THP-1 monocytes were differentiated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) into macrophages and (i) the expression of selenoproteins, (ii) differentiation markers, (iii) the activity of NF-κB and NRF2, as well as (iv) lipid mediator profiles were analyzed. Se and differentiation affected the expression of selenoproteins in a heterogeneous manner. GPX4 expression was substantially decreased during differentiation, whereas GPX1 was not affected. Moreover, Se increased the expression of selenoproteins H and F, which was further enhanced by differentiation for selenoprotein F and diminished for selenoprotein H. Notably, LPS-induced expression of NF-κB target genes was facilitated by Se, as was the release of COX- and LOX-derived lipid mediators and substrates required for lipid mediator biosynthesis. This included TXB2, TXB3, 15-HETE, and 12-HEPE, as well as arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Our results indicate that Se enables macrophages to accurately adjust redox-dependent signaling and thereby modulate downstream lipid mediator profiles.

11.
FASEB J ; 35(10): e21820, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569657

RESUMO

Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in circulation playing a key role in acute inflammation during microbial infections. Phagocytosis, one of the crucial defence mechanisms of neutrophils against pathogens, is amplified by chemotactic leukotriene (LT)B4 , which is biosynthesized via 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX). However, extensive liberation of LTB4 can be destructive by over-intensifying the inflammatory process. While enzymatic biosynthesis of LTB4 is well characterized, less is known about molecular mechanisms that activate 5-LOX and lead to LTB4 formation during host-pathogen interactions. Here, we investigated the ability of the common opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans to induce LTB4 formation in neutrophils, and elucidated pathogen-mediated drivers and cellular processes that activate this pathway. We revealed that C. albicans-induced LTB4 biosynthesis requires both the morphological transition from yeast cells to hyphae and the expression of hyphae-associated genes, as exclusively viable hyphae or yeast-locked mutant cells expressing hyphae-associated genes stimulated 5-LOX by [Ca2+ ]i mobilization and p38 MAPK activation. LTB4 biosynthesis was orchestrated by synergistic activation of dectin-1 and Toll-like receptor 2, and corresponding signaling via SYK and MYD88, respectively. Conclusively, we report hyphae-specific induction of LTB4 biosynthesis in human neutrophils. This highlights an expanding role of neutrophils during inflammatory processes in the response to C. albicans infections.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Hifas/química , Leucotrienos/biossíntese , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Fagocitose , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 193: 114759, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487716

RESUMO

Arachidonic acid (AA) is the precursor to leukotrienes (LT), potent mediators of the inflammatory response. In the 35 + years since cysteinyl-LTs were reported to mediate antigen-induced constriction of bronchi in tissue from asthma patients, numerous cellular responses evoked by the LTs, such as chemoattraction and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation, have been elucidated and revealed a potential for 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) as a promising drug target that goes beyond asthma. We describe herein early work identifying 5-LOX as the key enzyme that initiates LT biosynthesis and the discovery of its membrane-embedded helper protein required to execute the two-step reaction that transforms AA to the progenitor leukotriene A4 (LTA4). 5-LOX must traffic to the nuclear membrane to interact with its partner and undergo a conformational change so that AA can enter the active site. Additionally, the enzyme must retain the hydroperoxy-reaction intermediate for its final transformation to LTA4. Each of these steps provide a unique target for inhibition. Next, we describe the recent structures of GPCRs that recognize metabolites of the 5-LOX pathway and thus provide target alternatives. We also highlight the role of 5-LOX in the biosynthesis of anti-inflammatory lipid mediators (LM), the so-called specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM). The involvement of 5-LOX in the biosynthesis of LM with opposing functions undoubtedly complicates the continuing search for 5-LOX inhibitors as therapeutic leads. Finally, we address the recent discovery of how some allosteric 5-LOX inhibitors promote oxygenation at the 12/15 carbon on AA to generate mediators that resolve, rather than promote, inflammation.

13.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 23(1): 222, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis is correlated with age. In this study, we analyzed the association of the incidence and severity of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (G6PI)-induced arthritis with age in two different mouse strains. METHODS: Young and very old mice from two different arthritis-susceptible wild-type mouse strains were analyzed after a single subcutaneous injection of G6PI s.c. The metabolism and the function of synoviocytes were analyzed in vitro, the production of bioactive lipid mediators by myeloid cells and synoviocytes was assessed in vitro and ex vivo by UPLC-MS-MS, and flow cytometry was used to verify age-related changes of immune cell composition and function. RESULTS: While the severity of arthritis was independent from age, the onset was delayed in old mice. Old mice showed common signs of immune aging like thymic atrophy associated with decreased CD4+ effector T cell numbers. Despite its decrease, the effector T helper (Th) cell compartment in old mice was reactive and functionally intact, and their Tregs exhibited unaltered suppressive capacities. In homeostasis, macrophages and synoviocytes from old mice produced higher amounts of pro-inflammatory cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived products. However, this functional difference did not remain upon challenge in vitro nor upon arthritis reactions ex vivo. CONCLUSION: While old mice show a higher baseline of inflammatory functions, this does not result in increased reaction towards self-antigens in arthritis-susceptible mouse strains. Together, our data from two different mouse strains show that the susceptibility for G6PI-induced arthritis is not age-dependent.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental , Glucose-6-Fosfato Isomerase , Envelhecimento , Animais , Artrite Experimental/genética , Cromatografia Líquida , Glucose-6-Fosfato Isomerase/genética , Imunização , Incidência , Camundongos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(7)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358086

RESUMO

Extracts of frankincense, the gum resin of Boswellia species, have been extensively used in traditional folk medicine since ancient times and are still of great interest as promising anti-inflammatory remedies in Western countries. Despite their common therapeutic use and the intensive pharmacological research including studies on active ingredients, modes of action, bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, and clinical efficacy, frankincense preparations are available as nutraceuticals but have not yet approved as a drug on the market. A major issue of commercially available frankincense nutraceuticals is the striking differences in their composition and quality, especially related to the content of boswellic acids (BAs) as active ingredients, mainly due to the use of material from divergent Boswellia species but also because of different work-up and extraction procedures. Here, we assessed three frequently used frankincense-based preparations for their BA content and the interference with prominent pro-inflammatory actions and targets that have been proposed, that is, 5-lipoxygenase and leukotriene formation in human neutrophils, microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1, and inflammatory cytokine secretion in human blood monocytes. Our data reveal striking differences in the pharmacological efficiencies of these preparations in inflammation-related bioassays which obviously correlate with the amounts of BAs they contain. In summary, high-quality frankincense extracts display powerful anti-inflammatory effectiveness against multiple targets which can be traced back to BAs as bioactive ingredients.

15.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372160

RESUMO

Seven polycaprolactones (PCL) with constant hydrophobicity but a varying degree of crystallinity prepared from the constitutional isomers ε-caprolactone (εCL) and δ-caprolactone (δCL) were utilized to formulate nanoparticles (NPs). The aim was to investigate the effect of the crystallinity of the bulk polymers on the enzymatic degradation of the particles. Furthermore, their efficiency to encapsulate the hydrophobic anti-inflammatory drug BRP-187 and the final in vitro performance of the resulting NPs were evaluated. Initially, high-throughput nanoprecipitation was employed for the εCL and δCL homopolymers to screen and establish important formulation parameters (organic solvent, polymer and surfactant concentration). Next, BRP-187-loaded PCL nanoparticles were prepared by batch nanoprecipitation and characterized using dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy to determine and to compare particle size, polydispersity, zeta potential, drug loading as well as the apparent enzymatic degradation as a function of the copolymer composition. Ultimately, NPs were examined for their potency in vitro in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes to inhibit the BRP-187 target 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP). It was evident by Tukey's multi-comparison test that the degree of crystallinity of copolymers directly influenced their apparent enzymatic degradation and consequently their efficiency to inhibit the drug target.

16.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443772

RESUMO

Inflammation is a hallmark of tissue remodeling during wound healing. The inflammatory response to wounds is tightly controlled and well-coordinated; dysregulation compromises wound healing and causes persistent inflammation. Topical application of natural anti-inflammatory products may improve wound healing, in particular under chronic pathological conditions. The long-chain metabolites of vitamin E (LCM) are bioactive molecules that mediate cellular effects via oxidative stress signaling as well as anti-inflammatory pathways. However, the effect of LCM on wound healing has not been investigated. We administered the α-tocopherol-derived LCMs α-13'-hydroxychromanol (α-13'-OH) and α-13'-carboxychromanol (α-13'-COOH) as well as the natural product garcinoic acid, a δ-tocotrienol derivative, in different pharmaceutical formulations directly to wounds using a splinted wound mouse model to investigate their effects on the wounds' proinflammatory microenvironment and wound healing. Garcinoic acid and, in particular, α-13'-COOH accelerated wound healing and quality of the newly formed tissue. We next loaded bacterial nanocellulose (BNC), a valuable nanomaterial used as a wound dressing with high potential for drug delivery, with α-13'-COOH. The controlled release of α-13'-COOH using BNC promoted wound healing and wound closure, mainly when a diabetic condition was induced before the injury. This study highlights the potential of α-13'-COOH combined with BNC as a potential active wound dressing for the advanced therapy of skin injuries.

17.
Infect Immun ; 89(11): e0030621, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370506

RESUMO

A mitochondrion, as a highly dynamic organelle, continuously changes morphology and position during its life cycle. Mitochondrial dynamics, including fission and fusion, play a critical role in maintaining functional mitochondria for ATP production, which is directly linked to host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. However, how macrophages regulate mitochondrial dynamics during M. tuberculosis infection remains elusive. In this study, we found that M. tuberculosis infection induced mitochondrial fusion by enhancing the expression of mitofusin 1 (MFN1), which resulted in increased ATP production. Silencing of MFN1 inhibited mitochondrial fusion and subsequently reduced ATP production, which, in turn, severely impaired macrophages' mycobactericidal activity by inhibiting autophagy. Impairment of mycobactericidal activity and autophagy was replicated using oligomycin, an inhibitor of ATP synthase. In summary, our study revealed that MFN1-mediated mitochondrial fusion is essential for macrophages' mycobactericidal activity through the regulation of ATP-dependent autophagy. The MFN1-mediated metabolism pathway might be a target for the development of a host direct therapy (HDT) strategy against tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/fisiologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/fisiologia , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/fisiologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/biossíntese , Humanos , Células THP-1 , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Eur J Med Chem ; 224: 113693, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315041

RESUMO

The multiple inhibition of biological targets involved in pro-inflammatory eicosanoid biosynthesis represents an innovative strategy for treating inflammatory disorders in light of higher efficacy and safety. Herein, following a multidisciplinary protocol involving virtual combinatorial screening, chemical synthesis, and in vitro and in vivo validation of the biological activities, we report the identification of 1,2,4-oxadiazole-based eicosanoid biosynthesis multi-target inhibitors. The multidisciplinary scientific approach led to the identification of three 1,2,4-oxadiazole hits (compounds 1, 2 and 5), all endowed with IC50 values in the low micromolar range, acting as 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP) antagonists (compounds 1 and 2), and as a multi-target inhibitor (compound 5) of arachidonic acid cascade enzymes, namely cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1). Moreover, our in vivo results demonstrate that compound 5 is able to attenuate leukocyte migration in a model of zymosan-induced peritonitis and to modulate the production of IL-1ß and TNF-α. These results are of interest for further expanding the chemical diversity around the 1,2,4-oxadiazole central core, enabling the identification of novel anti-inflammatory agents characterized by a favorable pharmacological profile and considering that moderate interference with multiple targets might have advantages in re-adjusting homeostasis.

19.
J Med Chem ; 64(15): 11496-11526, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279935

RESUMO

Endogenous long-chain metabolites of vitamin E (LCMs) mediate immune functions by targeting 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and increasing the systemic concentrations of resolvin E3, a specialized proresolving lipid mediator. SAR studies on semisynthesized analogues highlight α-amplexichromanol (27a), which allosterically inhibits 5-LOX, being considerably more potent than endogenous LCMs in human primary immune cells and blood. Other enzymes within lipid mediator biosynthesis were not substantially inhibited, except for microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1. Compound 27a is metabolized by sulfation and ß-oxidation in human liver-on-chips and exhibits superior metabolic stability in mice over LCMs. Pharmacokinetic studies show distribution of 27a from plasma to the inflamed peritoneal cavity and lung. In parallel, 5-LOX-derived leukotriene levels decrease, and the inflammatory reaction is suppressed in reconstructed human epidermis, murine peritonitis, and experimental asthma in mice. Our study highlights 27a as an orally active, LCM-inspired drug candidate that limits inflammation with superior potency and metabolic stability to the endogenous lead.


Assuntos
Araquidonato 5-Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/farmacologia , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Araquidonato 5-Lipoxigenase/genética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Vitamina E/metabolismo
20.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 11(6): 1629-1647, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34221873

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation results from excessive pro-inflammatory signaling and the failure to resolve the inflammatory reaction. Lipid mediators orchestrate both the initiation and resolution of inflammation. Switching from pro-inflammatory to pro-resolving lipid mediator biosynthesis is considered as efficient strategy to relieve chronic inflammation, though drug candidates exhibiting such features are unknown. Starting from a library of Vietnamese medical plant extracts, we identified isomers of the biflavanoid 8-methylsocotrin-4'-ol from Dracaena cambodiana, which limit inflammation by targeting 5-lipoxygenase and switching the lipid mediator profile from leukotrienes to specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM). Elucidation of the absolute configurations of 8-methylsocotrin-4'-ol revealed the 2S,γS-isomer being most active, and molecular docking studies suggest that the compound binds to an allosteric site between the 5-lipoxygenase subdomains. We identified additional subordinate targets within lipid mediator biosynthesis, including microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1. Leukotriene production is efficiently suppressed in activated human neutrophils, macrophages, and blood, while the induction of SPM biosynthesis is restricted to M2 macrophages. The shift from leukotrienes to SPM was also evident in mouse peritonitis in vivo and accompanied by a substantial decrease in immune cell infiltration. In summary, we disclose a promising drug candidate that combines potent 5-lipoxygenase inhibition with the favorable reprogramming of lipid mediator profiles.

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