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1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(17): 5315-5328, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182433

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Intratumoral hypoxia and immunity have been correlated with patient outcome in various tumor settings. However, these factors are not currently considered for treatment selection in head and neck cancer (HNC) due to lack of validated biomarkers. Here we sought to develop a hypoxia-immune classifier with potential application in patient prognostication and prediction of response to targeted therapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A 54-gene hypoxia-immune signature was constructed on the basis of literature review. Gene expression was analyzed in silico using the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) HNC dataset (n = 275) and validated using two independent cohorts (n = 130 and 123). IHC was used to investigate the utility of a simplified protein signature. The spatial distribution of hypoxia and immune markers was examined using multiplex immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS: Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of TCGA dataset (development cohort) identified three patient subgroups with distinct hypoxia-immune phenotypes and survival profiles: hypoxialow/immunehigh, hypoxiahigh/immunelow, and mixed, with 5-year overall survival (OS) rates of 71%, 51%, and 49%, respectively (P = 0.0015). The prognostic relevance of the hypoxia-immune gene signature was replicated in two independent validation cohorts. Only PD-L1 and intratumoral CD3 protein expression were associated with improved OS on multivariate analysis. Hypoxialow/immunehigh and hypoxiahigh/immunelow tumors were overrepresented in "inflamed" and "immune-desert" microenvironmental profiles, respectively. Multiplex staining demonstrated an inverse correlation between CA-IX expression and prevalence of intratumoral CD3+ T cells (r = -0.5464; P = 0.0377), further corroborating the transcription-based classification. CONCLUSIONS: We developed and validated a hypoxia-immune prognostic transcriptional classifier, which may have clinical application to guide the use of hypoxia modification and targeted immunotherapies for the treatment of HNC.

2.
Radiother Oncol ; 138: 59-67, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146072

RESUMO

PURPOSE: REQUITE aimed to establish a resource for multi-national validation of models and biomarkers that predict risk of late toxicity following radiotherapy. The purpose of this article is to provide summary descriptive data. METHODS: An international, prospective cohort study recruited cancer patients in 26 hospitals in eight countries between April 2014 and March 2017. Target recruitment was 5300 patients. Eligible patients had breast, prostate or lung cancer and planned potentially curable radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was prescribed according to local regimens, but centres used standardised data collection forms. Pre-treatment blood samples were collected. Patients were followed for a minimum of 12 (lung) or 24 (breast/prostate) months and summary descriptive statistics were generated. RESULTS: The study recruited 2069 breast (99% of target), 1808 prostate (86%) and 561 lung (51%) cancer patients. The centralised, accessible database includes: physician- (47,025 forms) and patient- (54,901) reported outcomes; 11,563 breast photos; 17,107 DICOMs and 12,684 DVHs. Imputed genotype data are available for 4223 patients with European ancestry (1948 breast, 1728 prostate, 547 lung). Radiation-induced lymphocyte apoptosis (RILA) assay data are available for 1319 patients. DNA (n = 4409) and PAXgene tubes (n = 3039) are stored in the centralised biobank. Example prevalences of 2-year (1-year for lung) grade ≥2 CTCAE toxicities are 13% atrophy (breast), 3% rectal bleeding (prostate) and 27% dyspnoea (lung). CONCLUSION: The comprehensive centralised database and linked biobank is a valuable resource for the radiotherapy community for validating predictive models and biomarkers. PATIENT SUMMARY: Up to half of cancer patients undergo radiation therapy and irradiation of surrounding healthy tissue is unavoidable. Damage to healthy tissue can affect short- and long-term quality-of-life. Not all patients are equally sensitive to radiation "damage" but it is not possible at the moment to identify those who are. REQUITE was established with the aim of trying to understand more about how we could predict radiation sensitivity. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview and summary of the data and material available. In the REQUITE study 4400 breast, prostate and lung cancer patients filled out questionnaires and donated blood. A large amount of data was collected in the same way. With all these data and samples a database and biobank were created that showed it is possible to collect this kind of information in a standardised way across countries. In the future, our database and linked biobank will be a resource for research and validation of clinical predictors and models of radiation sensitivity. REQUITE will also enable a better understanding of how many people suffer with radiotherapy toxicity.

3.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 10-20% of patients develop long-term toxicity following radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Identification of common genetic variants associated with susceptibility to radiotoxicity might improve risk prediction and inform functional mechanistic studies. METHODS: We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis of six genome-wide association studies (n = 3,871) in men with European ancestry who underwent radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Radiotoxicities (increased urinary frequency, decreased urinary stream, hematuria, rectal bleeding) were graded prospectively. Grouped relative risk models tested associations with ∼6 million genotyped/imputed variants (time to first ≥grade 2 toxicity event). Variants with two-sided Pmeta<5x10-8 were considered statistically significant. Bayesian false discovery probability provided an additional measure of confidence. Statistically significant variants were evaluated in three Japanese cohorts (n = 962). All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Meta-analysis of the European ancestry cohorts identified three genomic signals: single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs17055178 with rectal bleeding (Pmeta=6.2x10-10), rs10969913 with decreased urinary stream (Pmeta=2.9x10-10) and rs11122573 with hematuria (Pmeta=1.8x10-8). Fine scale mapping of these three regions identified another independent signal (rs147121532) associated with hematuria (Pconditional=4.7x10-6). Credible causal variants at these four signals lie in gene-regulatory regions, some modulating expression of nearby genes. Previously identified variants showed consistent associations (rs17599026 with increased urinary frequency, rs7720298 with decreased urinary stream, rs1801516 with overall toxicity) in new cohorts. rs10969913 and rs17599026 had similar effects in the photon-treated Japanese cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: This study increases understanding of the architecture of common genetic variants affecting radiotoxicity, points to novel radio-pathogenic mechanisms, and develops risk models for testing in clinical studies. Further multi-national radiogenomics studies in larger cohorts are worthwhile.

4.
Oncotarget ; 10(20): 2007, 2019 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956781

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.23280.].

5.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 104(4): 809-818, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885775

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Organ-confined muscle-invasive bladder cancer is treated with cystectomy or bladder preservation techniques, including radiation therapy. There are currently no biomarkers to inform management decisions and aid patient choice. Previously we showed high levels of MRE11 protein, assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), predicted outcome after radiation therapy, but not cystectomy. Therefore, we sought to develop the MRE11 IHC assay for clinical use and define its relationship to clinical outcome in samples from 2 major clinical trials. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Samples from the BCON and BC2001 randomized controlled trials and a cystectomy cohort were stained using automated IHC methods and scored for MRE11 in 3 centers in the United Kingdom. RESULTS: Despite step-wise creation of scoring cards and standard operating procedures for staining and interpretation, there was poor intercenter scoring agreement (kappa, 0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.47). No significant associations between MRE11 scores and cause-specific survival were identified in BCON (n = 132) and BC2001 (n = 221) samples. Reoptimized staining improved agreement between scores from BCON tissue microarrays (n = 116), but MRE11 expression was not prognostic for cause-specific survival. CONCLUSIONS: Manual IHC scoring of MRE11 was not validated as a reproducible biomarker of radiation-based bladder preservation success. There is a need for automated quantitative methods or a reassessment of how DNA-damage response relates to clinical outcomes.

7.
Int J Part Ther ; 5(1): 103-113, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30505881

RESUMO

Radiogenomics is the study of genomic factors that are associated with response to radiation therapy. In recent years, progress has been made toward identifying genetic risk factors linked with late radiation-induced adverse effects. These advances have been underpinned by the establishment of an international Radiogenomics Consortium with collaborative studies that expand cohort sizes to increase statistical power and efforts to improve methodologic approaches for radiogenomic research. Published studies have predominantly reported the results of research involving patients treated with photons using external beam radiation therapy. These studies demonstrate our ability to pool international cohorts to identify common single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with risk for developing normal tissue toxicities. Progress has also been achieved toward the discovery of genetic variants associated with radiation therapy-related subsequent malignancies. With the increasing use of charged particle therapy (CPT), there is a need to establish cohorts for patients treated with these advanced technology forms of radiation therapy and to create biorepositories with linked clinical data. While some genetic variants are likely to impact toxicity and second malignancy risks for both photons and charged particles, it is plausible that others may be specific to the radiation modality due to differences in their biological effects, including the complexity of DNA damage produced. In recognition that the formation of patient cohorts treated with CPT for radiogenomic studies is a high priority, efforts are underway to establish collaborations involving institutions treating cancer patients with protons and/or carbon ions as well as consortia, including the Proton Collaborative Group, the Particle Therapy Cooperative Group, and the Pediatric Proton Consortium Registry. These important radiogenomic CPT initiatives need to be expanded internationally to build on experience gained from the Radiogenomics Consortium and epidemiologists investigating normal tissue toxicities and second cancer risk.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether associations between circulating metabolites and prostate cancer are causal is unknown. We report on the largest study of metabolites and prostate cancer (2,291 cases and 2,661 controls) and appraise causality for a subset of the prostate cancer-metabolite associations using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The case-control portion of the study was conducted in nine UK centres with men aged 50-69 years who underwent prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer within the Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial. Two data sources were used to appraise causality: a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of metabolites in 24,925 participants and a GWAS of prostate cancer in 44,825 cases and 27,904 controls within the Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium. RESULTS: Thirty-five metabolites were strongly associated with prostate cancer (p <0.0014, multiple-testing threshold). These fell into four classes: i) lipids and lipoprotein subclass characteristics (total cholesterol and ratios, cholesterol esters and ratios, free cholesterol and ratios, phospholipids and ratios, and triglyceride ratios); ii) fatty acids and ratios; iii) amino acids; iv) and fluid balance. Fourteen top metabolites were proxied by genetic variables, but MR indicated these were not causal. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 35 circulating metabolites associated with prostate cancer presence, but found no evidence of causality for those 14 testable with MR. Thus, the 14 MR-tested metabolites are unlikely to be mechanistically important in prostate cancer risk. IMPACT: The metabolome provides a promising set of biomarkers that may aid prostate cancer classification.

9.
Radiology ; 288(3): 739-747, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29869970

RESUMO

Purpose To cross-validate T1-weighted oxygen-enhanced (OE) MRI measurements of tumor hypoxia with intrinsic susceptibility MRI measurements and to demonstrate the feasibility of translation of the technique for patients. Materials and Methods Preclinical studies in nine 786-0-R renal cell carcinoma (RCC) xenografts and prospective clinical studies in eight patients with RCC were performed. Longitudinal relaxation rate changes (∆R1) after 100% oxygen inhalation were quantified, reflecting the paramagnetic effect on tissue protons because of the presence of molecular oxygen. Native transverse relaxation rate (R2*) and oxygen-induced R2* change (∆R2*) were measured, reflecting presence of deoxygenated hemoglobin molecules. Median and voxel-wise values of ∆R1 were compared with values of R2* and ∆R2*. Tumor regions with dynamic contrast agent-enhanced MRI perfusion, refractory to signal change at OE MRI (referred to as perfused Oxy-R), were distinguished from perfused oxygen-enhancing (perfused Oxy-E) and nonperfused regions. R2* and ∆R2* values in each tumor subregion were compared by using one-way analysis of variance. Results Tumor-wise and voxel-wise ∆R1 and ∆R2* comparisons did not show correlative relationships. In xenografts, parcellation analysis revealed that perfused Oxy-R regions had faster native R2* (102.4 sec-1 vs 81.7 sec-1) and greater negative ∆R2* (-22.9 sec-1 vs -5.4 sec-1), compared with perfused Oxy-E and nonperfused subregions (all P < .001), respectively. Similar findings were present in human tumors (P < .001). Further, perfused Oxy-R helped identify tumor hypoxia, measured at pathologic analysis, in both xenografts (P = .002) and human tumors (P = .003). Conclusion Intrinsic susceptibility biomarkers provide cross validation of the OE MRI biomarker perfused Oxy-R. Consistent relationship to pathologic analyses was found in xenografts and human tumors, demonstrating biomarker translation. Published under a CC BY 4.0 license. Online supplemental material is available for this article.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/fisiopatologia , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Neoplasias Renais/fisiopatologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Biomarcadores , Carcinoma de Células Renais/complicações , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/complicações , Hipóxia/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/patologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Renais/complicações , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Nat Genet ; 50(7): 928-936, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892016

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and fine-mapping efforts to date have identified more than 100 prostate cancer (PrCa)-susceptibility loci. We meta-analyzed genotype data from a custom high-density array of 46,939 PrCa cases and 27,910 controls of European ancestry with previously genotyped data of 32,255 PrCa cases and 33,202 controls of European ancestry. Our analysis identified 62 novel loci associated (P < 5.0 × 10-8) with PrCa and one locus significantly associated with early-onset PrCa (≤55 years). Our findings include missense variants rs1800057 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16; P = 8.2 × 10-9; G>C, p.Pro1054Arg) in ATM and rs2066827 (OR = 1.06; P = 2.3 × 10-9; T>G, p.Val109Gly) in CDKN1B. The combination of all loci captured 28.4% of the PrCa familial relative risk, and a polygenic risk score conferred an elevated PrCa risk for men in the ninetieth to ninety-ninth percentiles (relative risk = 2.69; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.55-2.82) and first percentile (relative risk = 5.71; 95% CI: 5.04-6.48) risk stratum compared with the population average. These findings improve risk prediction, enhance fine-mapping, and provide insight into the underlying biology of PrCa1.

11.
EBioMedicine ; 31: 182-189, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29729848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypoxia is associated with a poor prognosis in prostate cancer. This work aimed to derive and validate a hypoxia-related mRNA signature for localized prostate cancer. METHOD: Hypoxia genes were identified in vitro via RNA-sequencing and combined with in vivo gene co-expression analysis to generate a signature. The signature was independently validated in eleven prostate cancer cohorts and a bladder cancer phase III randomized trial of radiotherapy alone or with carbogen and nicotinamide (CON). RESULTS: A 28-gene signature was derived. Patients with high signature scores had poorer biochemical recurrence free survivals in six of eight independent cohorts of prostatectomy-treated patients (Log rank test P < .05), with borderline significances achieved in the other two (P < .1). The signature also predicted biochemical recurrence in patients receiving post-prostatectomy radiotherapy (n = 130, P = .007) or definitive radiotherapy alone (n = 248, P = .035). Lastly, the signature predicted metastasis events in a pooled cohort (n = 631, P = .002). Prognostic significance remained after adjusting for clinic-pathological factors and commercially available prognostic signatures. The signature predicted benefit from hypoxia-modifying therapy in bladder cancer patients (intervention-by-signature interaction test P = .0026), where carbogen and nicotinamide was associated with improved survival only in hypoxic tumours. CONCLUSION: A 28-gene hypoxia signature has strong and independent prognostic value for prostate cancer patients.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias da Próstata , Hipóxia Tumoral/genética , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
Oncotarget ; 9(3): 3946-3955, 2018 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29423096

RESUMO

Purpose: There is a need for adjuvant/neo-adjuvant treatment strategies to prevent metastatic relapse in soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Tumor hypoxia is associated with a high-risk of metastasis and is potentially targetable. This study aimed to derive and validate a hypoxia mRNA signature for STS for future biomarker-driven trials of hypoxia targeted therapy. Materials and Methods: RNA sequencing was used to identify seed genes induced by hypoxia in seven STS cell lines. Primary tumors in a training cohort (French training) were clustered into two phenotypes by seed gene expression and a de novo hypoxia signature derived. Prognostic significance of the de novo signature was evaluated in the training and two independent validation (French validation and The Cancer Genome Atlas) cohorts. Results: 37 genes were up-regulated by hypoxia in all seven cell lines, and a 24-gene signature was derived. The high-hypoxia phenotype defined by the signature was enriched for well-established hypoxia genes reported in the literature. The signature was prognostic in univariable analysis, and in multivariable analysis in the training (n = 183, HR 2.16, P = 0.0054) and two independent validation (n = 127, HR 3.06, P = 0.0019; n = 258, HR 2.05, P = 0.0098) cohorts. Combining information from the de novo hypoxia signature and a genome instability signature significantly improved prognostication. Transcriptomic analyses showed high-hypoxia tumors had more genome instability and lower immune scores. Conclusions: A 24-gene STS-specific hypoxia signature may be useful for prognostication and identifying patients for hypoxia-targeted therapy in clinical trials.

13.
Br J Cancer ; 118(5): 698-704, 2018 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29235571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite high metastasis rates, adjuvant/neoadjuvant systemic therapy for localised soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is not used routinely. Progress requires tailoring therapy to features of tumour biology, which need exploration in well-documented cohorts. Hypoxia has been linked to metastasis in STS and is targetable. This study evaluated hypoxia prognostic markers in the phase III adjuvant radiotherapy VorteX trial. METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour biopsies, fresh tumour/normal tissue and blood were collected before radiotherapy. Immunohistochemistry for HIF-1α, CAIX and GLUT1 was performed on tissue microarrays and assessed by two scorers (one pathologist). Prognostic analysis of disease-free survival (DFS) used Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression. RESULTS: Biobank and outcome data were available for 203 out of 216 randomised patients. High CAIX expression was associated with worse DFS (hazard ratio 2.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.44-3.59, P<0.001). Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and GLUT1 were not prognostic. Carbonic anhydrase IX remained prognostic in multivariable analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The VorteX-Biobank contains tissue with linked outcome data and is an important resource for research. This study confirms hypoxia is linked to poor prognosis in STS and suggests that CAIX may be the best known marker. However, overlap between single marker positivity was poor and future work will develop an STS hypoxia gene signature to account for tumour heterogeneity.

14.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 110(1)2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28922791

RESUMO

Oxygen deprivation (hypoxia) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is an important factor in treatment resistance and poor survival. Hypoxia is an attractive therapeutic target, particularly in the context of radiotherapy, which is delivered to more than half of NSCLC patients. However, NSCLC hypoxia-targeted therapy trials have not yet translated into patient benefit. Recently, early termination of promising evofosfamide and tarloxotinib bromide studies due to futility highlighted the need for a paradigm shift in our approach to avoid disappointments in future trials. Radiotherapy dose painting strategies based on hypoxia imaging require careful refinement prior to clinical investigation. This review will summarize the role of hypoxia, highlight the potential of hypoxia as a therapeutic target, and outline past and ongoing hypoxia-targeted therapy trials in NSCLC. Evidence supporting radiotherapy dose painting based on hypoxia imaging will be critically appraised. Carefully selected hypoxia biomarkers suitable for integration within future NSCLC hypoxia-targeted therapy trials will be examined. Research gaps will be identified to guide future investigation. Although this review will focus on NSCLC hypoxia, more general discussions (eg, obstacles of hypoxia biomarker research and developing a framework for future hypoxia trials) are applicable to other tumor sites.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Radiossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Hipóxia Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/secundário , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Radiocirurgia , Hipóxia Tumoral/genética
15.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 101(2): 274-284, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28964588

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To summarize important talking points from a 2016 symposium focusing on real-world challenges to advancing precision medicine in radiation oncology, and to help radiation oncologists navigate the practical challenges of precision, radiation oncology. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The American Society for Radiation Oncology, American Association of Physicists in Medicine, and National Cancer Institute cosponsored a meeting on precision medicine in radiation oncology. In June 2016 numerous scientists, clinicians, and physicists convened at the National Institutes of Health to discuss challenges and future directions toward personalized radiation therapy. Various breakout sessions were held to discuss particular components and approaches to the implementation of personalized radiation oncology. This article summarizes the genomically guided radiation therapy breakout session. RESULTS: A summary of existing genomic data enabling personalized radiation therapy, ongoing clinical trials, current challenges, and future directions was collected. The group attempted to provide both a current overview of data that radiation oncologists could use to personalize therapy, along with data that are anticipated in the coming years. It seems apparent from the provided review that a considerable opportunity exists to truly bring genomically guided radiation therapy into clinical reality. CONCLUSIONS: Genomically guided radiation therapy is a necessity that must be embraced in the coming years. Incorporating these data into treatment recommendations will provide radiation oncologists with a substantial opportunity to improve outcomes for numerous cancer patients. More research focused on this topic is needed to bring genomic signatures into routine standard of care.

16.
Phys Med Biol ; 62(16): R179-R206, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28657906

RESUMO

Advances in patient-specific information and biotechnology have contributed to a new era of computational medicine. Radiogenomics has emerged as a new field that investigates the role of genetics in treatment response to radiation therapy. Radiation oncology is currently attempting to embrace these recent advances and add to its rich history by maintaining its prominent role as a quantitative leader in oncologic response modeling. Here, we provide an overview of radiogenomics starting with genotyping, data aggregation, and application of different modeling approaches based on modifying traditional radiobiological methods or application of advanced machine learning techniques. We highlight the current status and potential for this new field to reshape the landscape of outcome modeling in radiotherapy and drive future advances in computational oncology.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Humanos , Radiobiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Front Oncol ; 7: 83, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28497027

RESUMO

The ability to stratify patients using a set of biomarkers, which predict that toxicity risk would allow for radiotherapy (RT) modulation and serve as a valuable tool for precision medicine and personalized RT. For patients presenting with tumors with a low risk of recurrence, modifying RT schedules to avoid toxicity would be clinically advantageous. Indeed, for the patient at low risk of developing radiation-associated toxicity, use of a hypofractionated protocol could be proposed leading to treatment time reduction and a cost-utility advantage. Conversely, for patients predicted to be at high risk for toxicity, either a more conformal form or a new technique of RT, or a multidisciplinary approach employing surgery could be included in the trial design to avoid or mitigate RT when the potential toxicity risk may be higher than the risk of disease recurrence. In addition, for patients at high risk of recurrence and low risk of toxicity, dose escalation, such as a greater boost dose, or irradiation field extensions could be considered to improve local control without severe toxicities, providing enhanced clinical benefit. In cases of high risk of toxicity, tumor control should be prioritized. In this review, toxicity biomarkers with sufficient evidence for clinical testing are presented. In addition, clinical trial designs and predictive models are described for different clinical situations.

18.
Clin Cancer Res ; 23(16): 4761-4768, 2017 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28400426

RESUMO

Purpose: Hypoxia modification improves overall survival in muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy. There is evidence that hypoxic tumors benefit most from hypoxia modification. The study aimed to identify or derive a hypoxia gene signature that predicts benefit from hypoxia-modifying treatment in bladder cancer.Experimental Design: Published hypoxia signatures were tested and a new one derived by analyzing bladder cancer transcriptomic data from public databases. Tumor samples were available from the BCON phase III randomized trial of radiotherapy alone or with carbogen and nicotinamide (CON). Gene expression data were generated for 151 tumors using Affymetrix Human 1.0 Exon ST arrays and used for independent validation.Results: A 24-gene signature was derived, which was prognostic in four of six independent surgical cohorts (n = 679; meta HR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.73-3.12; P < 0.0001). The signature was also prognostic in BCON patients receiving radiotherapy alone (n = 75; HR for local relapse-free survival, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.26-4.47; P = 0.0076). The signature predicted benefit from CON (n = 76; HR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.26-0.86; P = 0.015). Prognostic significance (P = 0.017) and predictive significance (P = 0.058) remained after adjusting for clinicopathologic variables. A test for interaction between hypoxia status and treatment arms was significant (P = 0.0094).Conclusions: A 24-gene hypoxia signature has strong and independent prognostic and predictive value for muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients. The signature can aid identification of patients likely to benefit from the addition of carbogen and nicotinamide to radiotherapy. Clin Cancer Res; 23(16); 4761-8. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/radioterapia , Idoso , Dióxido de Carbono/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipóxia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Niacinamida/administração & dosagem , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
19.
Br J Cancer ; 116(11): 1436-1443, 2017 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28449009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The microvascular contrast agent transfer constant Ktrans has shown prognostic value in cervical cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. This study aims to determine whether this is explained by the contribution to Ktrans of plasma flow (Fp), vessel permeability surface-area product (PS), or a combination of both. METHODS: Pre-treatment dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data from 36 patients were analysed using the two-compartment exchange model. Estimates of Fp, PS, Ktrans, and fractional plasma and interstitial volumes (vp and ve) were made and used in univariate and multivariate survival analyses adjusting for clinicopathologic variables tumour stage, nodal status, histological subtype, patient age, tumour volume, and treatment type (chemoradiotherapy vs radiotherapy alone). RESULTS: In univariate analyses, Fp (HR=0.25, P=0.0095) and Ktrans (HR=0.20, P=0.032) were significantly associated with disease-free survival while PS, vp and ve were not. In multivariate analyses adjusting for clinicopathologic variables, Fp and Ktrans significantly increased the accuracy of survival predictions (P=0.0089). CONCLUSIONS: The prognostic value of Ktrans in cervical cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy is explained by microvascular plasma flow (Fp) rather than vessel permeability surface-area product (PS).


Assuntos
Permeabilidade Capilar , Carcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Meios de Contraste/farmacocinética , Gadolínio DTPA/farmacocinética , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Braquiterapia , Carcinoma/secundário , Carcinoma/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasma/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/terapia
20.
Oncotarget ; 8(9): 14416-14427, 2017 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28122336

RESUMO

Immunotherapies are beginning to revolutionise treatment paradigms in oncology with monoclonal antibodies (mAb) targeting T-cell co-inhibitory (e.g. PD-1/PD-L1) and co-stimulatory pathways (e.g. CTLA-4/CD28) demonstrating clinical utility. Some clinical studies demonstrate that responsiveness to PD-1/PD-L1 mAb therapy is greater in patients with expression of PD-L1 in the tumour microenvironment. However, robust responses have also been observed in patients with low or absent expression of PD-L1. Using multiplex immuno-fluorescent labelling we sought to determine how infiltration of tumours by CD8+ T-cells, their expression of PD-1, and the expression of PD-L1 on both tumours and CD68 cells (macrophages) correlated with HPV status and outcome in a cohort of 124 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC).


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/metabolismo , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/imunologia , Papillomaviridae/fisiologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/virologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/virologia , Prognóstico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Microambiente Tumoral
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