Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.000
Filtrar
1.
F1000Res ; 10: 511, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646502

RESUMO

Background: Digital interventions have the potential to reduce alcohol consumption, although evidence on the effectiveness of apps is lacking. Drink Less is a popular, evidence-informed app with good usability, putting it in a strong position to be improved upon prior to conducting a confirmatory evaluation. This paper describes the process of refining Drink Less to improve its usability and likely effectiveness. Methods: The refinement consisted of three phases and involved qualitative and quantitative (mixed) methods: i) identifying changes to app content, based on findings from an initial evaluation of Drink Less, an updated review of digital alcohol interventions and a content analysis of user feedback; ii) designing new app modules with public input and a consultation with app developers and researchers; and iii) improving the app's usability through user testing. Results: As a result of the updated review of digital alcohol interventions and user feedback analysis in Phase 1, three new modules: 'Behaviour Substitution', 'Information about Antecedents' and 'Insights', were added to the app. One existing module - 'Identity Change' - was removed based on the initial evaluation of Drink Less. Phases 2 and 3 resulted in changes to existing features, such as improving the navigational structure and onboarding process, and clarifying how to edit drinks and goals. Conclusions: A mixed methods approach was used to refine the content and design of Drink Less, providing insights into how to improve its usability and likely effectiveness. Drink Less is now ready for a confirmatory evaluation.

2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1050, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years the UK has expanded the provision of liaison mental health services (LMHS). Little work has been undertaken to explore first-hand experiences of them. AIMS: The aim of this study was to gain insights into the experiences of users of LMHS in both emergency departments and acute inpatient wards in the UK. METHODS: This cross-sectional internet survey was initially advertised from May-July 2017 using the social media platform Facebook. Due to a paucity of male respondents, it was re-run from November 2017-February 2018, specifically targeting male respondents. The survey featured a structured questionnaire divided into three categories: the profile of the respondent, perceived professionalism of LMHS and overall opinion of the service. ANALYSIS: Responses to the structured questionnaire were analysed using descriptive statistics and latent class analysis. Free-text responses were transcribed verbatim and interpreted using thematic analysis. RESULTS: 184 people responded to the survey. 147 were service users and 37 were partners, friends or family members of service users. Only 31% of service users and 27% of close others found their overall contact helpful. Latent class analysis identified three clusters - 46% of service users generally disliked their contact, 36% had an overall positive experience, and 18% did not answer most questions about helpfulness or usefulness. Features most frequently identified as important were the provision of a 24/7 service, assessment by a variety of healthcare professionals and national standardisation of services. Respondents indicated that the least important feature was the provision of a separate service for older people. They desired faster assessments following referral from the parent team, clearer communication about next steps and greater knowledge of local services and third sector organisations. CONCLUSIONS: This survey identified mixed responses, but overall experiences were more negative than indicated in the limited previous research. The evaluation and adaptation of LMHS along the lines suggested in our survey should be prioritised to enhance their inherent therapeutic value and to improve engagement with treatment and future psychiatric care.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638998

RESUMO

During transformation, myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are characterized by reducing apoptosis of bone marrow (BM) precursors. Mouse models of high risk (HR)-MDS and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) post-MDS using mutant NRAS and overexpression of human BCL-2, known to be poor prognostic indicators of the human diseases, were created. We have reported the efficacy of the BCL-2 inhibitor, ABT-737, on the AML post-MDS model; here, we report that this BCL-2 inhibitor also significantly extended survival of the HR-MDS mouse model, with reductions of BM blasts and lineage negative/Sca1+/KIT+ (LSK) cells. Secondary transplants showed increased survival in treated compared to untreated mice. Unlike the AML model, BCL-2 expression and RAS activity decreased following treatment and the RAS:BCL-2 complex remained in the plasma membrane. Exon-specific gene expression profiling (GEP) of HR-MDS mice showed 1952 differentially regulated genes upon treatment, including genes important for the regulation of stem cells, differentiation, proliferation, oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial function, and apoptosis; relevant in human disease. Spliceosome genes, found to be abnormal in MDS patients and downregulated in our HR-MDS model, such as Rsrc1 and Wbp4, were upregulated by the treatment, as were genes involved in epigenetic regulation, such as DNMT3A and B, upregulated upon disease progression and downregulated upon treatment.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257091, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525115

RESUMO

What makes written text appealing? In this registered report protocol, we propose to study the linguistic characteristics of news headline success using a large-scale dataset of field experiments (A/B tests) conducted on the popular website Upworthy comparing multiple headline variants for the same news articles. This unique setup allows us to control for factors that can have crucial confounding effects on headline success. Based on prior literature and a pilot partition of the data, we formulate hypotheses about the linguistic features that are associated with statistically superior headlines. We will test our hypotheses on a much larger partition of the data that will become available after the publication of this registered report protocol. Our results will contribute to resolving competing hypotheses about the linguistic features that affect the success of text and will provide avenues for research into the psychological mechanisms that are activated by those features.

5.
J Arthroplasty ; 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative periprosthetic fracture of the femur (POPFF) is associated with increased mortality. There is a lack of general estimates of mortality after POPFF and a need for higher-level evidence in this area. The aim of this study was to estimate mortality after POPFF using data reported in cohort studies from the last decade. METHODS: Literature search was conducted using Medline and Embase. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality during time as an inpatient, within 30 days, within 90 days, and within one year of POPFF. Mortality (95% confidence interval [CI]) was estimated using metaregression. RESULTS: A total of 4841 patients from 35 cohort studies were included. Study quality was generally low. The weighted mean follow-up was 2.3 years, and the most common POPFF was Vancouver B. The pooled mortality as an inpatient was 2.4% (95% CI 1.6% to 3.4%). The pooled mortality within 30 days was 3.3% (95% CI 2.0% to 5.0%). The pooled mortality within 90 days was 4.8% (95% CI 3.6% to 6.1%). The pooled mortality within one year was 13.4% (95% CI 11.9% to 14.8%). Mortality after POPFF was like that of neck of femur fracture up to 30 days, but better at one year. CONCLUSION: Mortality is like that experienced by patients after neck of femur fracture up to 30 days, but better at one year, which may represent the lower underlying risk of death in the POPFF cohort. These results may form the basis for evaluation of services treating POPFF in the future.

6.
Blood Adv ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529785

RESUMO

GATA2 Deficiency patients harbor de novo or inherited germline mutations in the GATA2 transcription factor gene, predisposing them to myeloid malignancies. There is considerable variation in disease progression, even among family members with the same mutation in GATA2. We investigated somatic mutations in 106 patients with GATA2 Deficiency to identify acquired mutations that are associated with myeloid malignancies. Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) was the most common diagnosis (~44%), followed by GATA2 bone marrow immunodeficiency disorder (G2BMID) (~37%). Thirteen percent of the cohort had GATA2 mutations but displayed no disease manifestations. There were no correlations between patient age or sex with disease progression or survival. Cytogenetic analyses showed a high incidence of abnormalities (~43%)- notably trisomy 8 (~23%) and monosomy 7 (~12%), but these changes did not correlate with lower survival. Somatic mutations in ASXL1 and STAG2 were detected in ~25% of patients, though these mutations were rarely concomitant. Mutations in DNMT3A were found in ~10% of patients. These somatic mutations were found similarly in G2BMID and MDS, suggesting clonal hematopoiesis in early stages of disease, before the onset of MDS. ASXL1 mutations conferred a lower survival probability and were more prevalent in female patients. STAG2 mutations also conferred a lower survival probability, but did not show a statistically significant sex bias. There was a conspicuous absence of many commonly mutated genes associated with myeloid malignancies, including TET2, IDH1/2, and the splicing factor genes. Notably, somatic mutations in chromatin-related genes and cohesin genes characterized disease progression in GATA2 Deficiency.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(38)2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526401

RESUMO

Deceased public figures are often said to live on in collective memory. We quantify this phenomenon by tracking mentions of 2,362 public figures in English-language online news and social media (Twitter) 1 y before and after death. We measure the sharp spike and rapid decay of attention following death and model collective memory as a composition of communicative and cultural memory. Clustering reveals four patterns of postmortem memory, and regression analysis shows that boosts in media attention are largest for premortem popular anglophones who died a young, unnatural death; that long-term boosts are smallest for leaders and largest for artists; and that, while both the news and Twitter are triggered by young and unnatural deaths, the news additionally curates collective memory when old persons or leaders die. Overall, we illuminate the age-old question of who is remembered by society, and the distinct roles of news and social media in collective memory formation.

8.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571193

RESUMO

Randomised controlled trials are widely considered the most robust design for evaluating the effects of clinical interventions. While generalisability is often limited, randomisation aims to ensure that effects observed are genuine. However, there are common sources of bias, even in well-conducted trials, that pose a threat to this interpretation. The revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for trials (RoB 2) distinguishes five domains of bias that can affect the results of trials stemming from (1) the randomisation process, (2) deviations from intended interventions, (3) missing outcome data, (4) outcome measurement, and (5) reporting of findings. We use RoB 2 as a framework for recommendations to help researchers mitigate these sources of bias and ensure transparency in reporting so that users of research are aware of them.

9.
Br J Haematol ; 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580862

RESUMO

GATA2 deficiency was described in 2011, and shortly thereafter allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was shown to reverse the hematologic disease phenotype. However, there remain major unanswered questions regarding the type of conditioning regimen, type of donors, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. We report 59 patients with GATA2 mutations undergoing HSCT at National Institutes of Health between 2013 and 2020. Primary endpoints were engraftment, reverse of the clinical phenotype, secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and the incidence of acute and chronic GVHD. The OS and EFS at 4 years were 85·1% and 82·1% respectively. Ninety-six percent of surviving patients had reversal of the hematologic disease phenotype by one-year post-transplant. Incidence of grade III-IV aGVHD in matched related donor (MRD) and matched unrelated donor recipients (URD) patients receiving Tacrolimus/Methotrexate for GVHD prophylaxis was 32%. In contrast, in the MRD and URD who received post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PT/Cy), no patient developed grade III-IV aGVHD. Six percent of haploidentical related donor (HRD) recipients developed grade III-IV aGVHD. In summary, a busulfan-based HSCT regimen in GATA2 deficiency reverses the hematologic disease phenotype, and the use of PT/Cy reduced the risk of both aGVHD and cGVHD.

10.
Nature ; 597(7878): 715-719, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526722

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide1. Studies in human tissues and in mouse models have suggested that for many cancers, stem cells sustain early mutations driving tumour development2,3. For the pancreas, however, mechanisms underlying cellular renewal and initiation of PDAC remain unresolved. Here, using lineage tracing from the endogenous telomerase reverse transcriptase (Tert) locus, we identify a rare TERT-positive subpopulation of pancreatic acinar cells dispersed throughout the exocrine compartment. During homeostasis, these TERThigh acinar cells renew the pancreas by forming expanding clones of acinar cells, whereas randomly marked acinar cells do not form these clones. Specific expression of mutant Kras in TERThigh acinar cells accelerates acinar clone formation and causes transdifferentiation to ductal pre-invasive pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms by upregulating Ras-MAPK signalling and activating the downstream kinase ERK (phospho-ERK). In resected human pancreatic neoplasms, we find that foci of phospho-ERK-positive acinar cells are common and frequently contain activating KRAS mutations, suggesting that these acinar regions represent an early cancer precursor lesion. These data support a model in which rare TERThigh acinar cells may sustain KRAS mutations, driving acinar cell expansion and creating a field of aberrant cells initiating pancreatic tumorigenesis.

11.
J Clin Med ; 10(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362123

RESUMO

Aim: To investigate the incidence, risk factors and pathogenic micro-organisms causing superficial and deep infection in subtrochanteric femoral fractures managed with an intramedullary nail. Materials and Methods: Following institutional board approval, all consecutive patients presenting with a subtrochanteric fracture were retrospectively identified, over an 8-year period. Basic demographics, fracture characteristics, fracture union, revision operation, mortality and other complications were reported and analysed. Variables deemed statistically significant (p-value < 0.05) were then included into a revised adjusted model of logistic regression analysis, where we reported on the odds ratio (OR). Results: The overall incidence of infection was 6.4% (n = 36/561; superficial: 3.7%; deep: 2.7%). Associations with deep infection included: non-union (OR 9.29 (2.56-3.38)), the presence of an open fracture (OR 4.23 (3.18-5.61)), the need for massive transfusion (OR 1.42 (2.39-8.39)), post-operative transfusion (OR 1.40 (1.10-1.79)) and prolonged length of stay (OR 1.04 (1.02-1.06)). The Commonest causes of superficial infection were Staphylococcus aureus (28.5%), enteric flora (23.8%) and mixed flora (23.8%); whereas coliforms (60%) and Staphylococcus aureus (26.7%) were the commonest micro-organisms isolated in deep infection. Polymicrobial infection was identified in 38.5% and 80% of superficial and deep infections, respectively. Conclusion: Causative micro-organisms identified in both superficial and deep infection were similar to those reported in post-traumatic osteomyelitis. In an attempt to minimise infection, the treating clinician should focus on modifiable risk factors with adequate patient optimisation, prompt surgical treatment, adequate antibiotic coverage and wound care when treating patients with subtrochanteric femur fracture.

12.
Br J Health Psychol ; 26(4): 1238-1257, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463407

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Scientific Pandemic Insights group on Behaviours (SPI-B) as part of England's Scientific Advisory Group on Emergencies (SAGE), were commissioned by the UK Cabinet Office to identify strategies to embed infection control behaviours to minimize Covid-19 transmission in the long term. METHODS: With minimal direct evidence available, three sources of information were used to develop a set of proposals: (1) a scoping review of literature on sustaining behaviour change, (2) a review of key principles used in risk and safety management, and (3) prior reports and reviews on behaviour change from SPI-B. The information was collated and refined through discussion with SPI-B and SAGE colleagues to finalize the proposals. RESULTS: Embedding infection control behaviours in the long-term will require changes to the financial, social, and physical infrastructure so that people in all sections of society have the capability, opportunity, and motivation needed to underpin those behaviours. This will involve building Covid-safe educational programmes, regulating to ensure minimum standards of safety in public spaces and workspaces, using communications and social marketing to develop a Covid-safe culture and identity, and providing resources so that all sections of society can build Covid-safe behaviours into their daily lives. CONCLUSIONS: Embedding 'Covid-safe' behaviours into people's everyday routines will require a co-ordinated programme to shape the financial, physical, and social infrastructure in the United Kingdom. Education, regulation, communications, and social marketing, and provision of resources will be required to ensure that all sections of society have the capability, opportunity, and motivation to enact the behaviours long term.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido
13.
Am J Public Health ; 111(9): 1661-1672, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410826

RESUMO

The topic of e-cigarettes is controversial. Opponents focus on e-cigarettes' risks for young people, while supporters emphasize the potential for e-cigarettes to assist smokers in quitting smoking. Most US health organizations, media coverage, and policymakers have focused primarily on risks to youths. Because of their messaging, much of the public-including most smokers-now consider e-cigarette use as dangerous as or more dangerous than smoking. By contrast, the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine concluded that e-cigarette use is likely far less hazardous than smoking. Policies intended to reduce adolescent vaping may also reduce adult smokers' use of e-cigarettes in quit attempts. Because evidence indicates that e-cigarette use can increase the odds of quitting smoking, many scientists, including this essay's authors, encourage the health community, media, and policymakers to more carefully weigh vaping's potential to reduce adult smoking-attributable mortality. We review the health risks of e-cigarette use, the likelihood that vaping increases smoking cessation, concerns about youth vaping, and the need to balance valid concerns about risks to youths with the potential benefits of increasing adult smoking cessation.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/prevenção & controle , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar Tabaco/terapia , Vaping/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Estados Unidos
15.
JAMA ; 326(1): 56-64, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228066

RESUMO

Importance: Cytisine is more effective than placebo and nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. However, cytisine has not been tested against the most effective smoking cessation medication, varenicline, which is associated with adverse events known to lead to discontinuation of therapy. Objective: To examine whether standard cytisine treatment (25 days) was at least as effective as standard varenicline treatment (84 days) for smoking cessation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This noninferiority, open-label randomized clinical trial with allocation concealment and blinded outcome assessment was undertaken in Australia from November 2017 through May 2019; follow-up was completed in January 2020. A total of 1452 Australian adult daily smokers willing to make a quit attempt were included. Data collection was conducted primarily by computer-assisted telephone interview, but there was an in-person visit to validate the primary outcome. Interventions: Treatments were provided in accordance with the manufacturers' recommended dosage: cytisine (n = 725), 1.5-mg capsules taken 6 times daily initially then gradually reduced over the 25-day course; varenicline (n = 727), 0.5-mg tablets titrated to 1 mg twice daily for 84 days (12 weeks). All participants were offered referral to standard telephone behavioral support. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 6-month continuous abstinence verified using a carbon monoxide breath test at 7-month follow-up. The noninferiority margin was set at 5% and the 1-sided significance threshold was set at .025. Results: Among 1452 participants who were randomized (mean [SD] age, 42.9 [12.7] years; 742 [51.1%] women), 1108 (76.3%) completed the trial. Verified 6-month continuous abstinence rates were 11.7% for the cytisine group and 13.3% for the varenicline group (risk difference, -1.62% [1-sided 97.5% CI, -5.02% to ∞]; P = .03 for noninferiority). Self-reported adverse events occurred less frequently in the cytisine group (997 events among 482 participants) compared with the varenicline group (1206 events among 510 participants) and the incident rate ratio was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.81 to 0.95; P = .002). Conclusions and Relevance: Among daily smokers willing to quit, cytisine treatment for 25 days, compared with varenicline treatment for 84 days, failed to demonstrate noninferiority regarding smoking cessation. Trial Registration: anzctr.org.au Identifier: ACTRN12616001654448.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/uso terapêutico , Agentes de Cessação do Hábito de Fumar/uso terapêutico , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Vareniclina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Alcaloides/efeitos adversos , Azocinas/efeitos adversos , Azocinas/uso terapêutico , Sonhos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Quinolizinas/efeitos adversos , Quinolizinas/uso terapêutico , Agentes de Cessação do Hábito de Fumar/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vareniclina/efeitos adversos
16.
Breast Cancer Res ; 23(1): 73, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The acquisition of oncogenic drivers is a critical feature of cancer progression. For some carcinomas, it is clear that certain genetic drivers occur early in neoplasia and others late. Why these drivers are selected and how these changes alter the neoplasia's fitness is less understood. METHODS: Here we use spatially oriented genomic approaches to identify transcriptomic and genetic changes at the single-duct level within precursor neoplasia associated with invasive breast cancer. We study HER2 amplification in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) as an event that can be both quantified and spatially located via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry on fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. RESULTS: By combining the HER2-FISH with the laser capture microdissection (LCM) Smart-3SEQ method, we found that HER2 amplification in DCIS alters the transcriptomic profiles and increases diversity of copy number variations (CNVs). Particularly, interferon signaling pathway is activated by HER2 amplification in DCIS, which may provide a prolonged interferon signaling activation in HER2-positive breast cancer. Multiple subclones of HER2-amplified DCIS with distinct CNV profiles are observed, suggesting that multiple events occurred for the acquisition of HER2 amplification. Notably, DCIS acquires key transcriptomic changes and CNV events prior to HER2 amplification, suggesting that pre-amplified DCIS may create a cellular state primed to gain HER2 amplification for growth advantage. CONCLUSION: By using genomic methods that are spatially oriented, this study identifies several features that appear to generate insights into neoplastic progression in precancer lesions at a single-duct level.

17.
Addiction ; 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159677

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate predictors of participant eligibility, recruitment and retention in behavioural randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for smoking cessation. METHOD: Systematic review and pre-specified meta-regression analysis of behavioural RCTs for smoking cessation including adult (≥ 18-year-old) smokers. The pre-specified predictors were identified through a literature review and experts' consultation and included participant, trial and intervention characteristics and recruitment and retention strategies. Outcome measures included eligibility rates (proportion of people eligible for the trials), recruitment rates, retention rates and differential retention rates. RESULTS: A total of 172 RCTs with 89 639 participants. Eligibility [median 57.6%; interquartile range (IQR) = 34.7-83.7], recruitment (median 66.4%; IQR = 42.7-85.2) and retention rates (median 80.5%; IQR = 68.5-89.5) varied considerably across studies. For eligibility rates, the recruitment strategy appeared not to be associated with eligibility rates. For recruitment rates, use of indirect recruitment strategies (e.g. public announcements) [odds ratio (OR) = 0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.11-0.82] and self-help interventions (OR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.03-0.67) were associated with lower recruitment rates. For retention rates, higher retention was seen if the sample had ongoing physical health condition/s (OR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.04-2.63), whereas lower retention was seen amongst primarily female samples (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.71-0.98) and those motivated to quit smoking (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.55-0.99) when indirect recruitment methods were used (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.38-0.97) and at longer follow-up assessments (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.79-0.87). For differential retention, higher retention in the intervention group occurred when the intervention but not comparator group received financial incentives for smoking cessation (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.02-1.77). CONCLUSIONS: In randomized controlled trials of behavioural smoking cessation interventions, recruitment and retention rates appear to be higher for smoking cessation interventions that include a person-to-person rather than at-a-distance contact; male participants, smokers with chronic conditions, smokers not initially motivated to quit and shorter follow-up assessments seems to be associated with improved retention; financial incentive interventions improve retention in groups receiving them relative to comparison groups.

18.
Addict Behav ; 122: 107015, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146798

RESUMO

The widespread adoption of smartphones has been associated with the emergence of problematic smartphone use. Problematic smartphone use is consistently associated with increased levels of depression and lower self-control, and pathological technology use more generally may be associated with reduced activity in the reward system, an effect that is also observed in depression and with poor self-control. The current study sought to examine the association between problematic smartphone use and event-related potentials (ERPs) related to reward processing, and to determine whether reward processing, depressive symptoms and self-control have shared or unique influences on problematic smartphone use. The sample was drawn from a university student population (N = 94, age M = 19.34, SD = 1.23 years, 67 female, 25 male, 1 gender non-conforming, 1 unidentified). Participants performed a gambling task while EEG was recorded and completed measures of smartphone pathology, depressive symptoms and self-control. The ERP data revealed that increasing problematic smartphone use was associated with reduced ERP amplitude for gains and losses when individuals were the agent of choice, but not when the computer chose. This may reflect a selective association between problematic smartphone use and neural prediction errors. Regression analyses revealed that reward processing, depressive symptoms and self-control were predictors of problematic smartphone use, possibly revealing multiple pathways to problematic smartphone use.


Assuntos
Depressão , Autocontrole , Adulto , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recompensa , Smartphone , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080751

RESUMO

International evidence indicates that older people with frailty are more likely to access social care services, compared to nonfrail older people. There is, however, no robust evidence on costs of social care provided for community-dwelling older people living with frailty in their own homes. The main objective of this study was to examine the relationship between community-dwelling older people living with frailty, defined using the cumulative deficit model, and annual formal social care costs for the 2012-2018 period. A secondary objective was to estimate formal social care spending for every 1% reduction in the number of older people who develop frailty over 1 year. Secondary analysis of prospective cohort data from two large nationally representative community-based cohort studies in England was performed. Respondents aged ≥75 were used in the main analysis and respondents aged 65-74 in sensitivity testing. We used regression tree modelling for formal social care cost analysis including frailty, age, gender, age at completing education and living with partner as key covariates. We employed a minimum node size stopping criteria to limit tree complexity and overfitting and applied 'bootstrap aggregating' to improve robustness. We assessed the impact of an intervention for every 1% decrease in the number of individuals who become frail over 1 year in England. Results show that frailty is the strongest predictor of formal social care costs. Mean social care costs for people who are not frail are £321, compared with £2,895 for individuals with frailty. For every 1% of nonfrail people not transitioning to frailty savings of £4.4 million in annual expenditures on formal social care in England are expected, not including expenditure on care homes. Given considerably higher costs for individuals classed as frail compared to nonfrail, a successful intervention avoiding or postponing the onset of frailty has the potential to considerably reduce social care costs.

20.
Clin Rehabil ; : 2692155211024801, 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134538

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, using a classification tree methodology, the ability of the Testing Emotionalism After Recent Stroke - Questionnaire (TEARS-Q) to determine the need for further assessment of post-stroke emotionalism and to identify those whose emotionalism is sufficiently clear that they need assessment for potential intervention. SETTING: Acute stroke units of nine Scottish hospitals in the context of a longitudinal cohort study of post-stroke emotionalism. SUBJECTS: A total of 228 stroke survivors recruited between October 1st 2015 and September 30th 2018, within two weeks of stroke. MEASURES: The measure was the self-report questionnaire TEARS-Q, constructed based on recognised diagnostic features of post-stroke tearful emotionalism. The reference standard was presence/absence of emotionalism on a diagnostic, semi-structured post-stroke emotionalism interview, administered at the same assessment point. RESULTS: Nine of 159 subjects scoring 0 or 1 on TEARS-Q were diagnosed with post-stroke emotionalism on the reference standard, compared to 11 of 21 subjects scoring 2 to 5 on TEARS-Q and 42 of 48 participants scoring 6 and above. Adding age, sex, deprivation, stroke type, stroke severity, mood, cognition, daily functioning and education did not improve the prediction accuracy sufficiently to change the classification tree. CONCLUSION: TEARS-Q reliably identifies those who need no further post-stroke emotionalism assessment, those who need further assessment to clarify diagnosis, and those who almost certainly have post-stroke emotionalism and may benefit from intervention.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...