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1.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: miRNAs are promising biomarkers in oncology as their small size makes them less susceptible to degradation than mRNA in FFPE tissue. We aimed to derive a hypoxia-associated miRNA signature for bladder cancer. METHODS: Taqman miRNA array cards identified miRNA seed genes induced under hypoxia in bladder cancer cell lines. A signature was derived using feature selection methods in a TCGA BLCA training data set. miRNA expression data were generated for 190 tumours from the BCON Phase 3 trial and used for independent validation. RESULTS: A 14-miRNA hypoxia signature was derived, which was prognostic for poorer overall survival in the TCGA BLCA cohort (n = 403, p = 0.001). Univariable analysis showed that the miRNA signature predicted an overall survival benefit from having carbogen-nicotinamide with radiotherapy (HR = 0.30, 95% CI 0.094-0.95, p = 0.030) and performed similarly to a 24-gene mRNA signature (HR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.24-0.92, p = 0.025). Combining the signatures improved performance (HR = 0.26, 95% CI 0.08-0.82, p = 0.014) with borderline significance for an interaction test (p = 0.065). The interaction test was significant for local relapse-free survival LRFS (p = 0.033). CONCLUSION: A 14-miRNA hypoxia signature can be used with an mRNA hypoxia signature to identify bladder cancer patients benefitting most from having carbogen and nicotinamide with radiotherapy.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1236, 2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33623038

RESUMO

Genetic models for cancer have been evaluated using almost exclusively European data, which could exacerbate health disparities. A polygenic hazard score (PHS1) is associated with age at prostate cancer diagnosis and improves screening accuracy in Europeans. Here, we evaluate performance of PHS2 (PHS1, adapted for OncoArray) in a multi-ethnic dataset of 80,491 men (49,916 cases, 30,575 controls). PHS2 is associated with age at diagnosis of any and aggressive (Gleason score ≥ 7, stage T3-T4, PSA ≥ 10 ng/mL, or nodal/distant metastasis) cancer and prostate-cancer-specific death. Associations with cancer are significant within European (n = 71,856), Asian (n = 2,382), and African (n = 6,253) genetic ancestries (p < 10-180). Comparing the 80th/20th PHS2 percentiles, hazard ratios for prostate cancer, aggressive cancer, and prostate-cancer-specific death are 5.32, 5.88, and 5.68, respectively. Within European, Asian, and African ancestries, hazard ratios for prostate cancer are: 5.54, 4.49, and 2.54, respectively. PHS2 risk-stratifies men for any, aggressive, and fatal prostate cancer in a multi-ethnic dataset.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Invasividade Neoplásica , Autorrelato
3.
Radiat Res ; 195(4): 324-333, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577642

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in diverse biological processes, including DNA damage repair, and are of interest as potential biomarkers of radiosensitivity. We investigated whether lncRNA radiosensitivity signatures could be derived for use in cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. Signature development involved radiosensitivity measurements for cell lines and primary tumor samples, and patient outcome after radiotherapy. A 10-lncRNA signature trained on radiosensitivity measurements in bladder cell lines showed a trend towards independent validation. In multivariable analyses, patients with tumors classified as radioresistant by the lncRNA signature had poorer local relapse-free survival (P = 0.065) in 151 patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer who underwent radiotherapy. An mRNA-based radiosensitivity index signature performed similarly to the lncRNA bladder signature for local relapse-free survival (P = 0.055). Pathway analysis showed the lncRNA signature associated with molecular processes involved in radiation responses. Knockdown of one of the lncRNAs in the signature showed a modest increase in radiosensitivity in one cell line. An alternative approach involved training on primary cervical tumor radiosensitivity or local control after radiotherapy. Both approaches failed to generate a cervix lncRNA radiosensitivity signature, which was attributed to the age of samples in our cohorts. Our work highlights challenges in validating lncRNA signatures as biomarkers in archival tissue from radiotherapy cohorts, but supports continued investigation of lncRNAs for a role in radiosensitivity.

4.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(2): 246-255, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two radiotherapy fractionation schedules are used to treat locally advanced bladder cancer: 64 Gy in 32 fractions over 6·5 weeks and a hypofractionated schedule of 55 Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks. Long-term outcomes of these schedules in several cohort studies and case series suggest that response, survival, and toxicity are similar, but no direct comparison has been published. The present study aimed to assess the non-inferiority of 55 Gy in 20 fractions to 64 Gy in 32 fractions in terms of invasive locoregional control and late toxicity in patients with locally advanced bladder cancer. METHODS: We did a meta-analysis of individual patient data from patients (age ≥18 years) with locally advanced bladder cancer (T1G3 [high-grade non-muscle invasive] or T2-T4, N0M0) enrolled in two multicentre, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trials done in the UK: BC2001 (NCT00024349; assessing addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy) and BCON (NCT00033436; assessing hypoxia-modifying therapy combined with radiotherapy). In each trial, the fractionation schedule was chosen according to local standard practice. Co-primary endpoints were invasive locoregional control (non-inferiority margin hazard ratio [HR]=1·25); and late bladder or rectum toxicity, assessed with the Late Effects Normal Tissue Task Force-Subjective, Objective, Management, Analytic tool (non-inferiority margin for absolute risk difference [RD]=10%). If non-inferiority was met for invasive locoregional control, superiority could be considered if the 95% CI for the treatment effect excluded the null effect (HR=1). One-stage individual patient data meta-analysis models for the time-to-event and binary outcomes were used, accounting for trial differences, within-centre correlation, randomised treatment received, baseline variable imbalances, and potential confounding from relevant prognostic factors. FINDINGS: 782 patients with known fractionation schedules (456 from the BC2001 trial and 326 from the BCON trial; 376 (48%) received 64 Gy in 32 fractions and 406 (52%) received 55 Gy in 20 fractions) were included in our meta-analysis. Median follow-up was 120 months (IQR 99-159). Patients who received 55 Gy in 20 fractions had a lower risk of invasive locoregional recurrence than those who received 64 Gy in 32 fractions (adjusted HR 0·71 [95% CI 0·52-0·96]). Both schedules had similar toxicity profiles (adjusted RD -3·37% [95% CI -11·85 to 5·10]). INTERPRETATION: A hypofractionated schedule of 55 Gy in 20 fractions is non-inferior to 64 Gy in 32 fractions with regard to both invasive locoregional control and toxicity, and is superior with regard to invasive locoregional control. 55 Gy in 20 fractions should be adopted as a standard of care for bladder preservation in patients with locally advanced bladder cancer. FUNDING: Cancer Research UK.


Assuntos
Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Hipofracionamento da Dose de Radiação/normas , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/radioterapia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polygenic hazard scores (PHS) can identify individuals with increased risk of prostate cancer. We estimated the benefit of additional SNPs on performance of a previously validated PHS (PHS46). MATERIALS AND METHOD: 180 SNPs, shown to be previously associated with prostate cancer, were used to develop a PHS model in men with European ancestry. A machine-learning approach, LASSO-regularized Cox regression, was used to select SNPs and to estimate their coefficients in the training set (75,596 men). Performance of the resulting model was evaluated in the testing/validation set (6,411 men) with two metrics: (1) hazard ratios (HRs) and (2) positive predictive value (PPV) of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing. HRs were estimated between individuals with PHS in the top 5% to those in the middle 40% (HR95/50), top 20% to bottom 20% (HR80/20), and bottom 20% to middle 40% (HR20/50). PPV was calculated for the top 20% (PPV80) and top 5% (PPV95) of PHS as the fraction of individuals with elevated PSA that were diagnosed with clinically significant prostate cancer on biopsy. RESULTS: 166 SNPs had non-zero coefficients in the Cox model (PHS166). All HR metrics showed significant improvements for PHS166 compared to PHS46: HR95/50 increased from 3.72 to 5.09, HR80/20 increased from 6.12 to 9.45, and HR20/50 decreased from 0.41 to 0.34. By contrast, no significant differences were observed in PPV of PSA testing for clinically significant prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating 120 additional SNPs (PHS166 vs PHS46) significantly improved HRs for prostate cancer, while PPV of PSA testing remained the same.

6.
Urol Oncol ; 2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257220

RESUMO

Muscle-invasive bladder cancer can be treated with either radical cystectomy or bladder preservation approaches, and there is a need for reliable biomarkers to guide the optimal choice of therapy. The recent elucidation of the genomic landscape and biological drivers of bladder cancer has enabled the identification of tumor molecular features that may be helpful in driving clinical decision-making. Here, we summarize recent efforts to develop molecular biomarkers that could be leveraged to guide therapeutic decisions, post-treatment monitoring, and the optimal use of bladder preservation approaches for the effective treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158149

RESUMO

The identification of recurrent founder variants in cancer predisposing genes may have important implications for implementing cost-effective targeted genetic screening strategies. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence and relative risk of the CHEK2 recurrent variant c.349A>G in a series of 462 Portuguese patients with early-onset and/or familial/hereditary prostate cancer (PrCa), as well as in the large multicentre PRACTICAL case-control study comprising 55,162 prostate cancer cases and 36,147 controls. Additionally, we investigated the potential shared ancestry of the carriers by performing identity-by-descent, haplotype and age estimation analyses using high-density SNP data from 70 variant carriers belonging to 11 different populations included in the PRACTICAL consortium. The CHEK2 missense variant c.349A>G was found significantly associated with an increased risk for PrCa (OR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.2). A shared haplotype flanking the variant in all carriers was identified, strongly suggesting a common founder of European origin. Additionally, using two independent statistical algorithms, implemented by DMLE+2.3 and ESTIAGE, we were able to estimate the age of the variant between 2300 and 3125 years. By extending the haplotype analysis to 14 additional carrier families, a shared core haplotype was revealed among all carriers matching the conserved region previously identified in the high-density SNP analysis. These findings are consistent with CHEK2 c.349A>G being a founder variant associated with increased PrCa risk, suggesting its potential usefulness for cost-effective targeted genetic screening in PrCa families.

8.
Front Oncol ; 10: 541281, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33178576

RESUMO

Background: REQUITE (validating pREdictive models and biomarkers of radiotherapy toxicity to reduce side effects and improve QUalITy of lifE in cancer survivors) is an international prospective cohort study. The purpose of this project was to analyse a cohort of patients recruited into REQUITE using a deep learning algorithm to identify patient-specific features associated with the development of toxicity, and test the approach by attempting to validate previously published genetic risk factors. Methods: The study involved REQUITE prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiotherapy who had complete 2-year follow-up. We used five separate late toxicity endpoints: ≥grade 1 late rectal bleeding, ≥grade 2 urinary frequency, ≥grade 1 haematuria, ≥ grade 2 nocturia, ≥ grade 1 decreased urinary stream. Forty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) already reported in the literature to be associated with the toxicity endpoints were included in the analysis. No SNP had been studied before in the REQUITE cohort. Deep Sparse AutoEncoders (DSAE) were trained to recognize features (SNPs) identifying patients with no toxicity and tested on a different independent mixed population including patients without and with toxicity. Results: One thousand, four hundred and one patients were included, and toxicity rates were: rectal bleeding 11.7%, urinary frequency 4%, haematuria 5.5%, nocturia 7.8%, decreased urinary stream 17.1%. Twenty-four of the 43 SNPs that were associated with the toxicity endpoints were validated as identifying patients with toxicity. Twenty of the 24 SNPs were associated with the same toxicity endpoint as reported in the literature: 9 SNPs for urinary symptoms and 11 SNPs for overall toxicity. The other 4 SNPs were associated with a different endpoint. Conclusion: Deep learning algorithms can validate SNPs associated with toxicity after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. The method should be studied further to identify polygenic SNP risk signatures for radiotherapy toxicity. The signatures could then be included in integrated normal tissue complication probability models and tested for their ability to personalize radiotherapy treatment planning.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17258, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057113

RESUMO

Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) data are normalised using endogenous control genes. We aimed to: (1) demonstrate a pathway to identify endogenous control genes for qPCR analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue using bladder cancer as an exemplar; and (2) examine the influence of probe length and sample age on PCR amplification and co-expression of candidate genes on apparent expression stability. RNA was extracted from prospective and retrospective samples and subject to qPCR using TaqMan human endogenous control arrays or single tube assays. Gene stability ranking was assessed using coefficient of variation (CoV), GeNorm and NormFinder. Co-expressed genes were identified from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) using the on-line gene regression analysis tool GRACE. Cycle threshold (Ct) values were lower for prospective (19.49 ± 2.53) vs retrospective (23.8 ± 3.32) tissues (p < 0.001) and shorter vs longer probes. Co-expressed genes ranked as the most stable genes in the TCGA cohort by GeNorm when analysed together but ranked lower when analysed individually omitting co-expressed genes indicating bias. Stability values were < 1.5 for the 20 candidate genes in the prospective cohort. As they consistently ranked in the top ten by CoV, GeNorm and Normfinder, UBC, RPLP0, HMBS, GUSB, and TBP are the most suitable endogenous control genes for bladder cancer qPCR.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Inclusão em Parafina , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA/metabolismo , RNA/normas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/normas , Padrões de Referência , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Proteína de Ligação a TATA-Box/genética
11.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 469, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic targeting of the androgen signaling pathway is a mainstay treatment for prostate cancer. Although initially effective, resistance to androgen targeted therapies develops followed by disease progression to castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Hypoxia and HIF1a have been implicated in the development of resistance to androgen targeted therapies and progression to CRCP. The interplay between the androgen and hypoxia/HIF1a signaling axes was investigated. METHODS: In vitro stable expression of HIF1a was established in the LNCaP cell line by physiological induction or retroviral transduction. Tumor xenografts with stable expression of HIF1a were established in castrated and non-castrated mouse models. Gene expression analysis identified transcriptional changes in response to androgen treatment, hypoxia and HIF1a. The binding sites of the AR and HIF transcription factors were identified using ChIP-seq. RESULTS: Androgen and HIF1a signaling promoted proliferation in vitro and enhanced tumor growth in vivo. The stable expression of HIF1a in vivo restored tumor growth in the absence of endogenous androgens. Hypoxia reduced AR binding sites whereas HIF binding sites were increased with androgen treatment under hypoxia. Gene expression analysis identified seven genes that were upregulated both by AR and HIF1a, of which six were prognostic. CONCLUSIONS: The oncogenic AR, hypoxia and HIF1a pathways support prostate cancer development through independent signaling pathways and transcriptomic profiles. AR and hypoxia/HIF1a signaling pathways independently promote prostate cancer progression and therapeutic targeting of both pathways simultaneously is warranted.

12.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1112): 20190250, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: As a fractionated course of radiotherapy proceeds tumour shrinkage leads to resolution of hypoxia and the initiation of accelerated proliferation of radioresistant cancer cells with better repair capacity. We hypothesise that, in tumours with significant hypoxia, improved tumour control could be achieved with biphasic fractionation schedules that either use acceleration after 3-4 weeks of conventional radiotherapy or deliver a higher proportional dose towards the end of a course of treatment. We conducted a modelling study based on the concept of biological effective dose (BED) comparing such novel regimens with conventional fractionation. METHODS: The comparator conventional fractionation schedule 70 Gy in 35 fractions delivered over 7 weeks was tested against the following novel regimens, both of which were designed to be isoeffective in terms of late normal tissue toxicity.40 Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks followed by 22.32 Gy in 6 consecutive daily fractions (delayed acceleration)30.4 Gy in 27 fractions over 4 weeks followed by 40 Gy in 15 fractions over 3 weeks (temporal dose redistribution)The delayed acceleration regimen is exactly identical to that of the comparator schedule over the first 28 days and the BED gains with the novel schedule are achieved during the second phase of treatment when reoxygenation is complete. For the temporal redistribution regimen, it was assumed that the reoxygenation fraction progressively increases during the first 4 weeks of treatment and an iterative approach was used to calculate the final tumour BED for varying hypoxic fractions. RESULTS: Novel fractionation with delayed acceleration or temporal fractionation results in tumour BED gains equivalent to 3.5-8 Gy when delivered in 2 Gy fractions. CONCLUSION: In hypoxic tumours, novel fractionation strategies result in significantly higher tumour BED in comparison to conventional fractionation. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: We demonstrate that novel biphasic fractionation regimens could overcome the effects of tumour hypoxia resulting in biological dose escalation.


Assuntos
Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Hipóxia Tumoral , Humanos , Neoplasias/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Radiobiologia , Hipóxia Tumoral/efeitos da radiação
13.
Br J Cancer ; 122(4): 539-544, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fulfilling the promise of cancer immunotherapy requires novel predictive biomarkers to characterise the host immune microenvironment. Deciphering the complexity of immune cell interactions requires an automated multiplex approach to histological analysis of tumour sections. We tested a new automatic approach to select tissue and quantify the frequencies of cell-cell spatial interactions occurring in the PD1/PD-L1 pathway, hypothesised to reflect immune escape in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). METHODS: Single sections of diagnostic biopsies from 72 OPSCC patients were stained using multiplex immunofluorescence (CD8, PD1, PD-L1, CD68). Following multispectral scanning and automated regions-of-interest selection, the Hypothesised Interaction Distribution (HID) method quantified spatial proximity between cells. Method applicability was tested by investigating the prognostic significance of co-localised cells (within 30 µm) in patients stratified by HPV status. RESULTS: High frequencies of proximal CD8+ and PD-L1+ (HR 2.95, p = 0.025) and PD1+ and PD-L1+ (HR 2.64, p = 0.042) cells were prognostic for poor overall survival in patients with HPV negative OPSCC (n = 31). CONCLUSION: The HID method can quantify spatial interactions considered to reflect immune escape and generate prognostic information in OPSCC. The new automated approach is ready to test in additional cohorts and its applicability should be explored in research and clinical studies.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade
14.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(2): 179-190, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A total of 10%-20% of patients develop long-term toxicity following radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Identification of common genetic variants associated with susceptibility to radiotoxicity might improve risk prediction and inform functional mechanistic studies. METHODS: We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis of six genome-wide association studies (n = 3871) in men of European ancestry who underwent radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Radiotoxicities (increased urinary frequency, decreased urinary stream, hematuria, rectal bleeding) were graded prospectively. We used grouped relative risk models to test associations with approximately 6 million genotyped or imputed variants (time to first grade 2 or higher toxicity event). Variants with two-sided Pmeta less than 5 × 10-8 were considered statistically significant. Bayesian false discovery probability provided an additional measure of confidence. Statistically significant variants were evaluated in three Japanese cohorts (n = 962). All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Meta-analysis of the European ancestry cohorts identified three genomic signals: single nucleotide polymorphism rs17055178 with rectal bleeding (Pmeta = 6.2 × 10-10), rs10969913 with decreased urinary stream (Pmeta = 2.9 × 10-10), and rs11122573 with hematuria (Pmeta = 1.8 × 10-8). Fine-scale mapping of these three regions was used to identify another independent signal (rs147121532) associated with hematuria (Pconditional = 4.7 × 10-6). Credible causal variants at these four signals lie in gene-regulatory regions, some modulating expression of nearby genes. Previously identified variants showed consistent associations (rs17599026 with increased urinary frequency, rs7720298 with decreased urinary stream, rs1801516 with overall toxicity) in new cohorts. rs10969913 and rs17599026 had similar effects in the photon-treated Japanese cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: This study increases the understanding of the architecture of common genetic variants affecting radiotoxicity, points to novel radio-pathogenic mechanisms, and develops risk models for testing in clinical studies. Further multinational radiogenomics studies in larger cohorts are worthwhile.

15.
Clin Transl Radiat Oncol ; 18: 1-8, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341970

RESUMO

Predicting which patients will develop adverse reactions to radiotherapy is important for personalised treatment. Prediction will require an algorithm or nomogram combining clinical and biological data. The radiation-induced lymphocyte apoptosis (RILA) assay is the leading candidate as a biological predictor of radiotherapy toxicity. In this study we tested the potential of the assay for standardisation and use in multiple testing laboratories. The assay was standardised and reproducibility determined using samples from healthy volunteers assayed concurrently in three laboratories in Leicester (UK), Mannheim (Germany) and Montpellier (France). RILA assays were performed on samples taken prior to radiotherapy from 1319 cancer patients enrolled in the REQUITE project at multiple centres. The patients were being treated for breast (n = 753), prostate (n = 506) or lung (n = 60) cancer. Inter-laboratory comparisons identified several factors affecting results: storage time, incubation periods and type of foetal calf serum. Following standardisation, there was no significant difference in results between the centres. Significant differences were seen in RILA scores between cancer types (prostate > breast > lung), by smoking status (non-smokers > smokers) and co-morbidity with rheumatoid arthritis (arthritics > non-arthritics). An analysis of acute radiotherapy toxicity showed as expected that RILA assay does not predict most end-points, but unexpectedly did predict acute breast pain. This result may elucidate the mechanism by which the RILA assay predicts late radiotherapy toxicity. The work shows clinical trials involving multiple laboratory measurement of the RILA assay are feasible and the need to account for tumour type and other variables when applying to predictive models.

16.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(17): 5315-5328, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182433

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Intratumoral hypoxia and immunity have been correlated with patient outcome in various tumor settings. However, these factors are not currently considered for treatment selection in head and neck cancer (HNC) due to lack of validated biomarkers. Here we sought to develop a hypoxia-immune classifier with potential application in patient prognostication and prediction of response to targeted therapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A 54-gene hypoxia-immune signature was constructed on the basis of literature review. Gene expression was analyzed in silico using the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) HNC dataset (n = 275) and validated using two independent cohorts (n = 130 and 123). IHC was used to investigate the utility of a simplified protein signature. The spatial distribution of hypoxia and immune markers was examined using multiplex immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS: Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of TCGA dataset (development cohort) identified three patient subgroups with distinct hypoxia-immune phenotypes and survival profiles: hypoxialow/immunehigh, hypoxiahigh/immunelow, and mixed, with 5-year overall survival (OS) rates of 71%, 51%, and 49%, respectively (P = 0.0015). The prognostic relevance of the hypoxia-immune gene signature was replicated in two independent validation cohorts. Only PD-L1 and intratumoral CD3 protein expression were associated with improved OS on multivariate analysis. Hypoxialow/immunehigh and hypoxiahigh/immunelow tumors were overrepresented in "inflamed" and "immune-desert" microenvironmental profiles, respectively. Multiplex staining demonstrated an inverse correlation between CA-IX expression and prevalence of intratumoral CD3+ T cells (r = -0.5464; P = 0.0377), further corroborating the transcription-based classification. CONCLUSIONS: We developed and validated a hypoxia-immune prognostic transcriptional classifier, which may have clinical application to guide the use of hypoxia modification and targeted immunotherapies for the treatment of HNC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Hipóxia/imunologia , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Hipóxia/genética , Hipóxia/patologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
17.
Radiother Oncol ; 138: 59-67, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146072

RESUMO

PURPOSE: REQUITE aimed to establish a resource for multi-national validation of models and biomarkers that predict risk of late toxicity following radiotherapy. The purpose of this article is to provide summary descriptive data. METHODS: An international, prospective cohort study recruited cancer patients in 26 hospitals in eight countries between April 2014 and March 2017. Target recruitment was 5300 patients. Eligible patients had breast, prostate or lung cancer and planned potentially curable radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was prescribed according to local regimens, but centres used standardised data collection forms. Pre-treatment blood samples were collected. Patients were followed for a minimum of 12 (lung) or 24 (breast/prostate) months and summary descriptive statistics were generated. RESULTS: The study recruited 2069 breast (99% of target), 1808 prostate (86%) and 561 lung (51%) cancer patients. The centralised, accessible database includes: physician- (47,025 forms) and patient- (54,901) reported outcomes; 11,563 breast photos; 17,107 DICOMs and 12,684 DVHs. Imputed genotype data are available for 4223 patients with European ancestry (1948 breast, 1728 prostate, 547 lung). Radiation-induced lymphocyte apoptosis (RILA) assay data are available for 1319 patients. DNA (n = 4409) and PAXgene tubes (n = 3039) are stored in the centralised biobank. Example prevalences of 2-year (1-year for lung) grade ≥2 CTCAE toxicities are 13% atrophy (breast), 3% rectal bleeding (prostate) and 27% dyspnoea (lung). CONCLUSION: The comprehensive centralised database and linked biobank is a valuable resource for the radiotherapy community for validating predictive models and biomarkers. PATIENT SUMMARY: Up to half of cancer patients undergo radiation therapy and irradiation of surrounding healthy tissue is unavoidable. Damage to healthy tissue can affect short- and long-term quality-of-life. Not all patients are equally sensitive to radiation "damage" but it is not possible at the moment to identify those who are. REQUITE was established with the aim of trying to understand more about how we could predict radiation sensitivity. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview and summary of the data and material available. In the REQUITE study 4400 breast, prostate and lung cancer patients filled out questionnaires and donated blood. A large amount of data was collected in the same way. With all these data and samples a database and biobank were created that showed it is possible to collect this kind of information in a standardised way across countries. In the future, our database and linked biobank will be a resource for research and validation of clinical predictors and models of radiation sensitivity. REQUITE will also enable a better understanding of how many people suffer with radiotherapy toxicity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Oncotarget ; 10(20): 2007, 2019 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956781

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.23280.].

19.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 104(4): 809-818, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885775

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Organ-confined muscle-invasive bladder cancer is treated with cystectomy or bladder preservation techniques, including radiation therapy. There are currently no biomarkers to inform management decisions and aid patient choice. Previously we showed high levels of MRE11 protein, assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), predicted outcome after radiation therapy, but not cystectomy. Therefore, we sought to develop the MRE11 IHC assay for clinical use and define its relationship to clinical outcome in samples from 2 major clinical trials. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Samples from the BCON and BC2001 randomized controlled trials and a cystectomy cohort were stained using automated IHC methods and scored for MRE11 in 3 centers in the United Kingdom. RESULTS: Despite step-wise creation of scoring cards and standard operating procedures for staining and interpretation, there was poor intercenter scoring agreement (kappa, 0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.47). No significant associations between MRE11 scores and cause-specific survival were identified in BCON (n = 132) and BC2001 (n = 221) samples. Reoptimized staining improved agreement between scores from BCON tissue microarrays (n = 116), but MRE11 expression was not prognostic for cause-specific survival. CONCLUSIONS: Manual IHC scoring of MRE11 was not validated as a reproducible biomarker of radiation-based bladder preservation success. There is a need for automated quantitative methods or a reassessment of how DNA-damage response relates to clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Proteína Homóloga a MRE11/análise , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/química , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/radioterapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cistectomia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Imuno-Histoquímica/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
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