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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205027

RESUMO

Air pollution, especially fine particulate matter (PM2.5), is a major environmental risk factor for human health in Europe. Monitoring of air quality takes place using expensive reference stations. Low-cost sensors are a promising addition to this official monitoring network as they add spatial and temporal resolution at low cost. Moreover, low-cost sensors might allow for better characterization of personal exposure to PM2.5. In this study, we use 500 dust (PM2.5) sensors mounted on bicycles to estimate typical PM2.5 levels to which cyclists are exposed in the province of Utrecht, the Netherlands, in the year 2020. We use co-located sensors at reference stations to calibrate and validate the mobile sensor data. We estimate that the average exposure to traffic related PM2.5, on top of background concentrations, is approximately 2 µg/m3. Our results suggest that cyclists close to major roads have a small, but consistently higher exposure to PM2.5 compared to routes with less traffic. The results allow for a detailed spatial representation of PM2.5 concentrations and show that choosing a different cycle route might lead to a lower exposure to PM2.5. Finally, we conclude that the use of mobile, low-cost sensors is a promising method to estimate exposure to air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Países Baixos , Material Particulado/análise
2.
Environ Int ; 146: 106306, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395948

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To characterize air pollution exposure at a fine spatial scale, different exposure assessment methods have been applied. Comparison of associations with health from different exposure methods are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations of air pollution based on hybrid, land-use regression (LUR) and dispersion models with natural cause and cause-specific mortality. METHODS: We followed a Dutch national cohort of approximately 10.5 million adults aged 29+ years from 2008 until 2012. We used Cox proportional hazard models with age as underlying time scale and adjusted for several potential individual and area-level socio-economic status confounders to evaluate associations of annual average residential NO2, PM2.5 and BC exposure estimates based on two stochastic models (Dutch LUR, European-wide hybrid) and deterministic Dutch dispersion models. RESULTS: Spatial variability of PM2.5 and BC exposure was smaller for LUR compared to hybrid and dispersion models. NO2 exposure variability was similar for the three methods. Pearson correlations between hybrid, LUR and dispersion modeled NO2 and BC ranged from 0.72 to 0.83; correlations for PM2.5 were slightly lower (0.61-0.72). In general, all three models showed stronger associations of air pollutants with respiratory disease and lung cancer mortality than with natural cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. The strength of the associations differed between the three exposure models. Associations of air pollutants estimated by LUR were generally weaker compared to associations of air pollutants estimated by hybrid and dispersion models. For natural cause mortality, we found a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.030 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.019, 1.041) per 10 µg/m3 for hybrid modeled NO2, a HR of 1.003 (95% CI: 0.993, 1.013) per 10 µg/m3 for LUR modeled NO2 and a HR of 1.015 (95% CI: 1.005, 1.024) per 10 µg/m3 for dispersion modeled NO2. CONCLUSION: Air pollution was positively associated with natural cause and cause-specific mortality, but the strength of the associations differed between the three exposure models. Our study documents that the selected exposure model may contribute to heterogeneity in effect estimates of associations between air pollution and health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Respiratórias , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 705: 135778, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to particulate air pollution has been associated with mortality in urban cohort studies. Few studies have investigated the association between emission contributions from different particle sources and mortality in large-scale population registries, including non-urban populations. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between long-term exposure to particulate air pollution from different source categories and non-accidental mortality in the Netherlands based on existing national databases. METHODS: We used existing Dutch national databases on mortality, individual characteristics, residence history, neighbourhood characteristics and modelled air pollution concentrations from different sources and air pollution components: particulate matter PM10, primary particulate matter PM10 (PPM10), particulate matter PM2.5, primary particulate matter PM2.5 (PPM2.5), elemental carbon (EC), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) in PM10 (SIA10) or in PM2.5 (SIA2.5). We established a cohort of 7.5 million individuals 30 years or older. We followed the cohort for eight years (2008-2015). We applied Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusting for potential individual and area-specific confounders. RESULTS: We found statistically significant associations between total and primary particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), elemental carbon and mortality. Adjustment for nitrogen dioxide did not change the associations. Secondary inorganic aerosol showed less consistent associations. All primary PM sources were associated with mortality, except agricultural emissions and, depending on the statistical model, industrial PM emissions. CONCLUSIONS: We could not identify one or more specific source categories of particulate air pollution as main determinants of the mortality effects found in this and in a previous study. This suggests that present policy measures should be focussed on the wider spectrum of air pollution sources instead of on specific sources.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Países Baixos , Material Particulado
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